Difference between revisions of "Sand Box"

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== Glossary of terms ==
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Glossary of cerebral palsy
  
* '''[[akinesia]]''' -decreased body movements.
+
* '''[[acquired cerebral palsy]]''' — cerebral palsy that occurs as a result of injury to the brain after birth or during early childhood.
  
* '''[[at risk]]''' -a description of a person whose mother or father has HD or has inherited the HD gene and who therefore has a 50]]''' -50 chance of inheriting the disorder.'''
+
* '''[[Apgar score]]''' a numbered scoring system doctors use to assess a baby's physical state at the time of birth.
  
* '''[[autosomal dominant disorder]]''' -a non sex linked disorder that can be inherited even if only one parent passes on the defective gene.
+
* '''[[asphyxia]]''' a lack of oxygen due to trouble with breathing or poor oxygen supply in the air.
  
* '''[[basal ganglia]]''' -a region located at the base of the brain composed of four clusters of neurons, or nerve cells. This area is responsible for body movement and coordination. The neuron groups most prominently and consistently affected by HD—the pallidum and striatum are located here. See neuron, pallidum, striatum.
+
* '''[[ataxia]]''' the loss of muscle control.
  
* '''[[caudate nuclei]]''' -part of the striatum in the basal ganglia. See basal ganglia, striatum.
+
* '''[[athetoid]]''' — making slow, sinuous, involuntary, writhing movements, especially with the hands.
  
* '''[[chorea]]''' -uncontrolled body movements. Chorea is derived from the Greek word for dance.
+
* '''[[bilirubin]]''' — a bile pigment produced by the liver of the human body as a byproduct of digestion.
  
* '''[[chromosomes]]''' -the structures in cells that contain genes. They are composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and proteins and, under a microscope, appear as rod''' -like structures. See deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), gene.'''
+
* '''[[bisphosphonates]]''' — a family of drugs that strengthen bones and reduce the risk of bone fracture in elderly adults.
  
* '''[[computed tomography (CT)]]''' - a technique used for diagnosing brain disorders. CT uses a computer to produce a high]]''' -quality image of brain structures. These images are called CT scans.'''
+
* '''[[botulinum toxin]]''' a drug commonly used to relax spastic muscles; it blocks the release of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that energizes muscle tissue.
  
* '''[[cortex]]''' -part of the brain responsible for thought, perception, and memory. HD affects the basal ganglia and cortex. See basal ganglia.
+
* '''[[cerebral]]''' — relating to the two hemispheres of the human brain.
  
* '''[[deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)]]''' - the substance of heredity containing the genetic information necessary for cells to divide and produce proteins. DNA carries the code for every inherited characteristic of an organism. See gene.
+
* '''[[cerebral dysgenesis]]''' — defective brain development.
  
* '''[[dominant]]''' -a trait that is apparent even when the gene for that disorder is inherited from only one parent. See autosomal dominant disorder, recessive, gene.
+
* '''[[choreoathetoid]]''' a condition characterized by aimless muscle movements and involuntary motions.
  
* '''[[gene]]''' -the basic unit of heredity, composed of a segment of DNA containing the code for a specific trait. See deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
+
* '''[[congenital cerebral palsy]]''' — cerebral palsy that is present at birth from causes that have occurred during fetal development.
  
* '''[[huntingtin]]''' -the protein encoded by the gene that carries the HD defect. The repeated CAG sequence in the gene causes an abnormal form of huntingtin to be formed. The function of the normal form of huntingtin is not yet known.
+
* '''[[contracture]]''' — a condition in which muscles become fixed in a rigid, abnormal position, which causes distortion or deformity.
  
* '''[[kindred]]''' -a group of related persons, such as a family or clan.
+
* '''[[developmental delay]]''' — behind schedule in reaching the milestones of early childhood development.
  
* '''[[magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)]]''' -an imaging technique that uses radiowaves, magnetic fields, and computer analysis to create a picture of body tissues and structures.
+
* '''[[dyskinetic]]''' — the impairment of the ability to perform voluntary movements, which results in awkward or incomplete movements.
  
* '''[[marker]]''' -a piece of DNA that lies on the chromosome so close to a gene that the two are inherited together. Like a signpost, markers are used during genetic testing and research to locate the nearby presence of a gene. See chromosome, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
+
* '''[[dystonia]]''' (dystonic) a condition of abnormal muscle tone.
  
* '''[[mitochondria]]''' -microscopic, energy''' -producing bodies within cells that are the cells' "power plants."'''
+
* '''[[gait analysis]]''' — a technique that uses cameras, force plates, electromyography, and computer analysis to objectively measure an individual's pattern of walking.
  
* '''[[mutation]]''' -in genetics, any defect in a gene. See gene.
+
* '''[[gestation]]''' — the period of fetal development from the time of conception until birth.
  
* '''[[myoclonus]]''' -a condition in which muscles or portions of muscles contract involuntarily in a jerky fashion.
+
* '''[[hemiparesis]]''' — paralysis affecting only one side of the body.
  
* '''[[neuron]]''' -Greek word for a nerve cell, the basic impulse''' -conducting unit of the nervous system. Nerve cells communicate with other cells through an electrochemical process called neurotransmission.'''
+
* '''[[hypertonia]]''' — increased muscle tone.
  
* '''[[neurotransmitters]]''' -special chemicals that transmit nerve impulses from one cell to another.
+
* '''[[hypotonia]]''' — decreased muscle tone.
  
* '''[[pallidum]]''' -part of the basal ganglia of the brain. The pallidum is composed of the globus pallidus and the ventral pallidum.See basal ganglia.
+
* '''[[hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy]]''' — brain damage caused by poor blood flow or insufficient oxygen supply to the brain.
  
* '''[[positron emission tomography (PET)]]''' - a tool used to diagnose brain functions and disorders. PET produces three'''-dimensional, colored images of chemicals or substances functioning within the body. These images are called PET scans. PET shows brain function, in contrast to CT or MRI, which show brain structure.'''
+
* '''[[intracranial hemorrhage]]''' — bleeding in the brain.
  
* '''[[prevalence]]''' -the number of cases of a disease that are present in a particular population at a given time.
+
* '''[[intrathecal baclofen]]''' — baclofen that is injected into the cerebrospinal fluid of the spinal cord to reduce spasticity.
  
* '''[[putamen]]''' -an area of the brain that decreases in size as a result of the damage produced by HD.
+
* '''[[jaundice]]''' — a blood disorder caused by the abnormal buildup of bilirubin in the bloodstream.
  
* '''[[receptor]]''' -proteins that serve as recognition sites on cells and cause a response in the body when stimulated by chemicals called neurotransmitters. They act as on''' -and''' -off switches for the next nerve cell. See neuron, neurotransmitters.
+
* '''[[kyphosis]]''' a humpback-like outward curvature of the upper spine.
  
* '''[[recessive]]''' -a trait that is apparent only when the gene or genes for it are inherited from both parents. See dominant, gene.
+
* '''[[lordosis]]''' — an increased inward curvature of the lower spine.
  
* '''[[senile chorea]]''' -a relatively mild and rare disorder found in elderly adults and characterized by choreic movements. It is believed by some scientists to be caused by a different gene mutation than that causing HD.
+
* '''[[orthotic devices]]''' — special devices, such as splints or braces, used to treat posture problems involving the muscles, ligaments, or bones.
  
* '''[[striatum]]''' -part of the basal ganglia of the brain. The striatum is composed of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and ventral striatum. See basal ganglia, caudate nuclei.
+
* '''[[osteopenia]]''' — reduced density and mass of the bones.
  
* '''[[trait]]''' -any genetically determined characteristic. See dominant, gene, recessive.
+
* '''[[palsy]]''' — paralysis, or the lack of control over voluntary movement.
  
* '''[[transgenic mice]]''' -mice that receive injections of foreign genes during the embryonic stage of development. Their cells then follow the "instructions" of the foreign genes, resulting in the development of a certain trait or characteristic. Transgenic mice can serve as an animal model of a certain disease, telling researchers how genes work in specific cells.
+
* '''[[-paresis or -plegia]]''' — weakness or paralysis.  In cerebral palsy, these terms are typically combined with other phrases that describe the distribution of paralysis and weakness; for example, quadriplegia means paralysis of all four limbs.
  
* '''[[ventricles]]''' -cavities within the brain that are filled with cerebrospinal fluid. In HD, tissue loss causes enlargement of the ventricles.
+
* '''[[periventricular leukomalacia (PVL)]]''' — “peri" means near; "ventricular" refers to the ventricles or fluid spaces of the brain; and "leukomalacia" refers to softening of the white matter of the brain.   PVL is a condition in which the cells that make up white matter die near the ventricles.  Under a microscope, the tissue looks soft and sponge-like.
  
{{Stub}}
+
* '''[[placenta]]'''  — an organ that joins a mother with her unborn baby and provides nourishment and sustenance.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[quadriplegia]]'''  — paralysis of both the arms and legs.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[Rh incompatibility]]'''  — a blood condition in which antibodies in a pregnant woman's blood attack fetal blood cells and impair an unborn baby’s supply of oxygen and nutrients.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[rubella]]'''  — (also known as German measles) a viral infection that can damage the nervous system of an unborn baby if a mother contracts the disease during pregnancy.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[scoliosis]]'''  — a disease of the spine in which the spinal column tilts or curves to one side of the body.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[selective dorsal rhizotomy]]'''  — a surgical procedure in which selected nerves are severed to reduce spasticity in the legs.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[spastic]]''' (or spasticity) — describes stiff muscles and awkward movements.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[spastic diplegia]]''' (or diparesis) — a form of cerebral palsy in which spasticity affects both legs, but the arms are relatively or completely spared.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[spastic hemiplegia]]''' (or hemiparesis) — a form of cerebral palsy in which spasticity affects an arm and leg on one side of the body.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[spastic quadriplegia]]''' (or quadriparesis) — a form of cerebral palsy in which all four limbs are paralyzed or weakened equally.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[tremor]]'''  — an involuntary trembling or quivering.
 +
 
 +
== Glossary of Dementia ==
 +
 
 +
* '''[[alpha-synuclein]]''' — the major protein present in abnormal clumps called Lewy bodies, which are seen in the brains of people with Parkinson’s disease and some dementias. Disorders in which alpha-synuclein accumulates inside nerve cells are called synucleinopathies.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[Alzheimer’s disease]]''' — the most common cause of dementia. Nearly all brain functions, including memory, movement, language, judgment, and behavior, are eventually affected.  Alzheimer’s disease is defined by observing high levels of amyloid-containing plaques and tau protein-containing neurofibrillary tangles in the brain.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[amyloid]]''' — a protein with beta-pleated sheets, which aggregate to form the characteristic clumps (called plaques) that appear in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease. Other proteins that form aggregates are tau proteins also seen in Alzheimer’s disease, and alpha-synuclein present in dementia with Lewy Body and in Parkinson’s Disease.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[biomarkers]]''' — measurable biological signs in the living body that may indicate risk or progression of a disease and improve diagnosis
 +
 
 +
* '''[[corticobasal degeneration]]''' — a progressive disorder characterized by abnormal buildup of the protein tau, nerve cell loss, and atrophy in multiple areas of the brain
 +
 
 +
* '''[[dementia]]''' — a term for a condition that significantly interferes with daily life because of impaired thinking and memory
 +
 
 +
* '''[[Dementia with Lewy bodies]]''' — a type of Lewy body dementia that is a form of progressive dementia
 +
 
 +
* '''[[frontotemporal disorders]]''' — a group of dementias characterized by degeneration of nerve cells, especially those in the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain
 +
 
 +
* '''[[Lewy body dementia]]''' — a progressive dementia characterized by the presence of abnormal structures called Lewy bodies in the brain
 +
 
 +
* '''[[mild cognitive impairment]]''' — a stage between normal cognitive changes that may occur with age and the more serious symptoms that indicate dementia
 +
 
 +
* '''[[mixed dementia]]''' — dementia in which one form of dementia and another condition or dementia cause damage to the brain; for example, Alzheimer’s disease and small vessel disease or vascular dementia
 +
 
 +
* '''[[multi-infarct dementia]]''' — a type of vascular cognitive impairment and dementia caused by numerous small strokes in the brain
 +
 
 +
* '''[[neurodegeneration]]''' — the progressive loss of nerve cell structure or function
 +
 
 +
* '''[[neurofibrillary tangles]]''' — bundles of twisted filaments largely made up of a protein called tau found in nerve cells in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia such as FTD.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[Parkinson’s disease dementia]]''' — a secondary dementia that sometimes occurs in people with advanced Parkinson’s disease. Many people with Parkinson’s have the amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles found in Alzheimer’s disease, but it is not clear if the diseases are linked.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[plaques]]''' — abnormal clumps of amyloid protein that are found in large numbers in the brains of persons with Alzheimer’s disease
 +
 
 +
* '''[[tau]]''' — a protein that helps the functioning of microtubules, which are part of the cell’s structural support and help deliver substances throughout the cell. In several dementia disorders, tau twists into filaments that become tangles. Disorders associated with an accumulation of tau, such as frontotemporal dementia, are called tauopathies.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[vascular dementia]]''' — a type of dementia caused by brain damage from cerebrovascular or cardiovascular problems, usually strokes
 +
 
 +
== Glossary of traumatic brain injury ==
 +
 
 +
Glossary
 +
 
 +
* '''[[aneurysm]]'''  - a blood-filled sac formed by disease related stretching of an artery or blood vessel.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[anoxia]]'''  - an absence of oxygen supply to an organ's tissues leading to cell death.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[aphasia]]'''  - difficulty understanding and/or producing spoken and written language. ( See also non-fluent aphasia.)
 +
 
 +
* '''[[apoptosis]]'''  - cell death that occurs naturally as part of normal development, maintenance, and renewal of tissues within an organism.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[arachnoid membrane]]'''  - one of the three membranes that cover the brain; it is between the pia mater and the dura. Collectively, these three membranes form the meninges.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[brain death]]'''  - an irreversible cessation of measurable brain function.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[Broca's aphasia]]'''  - see non-fluent aphasia.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)]]'''  - the fluid that bathes and protects the brain and spinal cord.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[closed head injury]]'''  - an injury that occurs when the head suddenly and violently hits an object but the object does not break through the skull.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[coma]]'''  - a state of profound unconsciousness caused by disease, injury, or poison.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[compressive cranial neuropathies]]'''  - degeneration of nerves in the brain caused by pressure on those nerves.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[computed tomography (CT)]]'''  - a scan that creates a series of cross-sectional X-rays of the head and brain; also called computerized axial tomography or CAT scan.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[concussion]]'''  - injury to the brain caused by a hard blow or violent shaking, causing a sudden and temporary impairment of brain function, such as a short loss of consciousness or disturbance of vision and equilibrium.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[contrecoup]]'''  - a contusion caused by the shaking of the brain back and forth within the confines of the skull.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[contusion]]'''  - distinct area of swollen brain tissue mixed with blood released from broken blood vessels.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[CSF fistula]]'''  - a tear between two of the three membranes - the dura and arachnoid membranes - that encase the brain.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[deep vein thrombosis]]'''  - formation of a blood clot deep within a vein.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[dementia pugilistica]]'''  - brain damage caused by cumulative and repetitive head trauma; common in career boxers.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[depressed skull fracture]]'''  - a fracture occurring when pieces of broken skull press into the tissues of the brain.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[diffuse axonal injury]]'''  - see shearing.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[dysarthria]]'''  - inability or difficulty articulating words due to emotional stress, brain injury, paralysis, or spasticity of the muscles needed for speech.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[dura]]'''  - a tough, fibrous membrane lining the brain; the outermost of the three membranes collectively called the meninges.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[early seizures]]'''  - seizures that occur within 1 week after a traumatic brain injury.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[epidural hematoma]]'''  - bleeding into the area between the skull and the dura.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[erosive gastritis]]'''  - inflammation and degeneration of the tissues of the stomach.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[fluent aphasia]]'''  - a condition in which patients display little meaning in their speech even though they speak in complete sentences. Also called Wernicke's or motor aphasia.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[Glasgow Coma Scale]]'''  - a clinical tool used to assess the degree of consciousness and neurological functioning - and therefore severity of brain injury - by testing motor responsiveness, verbal acuity, and eye opening.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[global aphasia]]'''  - a condition in which patients suffer severe communication disabilities as a result of extensive damage to portions of the brain responsible for language.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[hematoma]]'''  - heavy bleeding into or around the brain caused by damage to a major blood vessel in the head.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[hemorrhagic stroke]]'''  - stroke caused by bleeding out of one of the major arteries leading to the brain.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[hypermetabolism]]'''  - a condition in which the body produces too much heat energy.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[hypothyroidism]]'''  - decreased production of thyroid hormone leading to low metabolic rate, weight gain, chronic drowsiness, dry skin and hair, and/or fluid accumulation and retention in connective tissues.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[hypoxia]]'''  - decreased oxygen levels in an organ, such as the brain; less severe than anoxia.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[immediate seizures]]'''  - seizures that occur within 24 hours of a traumatic brain injury.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[intracerebral hematoma]]'''  - bleeding within the brain caused by damage to a major blood vessel.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[intracranial pressure]]'''  - buildup of pressure in the brain as a result of injury.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[ischemic stroke]]'''  - stroke caused by the formation of a clot that blocks blood flow through an artery to the brain.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[locked-in syndrome]]'''  - a condition in which a patient is aware and awake, but cannot move or communicate due to complete paralysis of the body.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)]]'''  - a noninvasive diagnostic technique that uses magnetic fields to detect subtle changes in brain tissue.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[meningitis]]'''  - inflammation of the three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord, collectively known as the meninges; the meninges include the dura, pia mater, and arachnoid.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[motor aphasia]]'''  - see non-fluent aphasia.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[neural stem cells]]'''  - cells found only in adult neural tissue that can develop into several different cell types in the central nervous system.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[neuroexcitation]]'''  - the electrical activation of cells in the brain; neuroexcitation is part of the normal functioning of the brain or can also be the result of abnormal activity related to an injury.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[neuron]]'''  - a nerve cell that is one of the main functional cells of the brain and nervous system.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[neurotransmitters]]'''  -chemicals that transmit nerve signals from one neuron to another.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[non-fluent aphasia]]'''  - a condition in which patients have trouble recalling words and speaking in complete sentences. Also called Broca's or motor aphasia.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[oligodendrocytes]]'''  - a type of support cell in the brain that produces myelin, the fatty sheath that surrounds and insulates axons.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[penetrating head injury]]'''  - a brain injury in which an object pierces the skull and enters the brain tissue.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[penetrating skull fracture]]'''  - a brain injury in which an object pierces the skull and injures brain tissue.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[persistent vegetative state]]'''  - an ongoing state of severely impaired consciousness, in which the patient is incapable of voluntary motion.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[plasticity]]'''  - ability of the brain to adapt to deficits and injury.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[pneumocephalus]]'''  - a condition in which air or gas is trapped within the intracranial cavity.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[post-concussion syndrome (PCS)]]'''  - a complex, poorly understood problem that may cause headache after head injury; in most cases, patients cannot remember the event that caused the concussion and a variable period of time prior to the injury.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[post-traumatic amnesia (PTA)]]'''  - a state of acute confusion due to a traumatic brain injury, marked by difficulty with perception, thinking, remembering, and concentration; during this acute stage, patients often cannot form new memories.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[post-traumatic dementia]]'''  - a condition marked by mental deterioration and emotional apathy following trauma.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[post-traumatic epilepsy]]'''  - recurrent seizures occurring more than 1 week after a traumatic brain injury.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[prosodic dysfunction]]'''  - problems with speech intonation or inflection.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[pruning]]'''  - process whereby an injury destroys an important neural network in children, and another less useful neural network that would have eventually died takes over the responsibilities of the damaged network.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[seizures]]'''  - abnormal activity of nerve cells in the brain causing strange sensations, emotions, and behavior, or sometimes convulsions, muscle spasms, and loss of consciousness.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[sensory aphasia]]'''  - see fluent aphasia.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[shaken baby syndrome]]'''  - a severe form of head injury that occurs when an infant or small child is shaken forcibly enough to cause the brain to bounce against the skull; the degree of brain damage depends on the extent and duration of the shaking. Minor symptoms include irritability, lethargy, tremors, or vomiting; major symptoms include seizures, coma, stupor, or death.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[shearing]]''' (or diffuse axonal injury)  - damage to individual neurons resulting in disruption of neural networks and the breakdown of overall communication among neurons in the brain.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[stupor]]'''  - a state of impaired consciousness in which the patient is unresponsive but can be aroused briefly by a strong stimulus.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[subdural hematoma]]'''  - bleeding confined to the area between the dura and the arachnoid membranes.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[subdural hygroma]]'''  - a buildup of protein rich fluid in the area between the dura and the arachnoid membranes, usually caused by a tear in the arachnoid membrane.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH)]]'''  - a condition in which excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone leads to a sodium deficiency in the blood and abnormally concentrated urine; symptoms include weakness, lethargy, confusion, coma, seizures, or death if left untreated.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[thrombosis or thrombus]]'''  - the formation of a blood clot at the site of an injury.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[vasospasm]]'''  - exaggerated, persistent contraction of the walls of a blood vessel.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[vegetative state]]'''  - a condition in which patients are unconscious and unaware of their surroundings, but continue to have a sleep/wake cycle and can have periods of alertness.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[ventriculostomy]]'''  - a surgical procedure that drains cerebrospinal fluid from the brain by creating an opening in one of the small cavities called ventricles.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[Wernicke's aphasia]]'''  - see [[fluent aphasia]].

Revision as of 03:53, 14 July 2019

Glossary of cerebral palsy

  • acquired cerebral palsy — cerebral palsy that occurs as a result of injury to the brain after birth or during early childhood.
  • Apgar score — a numbered scoring system doctors use to assess a baby's physical state at the time of birth.
  • asphyxia — a lack of oxygen due to trouble with breathing or poor oxygen supply in the air.
  • ataxia — the loss of muscle control.
  • athetoid — making slow, sinuous, involuntary, writhing movements, especially with the hands.
  • bilirubin — a bile pigment produced by the liver of the human body as a byproduct of digestion.
  • bisphosphonates — a family of drugs that strengthen bones and reduce the risk of bone fracture in elderly adults.
  • botulinum toxin — a drug commonly used to relax spastic muscles; it blocks the release of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that energizes muscle tissue.
  • cerebral — relating to the two hemispheres of the human brain.
  • choreoathetoid — a condition characterized by aimless muscle movements and involuntary motions.
  • congenital cerebral palsy — cerebral palsy that is present at birth from causes that have occurred during fetal development.
  • contracture — a condition in which muscles become fixed in a rigid, abnormal position, which causes distortion or deformity.
  • developmental delay — behind schedule in reaching the milestones of early childhood development.
  • dyskinetic — the impairment of the ability to perform voluntary movements, which results in awkward or incomplete movements.
  • dystonia (dystonic) a condition of abnormal muscle tone.
  • gait analysis — a technique that uses cameras, force plates, electromyography, and computer analysis to objectively measure an individual's pattern of walking.
  • gestation — the period of fetal development from the time of conception until birth.
  • hemiparesis — paralysis affecting only one side of the body.
  • intrathecal baclofen — baclofen that is injected into the cerebrospinal fluid of the spinal cord to reduce spasticity.
  • jaundice — a blood disorder caused by the abnormal buildup of bilirubin in the bloodstream.
  • kyphosis — a humpback-like outward curvature of the upper spine.
  • lordosis — an increased inward curvature of the lower spine.
  • orthotic devices — special devices, such as splints or braces, used to treat posture problems involving the muscles, ligaments, or bones.
  • osteopenia — reduced density and mass of the bones.
  • palsy — paralysis, or the lack of control over voluntary movement.
  • -paresis or -plegia — weakness or paralysis.  In cerebral palsy, these terms are typically combined with other phrases that describe the distribution of paralysis and weakness; for example, quadriplegia means paralysis of all four limbs.
  • periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) — “peri" means near; "ventricular" refers to the ventricles or fluid spaces of the brain; and "leukomalacia" refers to softening of the white matter of the brain.   PVL is a condition in which the cells that make up white matter die near the ventricles.  Under a microscope, the tissue looks soft and sponge-like.
  • placenta — an organ that joins a mother with her unborn baby and provides nourishment and sustenance.
  • Rh incompatibility — a blood condition in which antibodies in a pregnant woman's blood attack fetal blood cells and impair an unborn baby’s supply of oxygen and nutrients.
  • rubella — (also known as German measles) a viral infection that can damage the nervous system of an unborn baby if a mother contracts the disease during pregnancy.
  • scoliosis — a disease of the spine in which the spinal column tilts or curves to one side of the body.
  • spastic (or spasticity) — describes stiff muscles and awkward movements.
  • spastic diplegia (or diparesis) — a form of cerebral palsy in which spasticity affects both legs, but the arms are relatively or completely spared.
  • spastic hemiplegia (or hemiparesis) — a form of cerebral palsy in which spasticity affects an arm and leg on one side of the body.
  • spastic quadriplegia (or quadriparesis) — a form of cerebral palsy in which all four limbs are paralyzed or weakened equally.
  • tremor — an involuntary trembling or quivering.

Glossary of Dementia

  • alpha-synuclein — the major protein present in abnormal clumps called Lewy bodies, which are seen in the brains of people with Parkinson’s disease and some dementias. Disorders in which alpha-synuclein accumulates inside nerve cells are called synucleinopathies.
  • Alzheimer’s disease — the most common cause of dementia. Nearly all brain functions, including memory, movement, language, judgment, and behavior, are eventually affected.  Alzheimer’s disease is defined by observing high levels of amyloid-containing plaques and tau protein-containing neurofibrillary tangles in the brain.
  • amyloid — a protein with beta-pleated sheets, which aggregate to form the characteristic clumps (called plaques) that appear in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease. Other proteins that form aggregates are tau proteins also seen in Alzheimer’s disease, and alpha-synuclein present in dementia with Lewy Body and in Parkinson’s Disease.
  • biomarkers — measurable biological signs in the living body that may indicate risk or progression of a disease and improve diagnosis
  • corticobasal degeneration — a progressive disorder characterized by abnormal buildup of the protein tau, nerve cell loss, and atrophy in multiple areas of the brain
  • dementia — a term for a condition that significantly interferes with daily life because of impaired thinking and memory
  • frontotemporal disorders — a group of dementias characterized by degeneration of nerve cells, especially those in the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain
  • Lewy body dementia — a progressive dementia characterized by the presence of abnormal structures called Lewy bodies in the brain
  • mild cognitive impairment — a stage between normal cognitive changes that may occur with age and the more serious symptoms that indicate dementia
  • mixed dementia — dementia in which one form of dementia and another condition or dementia cause damage to the brain; for example, Alzheimer’s disease and small vessel disease or vascular dementia
  • multi-infarct dementia — a type of vascular cognitive impairment and dementia caused by numerous small strokes in the brain
  • neurofibrillary tangles — bundles of twisted filaments largely made up of a protein called tau found in nerve cells in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia such as FTD.
  • Parkinson’s disease dementia — a secondary dementia that sometimes occurs in people with advanced Parkinson’s disease. Many people with Parkinson’s have the amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles found in Alzheimer’s disease, but it is not clear if the diseases are linked.
  • plaques — abnormal clumps of amyloid protein that are found in large numbers in the brains of persons with Alzheimer’s disease
  • tau — a protein that helps the functioning of microtubules, which are part of the cell’s structural support and help deliver substances throughout the cell. In several dementia disorders, tau twists into filaments that become tangles. Disorders associated with an accumulation of tau, such as frontotemporal dementia, are called tauopathies.
  • vascular dementia — a type of dementia caused by brain damage from cerebrovascular or cardiovascular problems, usually strokes

Glossary of traumatic brain injury

Glossary

  • aneurysm  - a blood-filled sac formed by disease related stretching of an artery or blood vessel.
  • anoxia  - an absence of oxygen supply to an organ's tissues leading to cell death.
  • aphasia  - difficulty understanding and/or producing spoken and written language. ( See also non-fluent aphasia.)
  • apoptosis  - cell death that occurs naturally as part of normal development, maintenance, and renewal of tissues within an organism.
  • arachnoid membrane  - one of the three membranes that cover the brain; it is between the pia mater and the dura. Collectively, these three membranes form the meninges.
  • brain death  - an irreversible cessation of measurable brain function.
  • closed head injury  - an injury that occurs when the head suddenly and violently hits an object but the object does not break through the skull.
  • coma  - a state of profound unconsciousness caused by disease, injury, or poison.
  • computed tomography (CT)  - a scan that creates a series of cross-sectional X-rays of the head and brain; also called computerized axial tomography or CAT scan.
  • concussion  - injury to the brain caused by a hard blow or violent shaking, causing a sudden and temporary impairment of brain function, such as a short loss of consciousness or disturbance of vision and equilibrium.
  • contrecoup  - a contusion caused by the shaking of the brain back and forth within the confines of the skull.
  • contusion  - distinct area of swollen brain tissue mixed with blood released from broken blood vessels.
  • CSF fistula  - a tear between two of the three membranes - the dura and arachnoid membranes - that encase the brain.
  • dementia pugilistica  - brain damage caused by cumulative and repetitive head trauma; common in career boxers.
  • dysarthria  - inability or difficulty articulating words due to emotional stress, brain injury, paralysis, or spasticity of the muscles needed for speech.
  • dura  - a tough, fibrous membrane lining the brain; the outermost of the three membranes collectively called the meninges.
  • early seizures  - seizures that occur within 1 week after a traumatic brain injury.
  • fluent aphasia  - a condition in which patients display little meaning in their speech even though they speak in complete sentences. Also called Wernicke's or motor aphasia.
  • Glasgow Coma Scale  - a clinical tool used to assess the degree of consciousness and neurological functioning - and therefore severity of brain injury - by testing motor responsiveness, verbal acuity, and eye opening.
  • global aphasia  - a condition in which patients suffer severe communication disabilities as a result of extensive damage to portions of the brain responsible for language.
  • hematoma  - heavy bleeding into or around the brain caused by damage to a major blood vessel in the head.
  • hemorrhagic stroke  - stroke caused by bleeding out of one of the major arteries leading to the brain.
  • hypermetabolism  - a condition in which the body produces too much heat energy.
  • hypothyroidism  - decreased production of thyroid hormone leading to low metabolic rate, weight gain, chronic drowsiness, dry skin and hair, and/or fluid accumulation and retention in connective tissues.
  • hypoxia  - decreased oxygen levels in an organ, such as the brain; less severe than anoxia.
  • ischemic stroke  - stroke caused by the formation of a clot that blocks blood flow through an artery to the brain.
  • locked-in syndrome  - a condition in which a patient is aware and awake, but cannot move or communicate due to complete paralysis of the body.
  • meningitis  - inflammation of the three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord, collectively known as the meninges; the meninges include the dura, pia mater, and arachnoid.
  • neural stem cells  - cells found only in adult neural tissue that can develop into several different cell types in the central nervous system.
  • neuroexcitation  - the electrical activation of cells in the brain; neuroexcitation is part of the normal functioning of the brain or can also be the result of abnormal activity related to an injury.
  • neuron  - a nerve cell that is one of the main functional cells of the brain and nervous system.
  • neurotransmitters  -chemicals that transmit nerve signals from one neuron to another.
  • non-fluent aphasia  - a condition in which patients have trouble recalling words and speaking in complete sentences. Also called Broca's or motor aphasia.
  • oligodendrocytes  - a type of support cell in the brain that produces myelin, the fatty sheath that surrounds and insulates axons.
  • persistent vegetative state  - an ongoing state of severely impaired consciousness, in which the patient is incapable of voluntary motion.
  • plasticity  - ability of the brain to adapt to deficits and injury.
  • pneumocephalus  - a condition in which air or gas is trapped within the intracranial cavity.
  • post-concussion syndrome (PCS)  - a complex, poorly understood problem that may cause headache after head injury; in most cases, patients cannot remember the event that caused the concussion and a variable period of time prior to the injury.
  • post-traumatic amnesia (PTA)  - a state of acute confusion due to a traumatic brain injury, marked by difficulty with perception, thinking, remembering, and concentration; during this acute stage, patients often cannot form new memories.
  • pruning  - process whereby an injury destroys an important neural network in children, and another less useful neural network that would have eventually died takes over the responsibilities of the damaged network.
  • seizures  - abnormal activity of nerve cells in the brain causing strange sensations, emotions, and behavior, or sometimes convulsions, muscle spasms, and loss of consciousness.
  • shaken baby syndrome  - a severe form of head injury that occurs when an infant or small child is shaken forcibly enough to cause the brain to bounce against the skull; the degree of brain damage depends on the extent and duration of the shaking. Minor symptoms include irritability, lethargy, tremors, or vomiting; major symptoms include seizures, coma, stupor, or death.
  • shearing (or diffuse axonal injury)  - damage to individual neurons resulting in disruption of neural networks and the breakdown of overall communication among neurons in the brain.
  • stupor  - a state of impaired consciousness in which the patient is unresponsive but can be aroused briefly by a strong stimulus.
  • subdural hematoma  - bleeding confined to the area between the dura and the arachnoid membranes.
  • subdural hygroma  - a buildup of protein rich fluid in the area between the dura and the arachnoid membranes, usually caused by a tear in the arachnoid membrane.
  • vasospasm  - exaggerated, persistent contraction of the walls of a blood vessel.
  • vegetative state  - a condition in which patients are unconscious and unaware of their surroundings, but continue to have a sleep/wake cycle and can have periods of alertness.
  • ventriculostomy  - a surgical procedure that drains cerebrospinal fluid from the brain by creating an opening in one of the small cavities called ventricles.