Physiology

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Physiology (Template:IPAc-en; Template:Etymology[1]) is the scientific study of function in living systems.[2] This includes how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and bio-molecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system. [3] Giving the size of the field it is divided into among others: human physiology, plant physiology, cellular physiology, bacterial physiology, viral physiology. [3]

The highest honor awarded in physiology is the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, awarded since 1901 by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

History

The study of human physiology dates back to at least 420  BC to the time of Hippocrates, also known as the father of medicine.[4] The critical thinking of Aristotle and his emphasis on the relationship between structure and function marked the beginning of physiology in Ancient Greece, while Claudius Galenus (c. 126–199 AD), known as Galen, was the first to use experiments to probe the functions of the body. Galen was the founder of experimental physiology.[5]

Jean Fernel, a French physician, introduced the term "physiology" in 1525.

In the 19th century, physiological knowledge began to accumulate at a rapid rate, in particular with the 1838 appearance of the Cell theory of Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann. It radically stated that organisms are made up of units called cells. Claude Bernard's (1813–1878) further discoveries ultimately led to his concept of milieu interieur (internal environment), which would later be taken up and championed as "homeostasis" by American physiologist Walter Cannon.Template:Clarify

In the 20th century, biologists also became interested in how organisms other than human beings function, eventually spawning the fields of comparative physiology and ecophysiology.[6] Major figures in these fields include Knut Schmidt-Nielsen and George Bartholomew. Most recently, evolutionary physiology has become a distinct subdiscipline.[7]

Human physiology

Human physiology seeks to understand the mechanisms that work to keep the human body alive and functioning,[3] through scientific enquiry into the natute of mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of organs and systems within systems. The endocrine and nervous systems play major roles in the reception and transmission of signals that integrate function in animals. Homeostasis is a major aspect with regard to such interactions within plants as well as animals. The biological basis of the study of physiology, integration refers to the overlap of many functions of the systems of the human body, as well as its accompanied form. It is achieved through communication that occurs in a variety of ways, both electrical and chemical.

Much of the foundation of knowledge in human physiology was provided by animal experimentation. Physiology is the study of function and is closely related to anatomy which is the study of form. Due to the frequent connection between form and function, physiology and anatomy are intrinsically linked and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum.

See also

References

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External links

Template:Sister project

Template:Biology-footer Template:Physiology types Template:Nobel Medicine



WikiMD Resources for Physiology

Articles on Physiology

Govt. policies / Guidelines
  1. Most recent articles on Physiology
  2. Most cited articles on Physiology
  3. Review articles on Physiology
  4. Articles on Physiology in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ
  1. US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Physiology
  2. NICE Guidance on Physiology
  3. FDA on Physiology
  4. CDC on Physiology

Media articles Physiology

Patient Resources / Community
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  4. Videos on Physiology
  5. Instagram on Physiology
  1. Patient resources
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  4. Doctors Physiology
  5. Risk calculators & risk factors

Evidence Based Medicine

Healthcare Provider Resources
  1. Cochrane Collaboration on Physiology
  2. Bandolier on Physiology
  3. TRIP on Physiology
  4. Edidence Based Medicine on Physiology
  1. Symptoms of Physiology
  2. Causes & Risk Factors for Physiology
  3. Diagnostic studies for Physiology
  4. Treatment of Physiology

Clinical Trials

News on Physiology
  1. Ongoing Trials on Physiology at Clinical Trials.gov
  2. Trial results on Physiology
  3. Clinical Trials on Physiology at Google
  1. Physiology in the news
  2. Be alerted to news on Physiology
  3. News trends on Physiology

Definition of Physiology

Flickr on Physiology
  1. Definitions of Physiology
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Books on the topic

Facebook and Tumblr posts Physiology
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Continuing medical education (CME)

Tweets about Physiology
  1. CME Programs on Physiology
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Pintest and Twitter #Physiology Commentary & BlogsPhysiology
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