Ritonavir is an antiretroviral protease inhibitor that is widely used in combination with other protease inhibitors in the therapy and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Ritonavir can cause transient and usually asymptomatic elevations in serum aminotransferase levels and, rarely, can lead to clinically apparent acute liver injury. In HBV or HCV coinfected patients, highly active antiretroviral therapy with ritonavir may result of an exacerbation of the underlying chronic hepatitis B or C.
Ritonavir (ri toe' na vir) is peptidomimetic HIV protease inhibitor that acts by binding to the catalytic site of the viral protease, thereby preventing the cleavage of viral polyprotein precursors into mature, functional proteins that are necessary for viral replication.
Ritonavir was approved for use in the United States in 1996 and is still widely used in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the prevention and treatment of HIV infection.
Ritonavir is available under the brand name Norvir in capsules of 100 mg and as an oral solution (for pediatric use). Ritonavir (50 mg) is also available in a fixed combination with lopinavir (200 mg) under the brand name Kaletra. While originally evaluated and approved to be used in full doses (600 mg twice daily) in combination with nucleoside or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, ritonavir is now used mostly in a low or “booster” dose (50 to 100 mg twice daily) in combination with other protease inhibitors such as atazanavir, fosamprenavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, and saquinavir. Ritonavir is a potent inhibitor of CYP 3A4 activity in the liver, and in low doses causes a prolongation of the half-life of other protease inhibitors that are metabolized by this pathway.
Drugs for HIV Infection, in the Subclass Antiretroviral Agents
- Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (HIV)
- Nucleoside Analogues (HIV)
- Protease Inhibitors (HIV)
HCV NS5A Inhibitors
HCV NS5B (Polymerase) Inhibitors
- Asunaprevir, Boceprevir, Glecaprevir, Grazoprevir, Paritaprevir, Simeprevir, Telaprevir, Voxilaprevir
Drugs for Herpes Virus Infections (HSV, CMV, others)
Drugs for Influenza