Difference between revisions of "Sand Box"

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(Tag: 2017 source edit)
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== Glossary ==
 
== Glossary ==
  
* '''[[akinesia]]''' — trouble initiating or carrying out movements.
+
* '''[[atrophy]]''' - a decrease in size or wasting away of a body part or tissue.
  
* '''[[anticholinergic drugs]]''' — drugs that interfere with production or uptake of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
+
* '''[[autosomal dominant]]''' - a pattern of inheritance in which a child acquires a disease by receiving a normal gene from one parent and a defective gene from the other parent.
  
* '''[[bradykinesia]]''' — gradual loss of spontaneous movement.
+
* '''[[autosomal recessive]]''' - a pattern of inheritance in which both parents carry and pass on a defective gene to their child.
  
* '''[[corpus striatum]]''' a part of the brain that helps regulate motor activities.
+
* '''[[biopsy]]''' - a procedure in which tissue or other material is removed from the body and studied for signs of disease.
  
* '''[[deep brain stimulation]]''' a treatment that uses an electrode implanted into part of the brain to stimulate it in a way that temporarily inactivates some of the signals it produces.
+
* '''[[carrier]]''' - an individual who doesn't have a disease but has one normal gene and one gene for a genetic disorder and is therefore capable of passing this disease to her or his children.
  
* '''[[dopamine]]''' — a chemical messenger, deficient in the brains of people with PD, that transmits impulses from one nerve cell to another.
+
* '''[[chromosomes]]''' - genetic structures that contains DNA.
  
* '''[[dyskinesias]]''' — abnormal involuntary twisting and writhing movements that can result from long-term use of high doses of levodopa.
+
* '''[[contracture]]''' - chronic shortening of a muscle or tendon that limits movement of a bony joint, such as the elbow.
  
* '''[[dystonia]]''' — involuntary muscle contractions that cause slow repetitive movements or abnormal postures.
+
* '''[[creatine kinase]]''' - a protein needed for the chemical reactions that produce energy for muscle contractions; high levels in the blood indicate muscle damage.
  
* '''[[neurotransmitters]]''' —   chemicals which  carry messages from one nerve cell, or neuron, to another.
+
* '''[[dystrophin]]''' - a protein that helps maintain the shape and structure of muscle fibers.
  
* '''[[pallidotomy]]''' a surgical procedure in which a part of the brain called the globus pallidus is lesioned in order to improve symptoms of tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia.
+
* '''[[electromyography]]''' - a recording and study of the electrical properties of skeletal muscle.
  
* '''[[parkinsonian gait]]''' a characteristic way of walking that includes a tendency to lean forward; small, quick steps as if hurrying forward (called festination); and reduced swinging of the arms.
+
* '''[[glycoprotein]]''' - a molecule that has a protein and a carbohydrate component.
  
* '''[[parkinsonism]]''' — a term referring to a group of conditions that are characterized by four typical symptoms — tremor, rigidity, postural instability, and bradykinesia.
+
* '''[[linkage studies]]''' - tests conducted among family members to determine how a genetic trait is passed on through generations.
  
* '''[["Parkinson's-plus"]]''' — a group of diseases that includes corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, and multiple system atrophy. These diseases cause symptoms like those of PD in addition to other symptoms.
+
* '''[[lordosis]]''' - an abnormal forward curving of the spine.
  
* '''[[postural instability]]''' — impaired balance that causes a tendency to lean forward or backward and to fall easily.
+
* '''[[merosin]]''' - a protein found in the connective tissue that surrounds muscle fibers.
  
* '''[[rigidity]]''' a symptom of the disease in which muscles feel stiff and display resistance to movement even when another person tries to move the affected part of the body, such as an arm.
+
* '''[[muscle wasting]]''' a decrease in muscle strength and size.
  
* '''[[substantia nigra]]''' — movement-control center in the brain where loss of dopamine-producing nerve cells triggers the symptoms of PD; substantia nigra means "black substance," so called because the cells in this area are dark.
+
* '''[[myoglobin]]''' - an oxygen-binding protein in muscle cells that generates energy by turning glucose into carbon dioxide and water.
  
* '''[[thalamotomy]]''' — a procedure in which a portion of the brain's thalamus is surgically destroyed, usually reducing tremors.
+
* '''[[myopathy]]''' - any disorder of muscle tissue or muscles.
  
* '''[[tremor]]''' — shakiness or trembling, often in a hand, which in PD is usually most apparent when the affected part is at rest.
+
* '''[[myotonia]]''' - an inability to relax muscles following a sudden contraction.
  
* '''[[wearing-off effect]]''' the tendency, following long-term levodopa treatment, for each dose of the drug to be effective for shorter and shorter periods.
+
* '''[[neuropathy]]''' – nervous system disease or dysfunction that may cause symptoms including muscle weakness, loss of muscle bulk, muscle cramps and spasms, and pain.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[pseudohypertrophy]]''' -a condition in which muscles may be enlarged by an accumulation of fat and connective tissue, causing them to look larger and healthier than they actually are.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[scoliosis]]''' - an abnormal lateral, or sideways, curving of the spine.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[X-linked recessive]]''' - a pattern of disease inheritance in which the mother carries the affected gene on the chromosome that determines the child's sex and passes it to her son.
 +
 
 +
{{Stub}}
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Muscular dystrophy|*]]
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Genetic disorders]]

Revision as of 02:26, 14 July 2019

Glossary

  • atrophy - a decrease in size or wasting away of a body part or tissue.
  • autosomal dominant - a pattern of inheritance in which a child acquires a disease by receiving a normal gene from one parent and a defective gene from the other parent.
  • autosomal recessive - a pattern of inheritance in which both parents carry and pass on a defective gene to their child.
  • biopsy - a procedure in which tissue or other material is removed from the body and studied for signs of disease.
  • carrier - an individual who doesn't have a disease but has one normal gene and one gene for a genetic disorder and is therefore capable of passing this disease to her or his children.
  • contracture - chronic shortening of a muscle or tendon that limits movement of a bony joint, such as the elbow.
  • creatine kinase - a protein needed for the chemical reactions that produce energy for muscle contractions; high levels in the blood indicate muscle damage.
  • dystrophin - a protein that helps maintain the shape and structure of muscle fibers.
  • electromyography - a recording and study of the electrical properties of skeletal muscle.
  • glycoprotein - a molecule that has a protein and a carbohydrate component.
  • linkage studies - tests conducted among family members to determine how a genetic trait is passed on through generations.
  • lordosis - an abnormal forward curving of the spine.
  • merosin - a protein found in the connective tissue that surrounds muscle fibers.
  • myoglobin - an oxygen-binding protein in muscle cells that generates energy by turning glucose into carbon dioxide and water.
  • myopathy - any disorder of muscle tissue or muscles.
  • myotonia - an inability to relax muscles following a sudden contraction.
  • neuropathy – nervous system disease or dysfunction that may cause symptoms including muscle weakness, loss of muscle bulk, muscle cramps and spasms, and pain.
  • pseudohypertrophy -a condition in which muscles may be enlarged by an accumulation of fat and connective tissue, causing them to look larger and healthier than they actually are.
  • scoliosis - an abnormal lateral, or sideways, curving of the spine.
  • X-linked recessive - a pattern of disease inheritance in which the mother carries the affected gene on the chromosome that determines the child's sex and passes it to her son.


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