Difference between revisions of "Sandbox"

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* '''[[abronia fragrans]]''' - noun taller than Abronia elliptica and having night-blooming flowers
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* '''[[Abreaction]]''' - Abreaction is an emotional release or discharge following recall of a painful experience. Used sometimes by police, forensics after administering amobarbital.
  
* '''[[absinthe]]''' - noun strong green liqueur flavored with wormwood and anise; aromatic herb of temperate Eurasia and North Africa having a bitter taste used in making the liqueur absinthe
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* '''[[Abulia]]''' -Aboulia or Abulia, in neurology, refers to a lack of will or initiative. The patient is unable to act or make decisions independently. It may range from subtle to overwhelming in severity.
  
* '''[[acer negundo]]''' - noun common shade tree of eastern and central United States
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* '''[[Achromatopsia]]''' - Acquired agnosia for color. This term includes color blindness.
  
* '''[[acer saccharinum]]''' - noun a common North American maple tree; five-lobed leaves are light green above and silvery white beneath; source of hard close-grained but brittle light-brown wood
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* '''[[Affect illusion]]''' - Illusions (Misperceptions) associated with and/or based on changes with mood for example at midnight a person may take a shadow as a ghost, but in the early part of night this may not be the case.
  
* '''[[acer saccharum]]''' - noun maple of eastern and central North America having three-lobed to five-lobed leaves and hard close-grained wood much used for cabinet work especially the curly-grained form; sap is chief source of maple syrup and maple sugar; many subspecies
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* '''[[Akathisia]]''' - Is a feeling of 'inner restlessness' often brought on as a side effect of anti-psychotic medication. People with akathisia have a desire to keep moving and are unable to keep still even though their movements are voluntary (as opposed to other movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia which is involuntary). It most often affects the legs. When mild it is usually worse at night.
  
* '''[[achillea millefolium]]''' - noun ubiquitous strong-scented mat-forming Eurasian herb of wasteland, hedgerow or pasture having narrow serrate leaves and small usually white florets; widely naturalized in North America
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* '''[[Alexithymia]]''' - The term was coined by Dr Peter Sifneos to describe a condition where the person is unable to put into words the emotions he feels.
  
* '''[[ackee]]''' - noun red pear-shaped tropical fruit with poisonous seeds; flesh is poisonous when unripe or overripe
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* '''[[Alice in Wonderland Experience]]''' - In Alice in Wonderland Experience Subjects perceive objects (including animals and other humans, or parts of humans, animals, or objects) as appearing substantially smaller than in reality. Generally, the object appears far away or extremely close at the same time. Alternate term for this is * '''[[somaesthetic aura]]'''. Also see #Lilliputian hallucinations
  
* '''[[acorn]]''' - noun fruit of the oak tree: a smooth thin-walled nut in a woody cup-shaped base
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* '''[[Alliteration]]''' -Alliteration refers to the repetition of initial consonant sounds in neighbouring words. For example, "When I struck and slapped my humble horse, he began to run rapidly."
  
* '''[[acorn squash]]''' - noun small dark green or yellow ribbed squash with yellow to orange flesh; squash plant bearing small acorn-shaped fruits having yellow flesh and dark green or yellow rind with longitudinal ridges
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* '''[[Alogia]]''' - Literally , this term means "not having words". This refers to poverty of speech generally seen in chronic psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. This may be seen in advanced dementia too.
  
* '''[[acorus]]''' - noun sweet flags; sometimes placed in subfamily Acoraceae
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* '''[[Amok]]''' -Amok, or mata galap: The term comes from Malaysia in its origin. The phrase "running amok" also comes from this syndrome. This is a rare culture bound syndrome in which the subject (known as a pengamok) suddenly withdraws from his peers and family and gets violent towards people around him and may also use whatever weapon available to him. He is very difficult to be stopped at that stage. Ultimately he falls into a sleep or stupor and when wakes up having little knowledge of his violent behaviour.
  
* '''[[acorus calamus]]''' - noun perennial marsh plant having swordlike leaves and aromatic roots
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* '''[[Anhedonia]]''' -Anhedonia refers to a state of mind in which the subject finds no pleasure in anything. This is seen in severe depressive states and schizoid personality disorder.
  
* '''[[actinidia arguta]]''' - noun climbing Asiatic vine having long finely serrate leaves and racemes of white flowers followed by greenish-yellow edible fruit
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* '''[[Anosognosia]]''' -Anosognosia is a phenomenon in which a patient usually suffering from stroke is unaware and indifferent towards his disability. #Hemiasomatognosia is a subtype of anosognosia in which the person suffering from hemiplegia neglects one half of his body.
  
* '''[[actinidia chinensis]]''' - noun climbing vine native to China; cultivated in New Zealand for its fuzzy edible fruit with green meat
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* '''[[Anton's syndrome]]''' -Anton syndrome, occasionally known as Anton-Babinski syndrome, is a form of cortical blindness in which the patient denies the visual impairment. The patient may attempt to walk, bumping into objects and injuring himself. Anton syndrome is caused by damage to the occipital lobe which extends from the primary visual cortex into the visual association cortex.
  
* '''[[actinidia deliciosa]]''' - noun climbing vine native to China; cultivated in New Zealand for its fuzzy edible fruit with green meat
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* '''[[Anwesenheit]]''' - Anwesenheit refers to the feeling of presence of something or some person. It can be seen in normal grief reaction, schizophrenia and some emotionally arousing situations.
  
* '''[[actinidia polygama]]''' - noun ornamental vine of eastern Asia having yellow edible fruit and leaves with silver-white markings
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* '''[[Apophanous perception]]''' - This is an alternate term for delusional perception. It is one of the Schneiderian first rank symptoms and is defined as a true perception, to which a patient attributes a false meaning. For example, a person may see written "No Trespassing" on a board and may infer from this that intelligence agencies are spying on him.
  
* '''[[adams]]''' - noun a mountain peak in southwestern Washington in the Cascade Range (12,307 feet high); 2nd President of the United States (1735-1826); 6th President of the United States; son of John Adams (1767-1848); American Revolutionary leader and patriot; an organizer of the Boston Tea Party and signer of the Declaration of Independence (1722-1803)
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* '''[[Aphemia]]''' - Aphemia is the alternate term for mutism. Mutism is absence of speech with apparently normal level of consciousness. Mutism can be dissociative (hysterical) in which an individual (commonly a child or adolescent) stops speaking at once without involvement of any neurological or physical contributing factor; or it can be elective (selective) in which a child does not speak at all in certain situations (such as in school) but speaks well in other conditions (like at home or at play). A rare cause of mutism is akinetic mutism which results due to a lesion around 3rd ventricle of brain.
  
* '''[[adansonia]]''' - noun baobab; cream-of-tartar tree
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* '''[[Apperception]]''' - Apperception is a normal phenomenon and refers to the ability to undestand sensory inputs in their context, to interpret them and to incorporate them into experience. Failure of apperception is seen in delirious states.
  
* '''[[adansonia digitata]]''' - noun African tree having an exceedingly thick trunk and fruit that resembles a gourd and has an edible pulp called monkey bread
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* '''[[Astasia-abasia]]''' -Astasia abasia is a form of dissociative disorder in which gait becomes impaired in absence of any neurological or physical pathology. The person usually walks in a bizarre manner. He staggers and appears as if going to fall but always manages to catch hold of something in time. Sometimes these people cannot even stand but on the other hand they are well able to move their legs while lying down or sitting.
  
* '''[[adansonia gregorii]]''' - noun Australian tree having an agreeably acid fruit that resembles a gourd
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* '''[[Asyndesis]]''' - Alternate term for Loosening of association. A milder form of derailment of thought, in which a person goes on jumping from one topic to another and there is little connection among the topics. This is in contrast to flight of ideas where a person jumps from one topic to another and there is a connection among the topics. See also #Entgleisen term introduced by (Cameron).
  
* '''[[adobo]]''' - noun a dish of marinated vegetables and meat or fish; served with rice
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* '''[[Autochthonous delusion]]''' -Jaspers defined this as a delusion arising without apparent cause. For example, suddendly, without apparent cause, having the delusional belief that you are an alien.
  
* '''[[aframomum melegueta]]''' - noun West African plant bearing pungent peppery seeds
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* '''[[Autokabalesis]]''' - An uncommonly used term used for suicide committed by jumping from a very high place.
  
* '''[[agastache foeniculum]]''' - noun much-branched North American herb with an odor like fennel
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* '''[[Automatic obedience]]''' - Automatic obedience is an exaggerated co-operation with an examiner's request, as if the patient were an 'automaton' robotically obeying a command. It is usually a sign of catatonia.
  
* '''[[agave]]''' - noun tropical American plants with basal rosettes of fibrous sword-shaped leaves and flowers in tall spikes; some cultivated for ornament or for fiber
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* '''[[Automatism]]''' -Automatisms are sequences of activity that occur without conscious control. They may be simple and repetitive (tic-like) or complex, and are usually natural-looking but purposeless; for example, repeatedly going through the motions of buttering a piece of bread when there is no bread there. Automatic behaviour is not usually recalled afterwards.
  
* '''[[agriculture]]''' - noun the class of people engaged in growing food; the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock; a large-scale farming enterprise; the federal department that administers programs that provide services to farmers (including research and soil conservation and efforts to stabilize the farming economy); created in 1862
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* '''[[Belle Indifference (‘La belle indifference’)]]''' - Belle Indifference or #La belle indifférence is characterized by a lack of concern and an indifference about a disability and is seen in hysteria or dissociative disorders.
  
* '''[[agrimonia eupatoria]]''' - noun erect perennial Old World herb of dry grassy habitats
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* '''[[Bouffée délirante]]''' -Bouffée délirante is a French term used in past for acute and transient psychotic disorders (F23 in ICD-10). In DSM-IV, it is described as "Brief Psychotic Disorder" (298.8). The symptoms usually have an acute onset and reach their peak within two weeks. The symptoms start resolving in a few weeks and complete recovery usually occurs within 2-3 months.
  
* '''[[aioli]]''' - noun garlic mayonnaise
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* '''[[Capgras' syndrome or Illusion des sosies]]''' - In Capgras syndrome, the patient feels that a person familiar to him , usually a family member has been replaced by a double i.e. an identical looking imposter. Capgras Syndrome and Fregoli syndrome along with some other conditions are classified as delusional misidentification syndrome. It is named after Joseph Capgras (1873-1950), a French psychiatrist who first described the disorder in a paper by Capgras and Reboul-Lachaux1,2 in 1923. They used the term l'illusion des sosies (the illusion of doubles) to describe the case of a French woman who complained that various doubles had taken the place of people she knew. However, the term illusion has a subtly different meaning from delusion in psychiatry so Capgras delusion is used as a more suitable name.
  
* '''[[albizia]]''' - noun any of numerous trees of the genus Albizia
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* '''[[Catalepsy]]''' -Catalepsy is the term for catatonic rigidity of the limbs which often results in abnormal posturing for long intervals.
  
* '''[[albizia lebbeck]]''' - noun large spreading Old World tree having large leaves and globose clusters of greenish-yellow flowers and long seed pods that clatter in the wind
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* '''[[Cataplexy]]''' -Cataplexy is an attack of muscular flaccidity.
  
* '''[[alca]]''' - noun type genus of the Alcidae comprising solely the razorbill
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* '''[[Catatonia]]''' - See catatonia.
  
* '''[[alexander]]''' - noun king of Macedon; conqueror of Greece and Egypt and Persia; founder of Alexandria (356-323 BC); European herb somewhat resembling celery widely naturalized in Britain coastal regions and often cultivated as a potherb
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* '''[[Cerea flexibilitas]]''' -Cerea flexibilitas, meaning "waxy flexibility," is characterized by a patient's movements having the feeling of a plastic resistance, as if the person were made of wax. This occurs in catatonic schizophrenia, and a person suffering from this condition can have his limbs placed in fixed positions as if the person were in fact made from wax.
  
* '''[[alfalfa]]''' - noun leguminous plant grown for hay or forage; important European leguminous forage plant with trifoliate leaves and blue-violet flowers grown widely as a pasture and hay crop
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* '''[[Chorea]]''' -Chorea is manifest by abnormal voluntary movements. The term comes from Greek word khoreia, since large groups of muscles are usually involved which leads to writhing dancing movement.
  
* '''[[alga]]''' - noun primitive chlorophyll-containing mainly aquatic eukaryotic organisms lacking true stems and roots and leaves
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* '''[[Circumstantiality]]''' - Refers to a thought disorder wherein thinking takes a roundabout manner to get to an answer. Differentiable from tangentiality by the speaker eventually getting back to the point. For example: "My mother's job? She used to sit around the house doing nothing but drinking, she'd just sit there and stew, making noises, chugging her drinks. She threw my dad out of the house. I'll never forget that, the way she did it. Anyways, my mom was a waitress."
  
* '''[[algae]]''' - noun primitive chlorophyll-containing mainly aquatic eukaryotic organisms lacking true stems and roots and leaves
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* '''[[Clang association]]''' - Thought disorder wherein words are chosen or repeated based on similar sounds, instead of semantic meaning. "The train rain brained me. He ate the skate, inflated yesterdays gate toward the cheese grater."
  
* '''[[allium acuminatum]]''' - noun a common North American wild onion with a strong onion odor and an umbel of pink flowers atop a leafless stalk; British Columbia to California and Arizona and east to Wyoming and Colorado
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* '''[[Claparede's paradox]]''' - This refers to retention of non-verbal and implicit memory in sufferers of Korsakov's syndrome. 11
  
* '''[[allium ampeloprasum]]''' - noun coarse Old World perennial having a large bulb and tall stalk of greenish purple-tinged flowers; widely naturalized
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* '''[[Clouding of consciousness]]''' - Clouding of consciousness is a global impairment in higher central nervous functioning. All aspects of cognitive funtioning are affected. On mental status examination it is manifest by disorientation in time, place and person, memory difficulties caused by failure to register and recall, aphasia, dyspraxia, and agnosia. Impaired perception functioning leads to illusions and hallucinations often in the visual sensory modality. This then causes agitation and distress and secondary delusions. The term 'confusion state' is sometimes used to mean clouding of consciousness, but should be avoided if at all possible because it is ambiguous.
  
* '''[[allium canadense]]''' - noun North American bulbous plant
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* '''[[Coenestopathic state]]''' - A patient in a coenestopathic state has a localized distortion of body awareness.
  
* '''[[allium carinatum]]''' - noun Eurasian bulbous plant
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* '''[[Confabulation]]''' -Confabulation is the confusion of imagination with memory, and/or the confusion of true memories with false memories.
  
* '''[[allium cernuum]]''' - noun widely distributed North American wild onion with white to rose flowers
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* '''[[Conversion]]''' -Conversion is the hysterical production of neurological symptoms.
  
* '''[[allium fistulosum]]''' - noun Asiatic onion with slender bulbs; used as early green onions
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* '''[[Coprolalia]]''' -Coprolalia is the involuntary utterance of socially inappropriate phrases. It is a phonic tic associated with Tourette syndrome, although less than 15% of persons with Tourette's have coprolalia.
  
* '''[[allium paradoxum]]''' - noun leek producing bulbils instead of flowers; Russia and Iran
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* '''[[Cotard's syndrome]]''' -Cotard's syndrome is a nihilistic delusional syndrome in which, for example, patient believes that he denies his own existence or existence of his body parts and belongings etc. and has a firm conviction about that. This can be seen usually in schizophrenia and severe depressive states especially in context of a bipolar disorder.
  
* '''[[allium sativum]]''' - noun bulbous herb of southern Europe widely naturalized; bulb breaks up into separate strong-flavored cloves
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* '''[[Defenestration]]''' - Literally jumping out of window. Usually used in context of attempted or completed suicide. Also see #autokabalesis. 11
  
* '''[[allium scorodoprasum]]''' - noun European leek cultivated and used like leeks
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* '''[[Déjà vu]]''' - In Déjà vu, a person feels undue familiarity to an event or a person. For example, he feels that the same thing has happened before or he has met this person before, etc.
  
* '''[[allium tricoccum]]''' - noun North American perennial having a slender bulb and whitish flowers
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* '''[[Déjà pensé]]''' - In Déjà pensé, a completely new thought sounds familiar to the person and he feels as he has thought the same thing before at some time.
  
* '''[[allium triquetrum]]''' - noun European leek naturalized in Great Britain; leaves triangular in section
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* '''[[Dementia praecox]]''' - Psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin was the first to draw a distinction between what he termed dementia praecox ("premature dementia") and other psychotic illnesses. In 1911, dementia praecox was renamed schizophrenia by psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler, who found Kraepelin's term to be misleading, as the disorder is not a form of dementia, premature or otherwise.
  
* '''[[allium tuberosum]]''' - noun a plant of eastern Asia; larger than Allium schoenoprasum
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* '''[[Dementia pugilistica ]]'''-Dementia pugilistica, also called "chronic traumatic encephalopathy", "pugilistic Parkinson's syndrome", "boxer's syndrome", and "punch-drunk syndrome", is a neurological disorder which affects career boxers and others who receive multiple dazing blows to the head. The condition develops over a period of years, with the average time of onset being about 16 years after the start of a career in boxing.
  
* '''[[allium ursinum]]''' - noun pungent Old World weedy plant
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* '''[[Dhat]]''' - In Dhat syndrome there is a complaint of premature ejaculation or impotence and a belief that semen is being passed in the urine.
  
* '''[[allspice]]''' - noun ground dried berrylike fruit of a West Indian allspice tree; suggesting combined flavors of cinnamon and nutmeg and cloves; deciduous shrubs having aromatic bark; eastern China; southwestern and eastern United States; aromatic West Indian tree that produces allspice berries
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* '''[[Doppelgänger]]''' - The Doppelgänger is a phenomenon in which the person feels that his exact “double” is present alongside him every time and goes with him wherever he goes.
  
* '''[[almond]]''' - noun oval-shaped edible seed of the almond tree; small bushy deciduous tree native to Asia and North Africa having pretty pink blossoms and highly prized edible nuts enclosed in a hard green hull; cultivated in southern Australia and California
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* '''[[Écho de la pensée]]''' - In écho de la pensée, meaning "thought echo" in French, thoughts seem to be spoken aloud just * '''[[after]]''' being produced. The patient hears the 'echo' of his thoughts in the form of a voice after he has made the thought. See also #Gedankenlautwerden and #Thought Sonorization.
  
* '''[[almond extract]]''' - noun flavoring made from almonds macerated in alcohol
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* '''[[Entgleisen]]''' - Literally means jumping off the rails. Alternate term used for derailment of thought (a morbid form of loosening of association or #asyndesis). A Schneiderian term by origin. In this form of thought the patient jumps from one topic to another during conversation and both topics have literally no connection with each other. This is in contrast with flight of ideas where connection is present between one topic and another.
  
* '''[[almond oil]]''' - noun pale yellow fatty oil expressed from sweet or bitter almonds
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* '''[[Extracampine]]''' - Extracampine hallucinations are hallucinations beyond the possible sensory field, e.g., 'seeing' somebody standing behind you is a visual extracampine hallucination experience.
  
* '''[[alpinia galanga]]''' - noun southeastern Asian perennial with aromatic roots
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* '''[[Fantasy]]''' -Fantasy is imagining that expresses desires and aims.
  
* '''[[alpinia officinarum]]''' - noun Chinese perennial with pyramidal racemes of white flowers and pungent aromatic roots used medicinally and as flavoring
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* '''[[Fatuous affect]]''' - The moods of a patient with fatuous affect resemble the moods of a child. This condition is seen in hebephrenic schizophrenia.
  
* '''[[amaranth]]''' - noun any of various plants of the genus Amaranthus having dense plumes of green or red flowers; often cultivated for food; seed of amaranth plants used as a native cereal in Central and South America
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* '''[[Folie à deux]]''' - Also called induced psychosis, folie à deux is a delusional disorder shared by two or more people who are closely related emotionally. One has real psychosis while the symptoms of psychosis are induced in the other or others due to close attachment to the one with psychosis. Separation usually results in symptomatic improvement in the one who is not psychotic.
  
* '''[[amaranthus caudatus]]''' - noun young leaves widely used as leaf vegetables; seeds used as cereal
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Folie communiquée, folie imposée, folie induite, and folie simultanée are the four subtypes of folie à deux.
  
* '''[[amaranthus cruentus]]''' - noun tall showy tropical American annual having hairy stems and long spikes of usually red flowers above leaves deeply flushed with purple; seeds often used as cereal
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* '''[[Folie communiquée]]''' -Folie communiquée, or subtype C of folie à deux, occurs when a normal person suffers a contagion of his ideas after resisting them for a long time. Once he acquires these beliefs he maintains them despite separation.
  
* '''[[amaranthus graecizans]]''' - noun bushy plant of western United States
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* '''[[Folie imposée]]''' -Folie imposée, or subtype A of folie a deux, is the most common form in which the dominant person imposes a delusion into a person who was not previously mentally ill. Separation of the two results in improvement of the non-dominant person.
  
* '''[[amaretto]]''' - noun an Italian almond liqueur
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* '''[[Folie induite]]''' - In folie induite, or subtype D of folie a deux, a person who is already psychotic adds the delusions of a closely associated person to his own.
  
* '''[[ambrosia]]''' - noun (classical mythology) the food and drink of the gods; mortals who ate it became immortal; fruit dessert made of oranges and bananas with shredded coconut; any of numerous chiefly North American weedy plants constituting the genus Ambrosia that produce highly allergenic pollen responsible for much hay fever and asthma; a mixture of nectar and pollen prepared by worker bees and fed to larvae
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* '''[[Folie simultanée]]''' - In folie simultanée, or subtype B of folie a deux, a delusional system emerges simultaneously and independently in two closely related persons, and the separation of the two would not be beneficial in the resolution of psychopathology.
  
* '''[[amelanchier]]''' - noun North American deciduous trees or shrubs
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* '''[[Fregoli's syndrome]]''' - In Fregoli syndrome, the person feels that a person not known to him previously gets changed to a familiar person or one of his close family members. This is in contrast to Capgras syndrome in which he feels that his family member has changed into an unknown person or an impostor.
  
* '''[[amelanchier alnifolia]]''' - noun shrub or small tree of northwestern North America having fragrant creamy white flowers and small waxy purple-red fruits
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* '''[[Gedankenlautwerden]]''' - In * '''[[Gedankenlautwerden ]]''', a patient hears thoughts spoken aloud. Thoughts are heard in the form of a voice at the same time as they are thought, not afterwards. See also Écho de la pensée and Thought Sonorization
  
* '''[[american chestnut]]''' - noun large tree found from Maine to Alabama
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* '''[[Gegenhalten]]''' - Gegenhalten is a catatonic phenomenon in which the subject opposes all passive movements with the same degree of force as applied by the examiner. It is slightly different to negativism in which the subject does exactly the opposite to what is asked in addition to showing resistance.
  
* '''[[american ginseng]]''' - noun North American woodland herb similar to and used as substitute for the Chinese ginseng
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* '''[[Autoscopy]]''' - Autoscopy is the reduplicative hallucination of "seeing one's own body at a distance"
  
* '''[[amphicarpaea bracteata]]''' - noun vine widely distributed in eastern North America producing racemes of purple to maroon flowers and abundant (usually subterranean) edible one-seeded pods resembling peanuts
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* '''[[Hemiasomatognosia ]]'''- Hemiasomatognosia is a subtype of #anosognosia in which the person suffering from hemiplegia neglects one half of his body.
  
* '''[[amphora]]''' - noun an ancient jar with two handles and a narrow neck; used to hold oil or wine
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* '''[[Hyposchemazia; Aschemazia]]''' - Hyposchemazia is characterized by the reduced awareness of a patient's body image and Aschemazia by the absence of it. These disorders can have many varied causes such as physical injuries, mental disorders, or mental or physical states. These include transection of the spinal cord, parietal lobe lesions (e.g. right middle cerebral artery thrombosis), anxiety, depersonalization, epileptic auras, migraines, sensory deprivation, and vertigo (i.e. "floating on air").
  
* '''[[ananas]]''' - noun a genus of tropical American plants have sword-shaped leaves and a fleshy compound fruits composed of the fruits of several flowers (such as pineapples); large sweet fleshy tropical fruit with a terminal tuft of stiff leaves; widely cultivated
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* '''[[Idée fixe]]''' -Idée fixe is an alternate term for an overvalued idea. In this condition, a belief that might seem reasonable both to the patient and to other people comes to dominate completely the patient's thinking and life.
  
* '''[[ananas comosus]]''' - noun a tropical American plant bearing a large fleshy edible fruit with a terminal tuft of stiff leaves; widely cultivated in the tropics
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* '''[[Ideas of reference]]''' - Delusional ideas wherein seemingly random stimuli is thought to be referring to the individual. For example, if a car beeps outside, the individual feels it was directed toward him or herself.
  
* '''[[anderson]]''' - noun United States physicist who discovered antimatter in the form of an antielectron that is called the positron (1905-1991); United States contralto noted for her performance of spirituals (1902-1993); United States dramatist (1888-1959); United States physicist who studied the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems (1923-); United States author whose works were frequently autobiographical (1876-1941)
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* '''[[Illusion]]''' - An illusion is a false perception.
  
* '''[[angelica archangelica]]''' - noun a biennial cultivated herb; its stems are candied and eaten and its roots are used medicinally
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* '''[[Jargon aphasia]]''' -Jargon aphasia,is characterized by incoherent, meaningless, speech with a neologisms (newly invented words). These are unconscious thoughts that find expression when one is off one's guard and must be consciously repressed.
  
* '''[[anise]]''' - noun liquorice-flavored seeds or oil used in cookies or cakes or pickles; native to Egypt but cultivated widely for its aromatic seeds and the oil from them used medicinally and as a flavoring in cookery
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* '''[[Klüver Bucy syndrome]]''' - In Kluver-Bucy syndrome, a patient will display placidity, hyperorality, hypersexuality, and hyperphagia. This condition results from bilateral destruction of the amygdaloid bodies of the limbic system.
  
* '''[[anisette]]''' - noun liquorice-flavored usually colorless sweet liqueur made from aniseed
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* '''[[Knight's Move thinking]]''' -Knight's Move thinking a phenomenon similar to derailment of thought or loosening of associations, is characterized by odd, tangential associations between ideas that lead to disruptions in the smooth continuity of speech. The name for this disorder likely derives from the odd movement pattern of knights in the game of Chess.
  
* '''[[anna]]''' - noun a former copper coin of Pakistan
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* '''[[Koro]]''' -Koro is a culture-specific syndrome usually seen in Chinese people. It involves a morbid fear of retraction of the penis into the abdomen with the belief that this will lead to death.
  
* '''[[annona]]''' - noun type genus of the Annonaceae; tropical American trees or shrubs
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* '''[[Kuru]]''' -Kuru (also known as laughing sickness due to the outbursts of laughter that mark its second phase) was first noted in New Guinea in the early 1900s. Kuru is now known to be a prion disease, one of several known transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.
  
* '''[[annona glabra]]''' - noun small evergreen tree of tropical America with edible fruit; used chiefly as grafting stock
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* '''[[La belle indifférence]]''' -La belle indifférence is characterized by a lack of concern and an indifference about a disability and is seen in hysteria or dissociative disorders.
  
* '''[[annona reticulata]]''' - noun small tropical American tree bearing a bristly heart-shaped acid tropical fruit
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* '''[[Latah]]''' -Latah is a culture-specific syndrome usually seen in Southeast Asia and involves startle-induced disorganization, hypersuggestibility, automatic obedience, and echopraxia (a tendency to mimic examiner’s or other person’s actions). It is usually associated with women. There is controversy over whether Latah is a real psychiatric condition, or merely a display of exhibitionism that would otherwise not be socially acceptable.
  
* '''[[annonaceae]]''' - noun chiefly tropical trees or shrubs
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* '''[[L'homme qui rit]]''' - In l'homme qui rit, meaning "The man who laughs" in French, a patient displays inappropriate laughter accompanied by release phenomena of the frontal subdominant lobe.
  
* '''[[antarctica]]''' - noun an extremely cold continent at the south pole almost entirely below the Antarctic Circle; covered by an ice cap up to 13,000 feet deep
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* '''[[Lilliputian hallucinations]]''' -Lilliputian hallucinations are characterized by abnormal perception of objects as being shrunken in size but normal in detail. Usually seen in Delirium Tremens.
  
* '''[[anthriscus sylvestris]]''' - noun coarse erect biennial Old World herb introduced as a weed in eastern North America
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* '''[[Logoclonia]]''' - In logoclonia, the patient often repeats the last syllable of a word.
  
* '''[[apios americana]]''' - noun a North American vine with fragrant blossoms and edible tubers; important food crop of Native Americans
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* '''[[Logorrhoea]]''' -Logorrhoea, also known as "volubility," is characterized by a patient's fluent and rambling speech using numerous words.
  
* '''[[appellation]]''' - noun identifying word or words by which someone or something is called and classified or distinguished from others
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* '''[[Mania a potu]]''' -Mania a potu is an alcohol intoxication state with violent and markedly disinhibited behavior. This condition is different from violent behavior in otherwise normal individuals who are intoxicated.
  
* '''[[apple]]''' - noun fruit with red or yellow or green skin and sweet to tart crisp whitish flesh; native Eurasian tree widely cultivated in many varieties for its firm rounded edible fruits
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* '''[[Mitgehen]]''' -Mitgehen is an extreme form of mitmachen in which very slight pressure leads to movement in any direction, also called the "anglepoise" effect. This is done despite instructions that the patient resist the pressure, as the patient often views the slight pressure as forcibly grasping and moving the patient.
  
* '''[[apple butter]]''' - noun thick dark spicy puree of apples
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* '''[[Mitmachen]]''' - In mitmachen, the patient's body can be put into any posture, despite instructions given that the patient resist.
  
* '''[[apple dumpling]]''' - noun apples wrapped in pastry and baked
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* '''[[Moria]]''' -Moria is the condition characterized by euphoric behavior, such as fivolity and the inability to act seriously. In addition there is a lack of foresight and a general indifference. It is found in frontal lobe lesions, often along with #Witzelsücht particularly when the orbital surface is damaged. Recent research has shown its presence in frontotemporal dementia.
  
* '''[[apple juice]]''' - noun the juice of apples
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* '''[[Negativism]]''' - Negativism is found if, on examination, a patient resists attempts to move him and does opposite to what is asked. It is usually a sign of catatonia. It may progress to (catatonic) rigidity. It is slightly different to gegenhalten in which the patient resists movement but does not perform the opposite movement.
  
* '''[[apple pie]]''' - noun pie (with a top crust) containing sliced apples and sugar
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* '''[[Omega sign]]''' - The omega sign is the occurrence of a fold (like the Greek letter omega, Ω ) in the forehead above the root of the nose produced by the excessive action of the corrugator muscle. It is sometimes seen in depression.
  
* '''[[apple sauce]]''' - noun puree of stewed apples usually sweetened and spiced
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* '''[[Oneiroid state]]''' - From Greek oneiros, meaning dream. In the Oneiroid state one feels and behaves as though in a dream.
  
* '''[[applejack]]''' - noun distilled from hard cider
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* '''[[Palilalia]]''' -Palilalia is characterized by the repetition of a word or phrase ie the subject continues to repeat a word or phrase after once having said. It is a perseveratory phenomenon.
  
* '''[[apricot]]''' - noun downy yellow to rosy-colored fruit resembling a small peach; Asian tree having clusters of usually white blossoms and edible fruit resembling the peach; a shade of pink tinged with yellow
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* '''[[Palinacousis]]''' - Palinacousis refers to a phenomenon in which the subject continues to listen to a word, a syllable or any sound, even after the withdrawal of stimulus. It is a type of #perseveration.
  
* '''[[arabidopsis thaliana]]''' - noun a small invasive self-pollinating weed with small white flowers; much studied by plant geneticists; the first higher plant whose complete genome sequence was described
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* '''[[Palinopsia]]''' - In palinopsia a visual image persists after the stimulus has gone (similar to an afterimage seen after looking into a bright light).
  
* '''[[arachis]]''' - noun a genus of plants with pods that ripen underground (see peanut)
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* '''[[Paraschemazia]]''' -Paraschemazia is characterized by a distortion of a patient's body image. It can be caused by hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD and mescalin, epileptic auras, and sometimes migraines.
  
* '''[[arachis hypogaea]]''' - noun widely cultivated American plant cultivated in tropical and warm regions; showy yellow flowers on stalks that bend over to the soil so that seed pods ripen underground
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* '''[[Pareidolia]]''' - In pareidolia a vague or random stimulus is mistakenly perceived as recognizable. A common example is perceiving the image of a face in clouds. Pareidolia is a type of illusion and hence called pareidolic illusion.
  
* '''[[arak]]''' - noun any of various strong liquors distilled from the fermented sap of toddy palms or from fermented molasses
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* '''[[Perseveration]]''' - This term refers to uncontrollable repetition of a particular response, such as a word, phrase, or gesture, despite the absence or cessation of the original stimulus. Usually it is seen in organic disorders of brain , head injury, delirium or dementia, however can be seen in schizophrenia as well.
  
* '''[[aralia elata]]''' - noun deciduous clump-forming Asian shrub or small tree; adventive in the eastern United States
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* '''[[Pseudologia fantastica]]''' -Pseudologia fantastica is a condition in which a person grossly exaggerates his symptoms or even tells a lie about his symptoms in order to get medical attention . Seen in malingering and Munchausen syndrome.
  
* '''[[aralia spinosa]]''' - noun small deciduous clump-forming tree or shrub of eastern United States
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* '''[[Psychological pillow]]''' - Where the individual holds his/her head a few centimetres above the bed. No explanation is offered for this. It is a symptom of catatonia and can last for many hours.
  
* '''[[arame]]''' - noun an edible seaweed with a mild flavor
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* '''[[Psychopathology]]''' -Psychopathology is a term which refers to either the study of mental illness or mental distress or to the manifestation of behaviours and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment.
  
* '''[[araucaria araucana]]''' - noun large Chilean evergreen conifer having intertwined branches and bearing edible nuts
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* '''[[Rabbit syndrome]]''' - This syndrome is characterized by rapid rhythmic movements of lips so that it resembles a rabbit chewing. 11
  
* '''[[araucaria bidwillii]]''' - noun Australian conifer bearing two-inch seeds tasting like roasted chestnuts; among the aborigines the tree is hereditary property protected by law
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* '''[[Reduplicative hallucination]]''' - In reduplicative hallucinations there is the preception of seeing a double. Particular kinds of reduplicative hallucination include autoscopy, heautoscopy and out-of-body experiences.
  
* '''[[arbutus unedo]]''' - noun small evergreen European shrubby tree bearing many-seeded scarlet berries that are edible but bland; of Ireland, southern Europe, Asia Minor
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* '''[[Reduplicative paramnesia]]''' - A misidentification in which the patient’s surroundings are believed to exist in more than one physical location.
  
* '''[[arctium]]''' - noun burdock
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* '''[[Reflex hallucination]]''' - Is when a veridical perception in one modality produces a hallucination in another, e.g. seeing a doctor writing (visual) and then feeling him writing across one’s stomach (tactile).
  
* '''[[arctium lappa]]''' - noun burdock having heart-shaped leaves found in open woodland, hedgerows and rough grassland of Europe (except extreme N) and Asia Minor; sometimes cultivated for medicinal and culinary use
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* '''[[Restlessness]]''' - Restlessness has two components: akathisia (subjective "inner" restlessness) and Psychomotor agitation (an excess of motor activity).
  
* '''[[arctostaphylos]]''' - noun bearberry; manzanita
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* '''[[Retardation]]''' - Mental retardation is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as communicating, taking care of him or herself, and social skills.
  
* '''[[areca catechu]]''' - noun southeastern Asian palm bearing betel nuts (scarlet or orange single-seeded fruit with a fibrous husk)
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* '''[[In Children:]]''' These limitations will cause a child to learn and develop more slowly than a typical child. Children with mental retardation may take longer to learn to speak, walk, and take care of their personal needs such as dressing or eating. They are likely to have trouble learning in school. They will learn, but it will take them longer. There may be some things they cannot learn.
  
* '''[[arenga pinnata]]''' - noun Malaysian feather palm with base densely clothed with fibers; yields a sweet sap used in wine and trunk pith yields sago
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* '''[[Left-Right disorientation]]''' - Left-Right disorientation is one of the four cardinal signs of Gerstmann's syndrome.
  
* '''[[aristotelia serrata]]''' - noun graceful deciduous shrub or small tree having attractive foliage and small red berries that turn black at maturity and are used for making wine
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* '''[[Scanning speech]]''' - Scanning speech is an ataxic dysarthria in which syllable durations are equalized. It is characteristic of the dysarthria of multiple sclerosis. Together with nystagmus and intention tremor it forms Charcot's triad.
  
* '''[[army]]''' - noun a large number of people united for some specific purpose; a permanent organization of the military land forces of a nation or state; the army of the United States of America; the agency that organizes and trains soldiers for land warfare
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* '''[[Schizophasia]]''' -Schizophasia, or colloquially "word salad", is characterized by a patient's speech being an incoherent and incomprehensible mix of words and phrases. This occurs in schizophrenic patients.
  
* '''[[arrowroot]]''' - noun white-flowered West Indian plant whose root yields arrowroot starch; a nutritive starch obtained from the root of the arrowroot plant; canna grown especially for its edible rootstock from which arrowroot starch is obtained
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* '''[[Schnauzkrampf]]''' - A schnauzkrampf is a grimace resembling pouting sometimes observed in catatonic patients.
  
* '''[[artemisia absinthium]]''' - noun aromatic herb of temperate Eurasia and North Africa having a bitter taste used in making the liqueur absinthe
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* '''[[Sensitiver beziehungswahn]]''' -Sensitiver beziehungswahn, is an alternate term for ideas of reference. In this the person thinks as people are talking about him or observing him or a talk is going on about him on television or radio. Seen in social phobia, depression and in schizophrenia where they are often present up to a delusional extent.
  
* '''[[artemisia tridentata]]''' - noun aromatic shrub of arid regions of western North America having hoary leaves
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* '''[[Stockholm syndrome]]''' - The Stockholm syndrome is a psychological response sometimes seen in a hostage, in which the hostage exhibits loyalty to the hostage-taker, in spite of the danger (or at least risk) in which the hostage has been placed. Stockholm syndrome is also sometimes discussed in reference to other situations with similar tensions, such as battered person syndrome, child abuse cases, and bride kidnapping.
  
* '''[[artemisia vulgaris]]''' - noun European tufted aromatic perennial herb having hairy red or purple stems and dark green leaves downy white below and red-brown florets
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* '''[[Synaesthesiae]]''' -(also spelled synæsthesia, synaesthesia, or synesthesia -- plural synesthesiae) -- from the Greek syn- meaning union and aesthesis meaning sensation -- is a neurological condition in which two or more bodily senses are coupled.
  
* '''[[artichoke]]''' - noun a thistlelike flower head with edible fleshy leaves and heart; Mediterranean thistlelike plant widely cultivated for its large edible flower head
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* '''[[Telegrammatic or telegraphic speech]]''' - In telegraphic speech conjunctions and articles are missed out; meaning is retained and few words are used.
  
* '''[[artocarpus altilis]]''' - noun native to Pacific islands and having edible fruit with a texture like bread
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* '''[[Thought Sonorization]]''' - A combined term for #Gedankenlautwerden and #Écho de la pensée
  
* '''[[asafoetida]]''' - noun the brownish gum resin of various plants; has strong taste and odor; formerly used as an antispasmodic
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* '''[[Torpor]]''' -Torpor in psychopathology is usually taken to mean profound inactivity not caused by reduction in consciousness.
  
* '''[[asarum]]''' - noun wild ginger
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* '''[[Verstimmung]]''' - It refers to an ill humoured mood state often accompanied by low mood and depressive symptoms. The people surrounding the patient often feel upset by this.
  
* '''[[asarum canadense]]''' - noun deciduous low-growing perennial of Canada and eastern and central United States
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* '''[[Vorbeigehen; Vorbeireden]]''' - In vorbeigehen or vorbeireden, a patient will answer a question in such a way that one can tell the patient understood the question, although the answer itself may be very obviously wrong. For example "how many legs does a dog have?" - "six". This condition occurs in Ganser syndrome and has been observed in prisoners awaiting trial. Vorbeigehen (giving approximate answers) was the original term used by Ganser but Vorbeireden (talking past the point) is the term generally in use (Goldin 1955). This behaviour is also seen in people trying to feign psychiatric disorders (hence association with prisioners)
  
* '''[[asarum europaeum]]''' - noun thick creeping evergreen herb of western Europe
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* '''[[Wahneinfall]]''' - Wahneinfall is alternate term for autochthonous delusions. This is one of the types of primary delusions in which a firm belief comes into the patient's mind 'out of the blue' or as an intution , hence called delusional intuition. Other types of primary delusions include delusional mood (or atmosphere), delusional (apophanous perception) and delusional memories.
  
* '''[[ascophyllum]]''' - noun brown algae distinguished by compressed or inflated branchlets along the axis
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* '''[[Word-salad]]''' -(from the German Wortsalat) is characterized by confused, and often repetitious, language with no apparent meaning or relationship attached to them. It is often symptomatic of various mental illnesses, such as psychoses, including schizophrenia.
  
* '''[[asimina]]''' - noun pawpaw
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* '''[[Wurgstimme]]''' - Wurgstimme refers to speaking in an odd muffled or strangled voice. It is mainly seen in schizophrenia. Click hereto listen to an example.
  
* '''[[asimina triloba]]''' - noun small tree native to the eastern United States having oblong leaves and fleshy fruit
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* '''[[Witzelsücht]]''' - Witzelsücht is a tendency to tell inappropriate joke and creating excessive facetiousness and inappropriate or pointless humor. It is seen in Frontal lobe disorders usually along with #moria. Recent research has shown that it may also be seen in frontotemporal dementia.
  
* '''[[asparagus]]''' - noun edible young shoots of the asparagus plant; plant whose succulent young shoots are cooked and eaten as a vegetable
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A
  
* '''[[asparagus bean]]''' - noun South American bean having very long succulent pods
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* '''[[Abreaction]]'''
  
* '''[[astragalus]]''' - noun large genus of annual or perennial herbs or shrubs of north temperate regions; largest genus in the family Leguminosae; the bone in the ankle that articulates with the leg bones to form the ankle joint
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Abreaction is a process of vividly reliving repressed memories and emotions related to a past event. Sigmund Freud used hypnosis to rid his patients of pathological memories through abreaction.
  
* '''[[atole]]''' - noun eaten as mush or as a thin gruel
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* '''[[Abulia]]'''
  
* '''[[atriplex hortensis]]''' - noun Asiatic plant resembling spinach often used as a potherb; naturalized in Europe and North America
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Aboulia or Abulia, in neurology, refers to a lack of will or initiative. The individual is unable to act or make decisions independently. The condition may range from subtle to overwhelming in severity.
  
* '''[[attalea]]''' - noun unarmed feather palms of central and northern South America
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* '''[[Achromatopsia]]'''
  
* '''[[australia]]''' - noun a nation occupying the whole of the Australian continent; aboriginal tribes are thought to have migrated from southeastern Asia 20,000 years ago; first Europeans were British convicts sent there as a penal colony; the smallest continent; between the South Pacific and the Indian Ocean
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Achromatopsia is a term referring to or acquired agnosia for color. This term includes color blindness. Achromatopsia is a condition characterized by a partial or total absence of color vision. People with complete achromatopsia cannot perceive any colors; they see only black, white, and shades of gray. Incomplete achromatopsia is a milder form of the condition that allows some color discrimination.
  
* '''[[autolysis]]''' - noun lysis of plant or animal tissue by an internal process
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Achromatopsia also involves other problems with vision, including an increased sensitivity to light and glare (photophobia), involuntary back-and-forth eye movements (nystagmus), and significantly reduced sharpness of vision (low visual acuity). Affected individuals can also have farsightedness (hyperopia) or, less commonly, nearsightedness (myopia). These vision problems develop in the first few months of life.
  
* '''[[avena]]''' - noun oats
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Achromatopsia is different from the more common forms of color vision deficiency (also called color blindness), in which people can perceive color but have difficulty distinguishing between certain colors, such as red and green.
  
* '''[[avena sativa]]''' - noun widely cultivated in temperate regions for its edible grains
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* '''[[Affect illusion]]'''
  
* '''[[averrhoa bilimbi]]''' - noun East Indian evergreen tree bearing very acid fruit
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Illusions, or misperceptions associated with or based on changes with mood; for example, at midnight a person may take a shadow as a ghost, but in the early part of night this may not be the case.
  
* '''[[averrhoa carambola]]''' - noun East Indian tree bearing deeply ridged yellow-brown fruit
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* '''[[Akataphasia]]'''
  
* '''[[avocado]]''' - adj. of the dull yellowish green of the meat of an avocado; noun a pear-shaped tropical fruit with green or blackish skin and rich yellowish pulp enclosing a single large seed; tropical American tree bearing large pulpy green fruits
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Akataphasia (Kraepelin 1896) refers to a syntactic disturbance of speech resulting from dissolution of logical ordering of thoughts. It manifests as rambling speech. Compare Derailment.
  
* '''[[azadirachta indica]]''' - noun large semi-evergreen tree of the East Indies; trunk exudes a tenacious gum; bitter bark used as a tonic; seeds yield an aromatic oil; sometimes placed in genus Melia
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* '''[[Akathisia]]'''
  
* '''[[babassu oil]]''' - noun fatty oil from kernels of babassu nuts similar to coconut oil
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Main article: Akathisia
  
* '''[[bacchus]]''' - noun (classical mythology) god of wine; equivalent of Dionysus
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Akathisia refers to a subjective feeling of restlessness in the lower limbs that is related to abnormal activity in the extrapyramidal system in the brain, often due to antipsychotic medication. It tends to manifest as an inability to sit still.
  
* '''[[bail]]''' - noun the legal system that allows an accused person to be temporarily released from custody (usually on condition that a sum of money guarantees their appearance at trial); (criminal law) money that must be forfeited by the bondsman if an accused person fails to appear in court for trial; verb remove (water) from a vessel with a container; empty (a vessel) by bailing; secure the release of (someone) by providing security; deliver something in trust to somebody for a special purpose and for a limited period; release after a security has been paid
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* '''[[Alexithymia]]'''
  
* '''[[baked potato]]''' - noun potato that has been cooked by baking it in an oven
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Main article: Alexithymia
  
* '''[[bakery]]''' - noun a workplace where baked goods (breads and cakes and pastries) are produced or sold
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Alexithymia refers to an inability to identify and describe emotions in the self.
  
* '''[[baking chocolate]]''' - noun pure unsweetened chocolate used in baking and icings and sauces and candy
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* '''[[Alice in Wonderland experience]]'''
  
* '''[[baklava]]''' - noun rich Middle Eastern cake made of thin layers of flaky pastry filled with nuts and honey
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Main article: Alice in Wonderland syndrome
  
* '''[[baldwin]]''' - noun an American eating apple with red or yellow and red skin; English statesman; member of the Conservative Party (1867-1947); United States author who was an outspoken critic of racism (1924-1987)
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In Alice in Wonderland experience, individuals perceive objects (including animals and other humans, or parts of humans, animals, or objects) as appearing substantially smaller than in reality. Generally, the object appears far away or extremely close at the same time. Alternate term for this is * '''[[somaesthetic aura]]'''. Also see Lilliputian hallucinations
  
* '''[[balsam]]''' - noun an ointment containing a fragrant resin; any seed plant yielding balsam; any of various fragrant oleoresins used in medicines and perfumes
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* '''[[Alliteration]]'''
  
* '''[[balsam of peru]]''' - noun dark brown syrupy balsam from the Peruvian balsam tree used especially in dressing wounds and treating certain skin diseases
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Main article: Alliteration
  
* '''[[bamboo]]''' - noun woody tropical grass having hollow woody stems; mature canes used for construction and furniture; the hard woody stems of bamboo plants; used in construction and crafts and fishing poles
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Alliteration is the repetition of initial consonant sounds in neighbouring words. For example, "When I struck and slapped my humble horse, he began to run rapidly."
  
* '''[[bamboo shoot]]''' - noun edible young shoots of bamboo
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* '''[[Alogia]]'''
  
* '''[[banana]]''' - noun elongated crescent-shaped yellow fruit with soft sweet flesh; any of several tropical and subtropical treelike herbs of the genus Musa having a terminal crown of large entire leaves and usually bearing hanging clusters of elongated fruits
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Main article: Alogia
  
* '''[[banana boat]]''' - noun a ship designed to transport bananas
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Literally, this term means "not having words". The term may refer to either "poverty of speech" or "poverty of thought". In the former, speech, though adequate in verbiage, conveys very little information and may consist of stock phrases or vague references. In poverty of thought, by contrast, there is a far-reaching impoverishment of the entire thinking of the individual, who, as a result, says very little. It is typically a negative symptom of schizophrenia, although it may also be seen in advanced dementia.
  
* '''[[banana bread]]''' - noun moist bread containing banana pulp
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* '''[[Amok]]'''
  
* '''[[banana peel]]''' - noun the skin of a banana (especially when it is stripped off and discarded)
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Main article: Running amok
  
* '''[[banana split]]''' - noun a banana split lengthwise and topped with scoops of ice cream and sauces and nuts and whipped cream
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The phrase "running amok" describes the behavior of an individual, who is very agitated and can become a danger to others and himself. The syndrome of "Amok" is found in the DSM-IV TR.
  
* '''[[barbarea]]''' - noun biennial or perennial herbs of north temperate regions: winter cress
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* '''[[Anhedonia]]'''
  
* '''[[barbarea verna]]''' - noun of southwestern Europe; cultivated in Florida
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Main article: Anhedonia
  
* '''[[barbarossa]]''' - noun Barbary pirate (died in 1546); Holy Roman Emperor from 1152 to 1190; conceded supremacy to the pope; drowned leading the Third Crusade (1123-1190)
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Anhedonia refers to an inability to experience pleasure, and may be described as a feeling of emotional emptiness. It can be a negative symptom of schizophrenia. It also may be seen in severe depressive states and schizoid personality disorder.
  
* '''[[barley]]''' - noun a grain of barley; cultivated since prehistoric times; grown for forage and grain
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* '''[[Anosognosia]]'''
  
* '''[[baroque]]''' - adj. having elaborate symmetrical ornamentation; noun elaborate and extensive ornamentation in decorative art and architecture that flourished in Europe in the 17th century
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Main article: Anosognosia
  
* '''[[barrel]]''' - noun a cylindrical container that holds liquids; a tube through which a bullet travels when a gun is fired; any of various units of capacity; the quantity that a barrel (of any size) will hold; a bulging cylindrical shape; hollow with flat ends; verb put in barrels
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Anosognosia is a condition in which a person who suffers certain disability seems unaware of the existence of his or her disability. Hemiasomatognosia is a subtype of anosognosia in which the person suffering from hemiplegia neglects one half of his body.
  
* '''[[basil]]''' - noun leaves of the common basil; used fresh or dried; (Roman Catholic Church) the bishop of Caesarea who defended the Roman Catholic Church against the heresies of the 4th century; a saint and Doctor of the Church (329-379); any of several Old World tropical aromatic annual or perennial herbs of the genus Ocimum
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* '''[[Anton's syndrome]]'''
  
* '''[[baum]]''' - noun United States writer of children's books (1856-1919)
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Main article: Anton-Babinski syndrome
  
* '''[[bay leaf]]''' - noun dried leaf of the bay laurel
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Anton syndrome, occasionally known as Anton-Babinski syndrome, is a form of cortical blindness in which the individual denies the visual impairment. The individual may attempt to walk, bumping into objects and injuring himself. Anton syndrome is caused by damaging the occipital lobes bilaterally or from disrupting the pathway from the primary visual cortex into the visual association cortex.
  
* '''[[beacon]]''' - noun a tower with a light that gives warning of shoals to passing ships; a fire (usually on a hill or tower) that can be seen from a distance; a radio station that broadcasts a directional signal for navigational purposes; verb guide with a beacon; shine like a beacon
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* '''[[Anwesenheit]]'''
  
* '''[[bean]]''' - noun any of various edible seeds of plants of the family Leguminosae used for food; any of various leguminous plants grown for their edible seeds and pods; any of various seeds or fruits that are beans or resemble beans; informal terms for a human head; verb hit on the head, especially with a pitched baseball
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Anwesenheit refers to the feeling of presence of something or some person. It can be seen in normal grief reaction, schizophrenia and some emotionally arousing situations.
  
* '''[[bean dip]]''' - noun a dip made of cooked beans
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* '''[[Apophanous perception]]'''
  
* '''[[bear claw]]''' - noun claw of a bear; often used in jewelry; an incised design resembling the claw of a bear; used in Native American pottery; almond-flavored yeast-raised pastry shaped in an irregular semicircle resembling a bear's claw
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This is an alternate term for delusional perception. It is one of the Schneiderian first rank symptoms and is defined as a true perception, to which an individual attributes a false meaning. For example, a person may see written "No Trespassing" on a board and may infer from this that intelligence agencies are spying on him.
  
* '''[[beech]]''' - noun any of several large deciduous trees with rounded spreading crowns and smooth grey bark and small sweet edible triangular nuts enclosed in burs; north temperate regions; wood of any of various beech trees; used for flooring and containers and plywood and tool handles
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* '''[[Aphemia]]'''
  
* '''[[beefsteak tomato]]''' - noun any of several large tomatoes with thick flesh
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Aphemia is the alternate term for mutism. Mutism is absence of speech with apparently normal level of consciousness. Mutism can be dissociative (hysterical) in which an individual (commonly a child or adolescent) stops speaking at once without involvement of any neurological or physical contributing factor; or it can be elective (selective) in which a child does not speak at all in certain situations (such as in school) but speaks well in other conditions (like at home or at play). A rare cause of mutism is akinetic mutism which results due to a lesion around the 3rd ventricle of the brain.
  
* '''[[beep]]''' - noun a short high tone produced as a signal or warning; verb call, summon, or alert with a beeper; make a loud noise
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* '''[[Apperception]]'''
  
* '''[[beetroot]]''' - noun beet having a massively swollen red root; widely grown for human consumption; round red root vegetable
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Apperception is a normal phenomenon and refers to the ability to understand sensory inputs in their context, to interpret them and to incorporate them into experience. Failure of apperception is seen in delirious states.
  
* '''[[bell pepper]]''' - noun large bell-shaped sweet pepper in green or red or yellow or orange or black varieties; plant bearing large mild thick-walled usually bell-shaped fruits; the principal salad peppers
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* '''[[Astasia-abasia]]'''
  
* '''[[bellini]]''' - noun Italian composer of operas (1801-1835)
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Main article: Astasia-abasia
  
* '''[[benzoin]]''' - noun used in some classifications for the American spicebush and certain other plants often included in the genus Lindera; gum resin used especially in treating skin irritation
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Astasia-abasia is a form of psychogenic gait disturbance in which gait becomes impaired in the absence of any neurological or physical pathology. The person usually walks in a bizarre manner. They stagger and appear as if going to fall, but always manage to catch hold of something in time. Sometimes these people cannot even stand, but on the other hand they are well able to move their legs while lying down or sitting. Often associated with conversion disorder or somatization disorder.
  
* '''[[berberis canadensis]]''' - noun deciduous shrub of eastern North America whose leaves turn scarlet in autumn and having racemes of yellow flowers followed by ellipsoid glossy red berries
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* '''[[Asyndesis]]'''
  
* '''[[berberis vulgaris]]''' - noun upright deciduous European shrub widely naturalized in United States having clusters of juicy berries
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Alternate term for loosening of association. A milder form of derailment of thought, it is marked by the individual leaping from topic to topic which have only the most tenuous, if any, connection with each other. This is in contrast with flight of ideas, whereby the individual's successive ideas may be linked and "understandable" to the listener. See also Akataphasia and Entgleisen term introduced by (Cameron).
  
* '''[[bergamot orange]]''' - noun small tree with pear-shaped fruit whose oil is used in perfumery; Italy
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* '''[[Autism]]'''
  
* '''[[bertholletia excelsa]]''' - noun tall South American tree bearing brazil nuts
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From aut ="self" and -ism = state or orientation. Originally, Eugen Bleuler used this term to describe schizophrenia. In general, it refers to any (pathological) tendency to be self-absorbed to such a degree that the feelings, thoughts and desires of a person are governed by his internal apprehension of the world and not by an external reality shared with others.
  
* '''[[beta]]''' - adj. preliminary or testing stage of a software or hardware product; second in order of importance; noun the 2nd letter of the Greek alphabet; beets
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Today the term is used most often to refer to a specific developmental syndrome (see autism spectrum).:p. 76
  
* '''[[beta vulgaris]]''' - noun biennial Eurasian plant usually having a swollen edible root; widely cultivated as a food crop
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* '''[[Autistic thinking]]'''
  
* '''[[betel]]''' - noun Asian pepper plant whose dried leaves are chewed with betel nut (seed of the betel palm) by southeast Asians
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Autistic thinking is a term used to refer to thinking not in accordance with consensus reality that emphasizes preoccupation with inner experience. See also #Dereistic thinking. More generally, it means thinking that is guided by internal wishes and desires regardless of external real-world factors.:p. 76
  
* '''[[betula alleghaniensis]]''' - noun tree of eastern North America with thin lustrous yellow or grey bark
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* '''[[Autochthonous delusion]]'''
  
* '''[[betula nigra]]''' - noun birch of swamps and river bottoms throughout the eastern United States having reddish-brown bark
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Main article: Delusional intuition
  
* '''[[beverage]]''' - noun any liquid suitable for drinking
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Jaspers defined this as a delusion arising without apparent cause. For example, suddenly, without apparent cause, having the delusional belief that you are an alien.
  
* '''[[bialy]]''' - noun flat crusty-bottomed onion roll
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* '''[[Autokabalesis]]'''
  
* '''[[bigos]]''' - noun a Polish stew of cabbage and meat
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Main article: Autokabalesis
  
* '''[[bing cherry]]''' - noun dark red or blackish sweet cherry
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Autokabalesis is a term for committing suicide by jumping from a very high place.
  
* '''[[bird cherry]]''' - noun any of several small-fruited cherry trees frequented or fed on by birds
+
* '''[[Automatic obedience]]'''
  
* '''[[biryani]]''' - noun an Indian dish made with highly seasoned rice and meat or fish or vegetables
+
Automatic obedience is an exaggerated co-operation with an examiner's request, as if the individual were an 'automaton' robotically obeying a command. It is often a sign of catatonia.
  
* '''[[biscuit]]''' - noun small round bread leavened with baking-powder or soda; any of various small flat sweet cakes (`biscuit' is the British term)
+
* '''[[Automatism]]'''
  
* '''[[bismarck]]''' - noun capital of the state of North Dakota; located in south central North Dakota overlooking the Missouri river; German statesman under whose leadership Germany was united (1815-1898)
+
Automatisms are sequences of activity that occur without conscious control. They may be simple and repetitive (tic-like) or complex, and are usually natural-looking but purposeless; for example, repeatedly going through the motions of buttering a piece of bread when there is no bread there. Automatic behaviour is not usually recalled afterwards.
  
* '''[[bitter almond]]''' - noun almond trees having white blossoms and poisonous nuts yielding an oil used for flavoring and for medicinal purposes
+
* '''[[Autoscopy]]'''
  
* '''[[bitter orange]]''' - noun highly acidic orange used especially in marmalade; any of various common orange trees yielding sour or bitter fruit; used as grafting stock
+
Autoscopy is the reduplicative hallucination of "seeing one's own body at a distance" and the person sees it from the place where he or she is located. Autoscopy is sometimes used synonymously with out-of-body experience.
  
* '''[[bitterroot]]''' - noun showy succulent ground-hugging plant of Rocky Mountains regions having deep to pale pink flowers and fleshy farinaceous roots; the Montana state flower
+
* '''[[Avolition]]'''
  
* '''[[black pepper]]''' - noun pepper that is ground from whole peppercorns with husks on; climber having dark red berries (peppercorns) when fully ripe; southern India and Sri Lanka; naturalized in northern Burma and Assam
+
Main article: Avolition
  
* '''[[black rot]]''' - noun a fungous disease causing darkening and decay of the leaves of fruits and vegetables
+
Avolition is an inability to initiate and complete goal-directed behaviour. It can sometimes be misinterpreted as laziness, but it is actually a negative symptom of schizophrenia.
  
* '''[[blackheart]]''' - noun heart cherry with dark flesh and skin cherry; any of various diseases in which the central tissues blacken
+
* '''[[Belle indifference]]'''
  
* '''[[blackleg]]''' - noun someone who works (or provides workers) during a strike; verb take the place of work of someone on strike
+
Belle indifference or la belle indifférence is characterized by a lack of concern and/or feeling of indifference about a disability or symptom. It can be seen in conversion disorder.
  
* '''[[blanc]]''' - noun a white sauce of fat, broth, and vegetables (used especially with braised meat)
+
* '''[[Bouffée délirante]]'''
  
* '''[[blancmange]]''' - noun sweet almond-flavored milk pudding thickened with gelatin or cornstarch; usually molded
+
Bouffée délirante is a French term used in the past for acute and transient psychotic disorders (F23 in ICD-10). In DSM-IV, it is described as Brief Psychotic Disorder (298.8). The symptoms usually have an acute onset and reach their peak within two weeks. The symptoms start resolving in a few weeks and complete recovery usually occurs within 2–3 months.
  
* '''[[blueberry]]''' - noun sweet edible dark-blue berries of either low-growing or high-growing blueberry plants; any of numerous shrubs of the genus Vaccinium bearing blueberries
+
* '''[[Brain fag syndrome]]'''
  
* '''[[blueberry pie]]''' - noun pie containing blueberries and sugar
+
Brain fag syndrome is an example of a culture-bound syndrome. "Brain fag" was once a common term for mental exhaustion. Today, the syndrome describes students (predominantly males, particularly in West Africa) experiencing symptoms including somatic, sleep-related and cognitive complaints, head and neck pains, difficulty in concentrating and retaining information, and eye pain.
  
* '''[[boeuf]]''' - noun meat from an adult domestic bovine
+
* '''[[Brain Fog]]'''
  
* '''[[bok choy]]''' - noun elongated head of dark green leaves on thick white stalks; Asiatic plant grown for its cluster of edible white stalks with dark green leaves
+
Brain fog is another term for clouding of consciousness.
  
* '''[[bombay]]''' - noun a city in western India just off the coast of the Arabian Sea; India's 2nd largest city (after Calcutta); has the only natural deep-water harbor in western India
+
* '''[[Bruxism]]'''
  
* '''[[bonbon]]''' - noun a candy that usually has a center of fondant or fruit or nuts coated in chocolate
+
Bruxism refers to teeth grinding behaviour that is usually seen in children.
  
* '''[[book]]''' - noun physical objects consisting of a number of pages bound together; a number of sheets (ticket or stamps etc.) bound together on one edge; a major division of a long written composition; a written work or composition that has been published (printed on pages bound together); a collection of rules or prescribed standards on the basis of which decisions are made; a collection of playing cards satisfying the rules of a card game; the sacred writings of the Christian religions; the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina; a compilation of the known facts regarding something or someone; a written version of a play or other dramatic composition; used in preparing for a performance; a record in which commercial accounts are recorded; verb engage for a performance; record a charge in a police register; register in a hotel booker; arrange for and reserve (something for someone else) in advance
+
* '''[[Capgras' syndrome or Illusion des sosies]]'''
  
* '''[[borage]]''' - noun leaves flavor sauces and punches; young leaves eaten in salads or cooked; hairy blue-flowered European annual herb long used in herbal medicine and eaten raw as salad greens or cooked like spinach
+
In Capgras syndrome, the individual feels that a person familiar to him, usually a family member has been replaced by an imposter. This is a type of delusion that can be experienced as part of schizophrenia. Capgras Syndrome and several other related disorders are referred to as delusional misidentification syndrome.
  
* '''[[borassus]]''' - noun palmyra
+
* '''[[Catalepsy]]'''
  
* '''[[borassus flabellifer]]''' - noun tall fan palm of Africa and India and Malaysia yielding a hard wood and sweet sap that is a source of palm wine and sugar; leaves used for thatching and weaving
+
Main article: Catalepsy
  
* '''[[borges]]''' - noun Argentinian writer remembered for his short stories (1899-1986)
+
Catalepsy is the term for catatonic rigidity of the limbs which often results in abnormal posturing for long intervals.
  
* '''[[borscht]]''' - noun a Russian soup usually containing beet juice as a foundation
+
* '''[[Cataplexy]]'''
  
* '''[[boston baked beans]]''' - noun dried navy beans baked slowly with molasses and salt pork
+
Cataplexy involves a sudden loss of muscle tone, and is generally precipitated by a sudden emotional response.
  
* '''[[boston cream pie]]''' - noun layer cake filled with custard
+
* '''[[Catatonia]]'''
  
* '''[[botanist]]''' - noun a biologist specializing in the study of plants
+
Catatonia involves a significant psychomotor disturbance, which can occur as catalepsy, stupor, excessive purposeless motor activity, extreme negativism (seemingly motiveless resistance to movement), mutism, echolalia (imitating speech), or echopraxia (imitating movements). There is a catatonic subtype of schizophrenia.
  
* '''[[botany]]''' - noun the branch of biology that studies plants; all the plant life in a particular region or period
+
* '''[[Cerea flexibilitas]]'''
  
* '''[[bottle]]''' - noun a glass or plastic vessel used for storing drinks or other liquids; typically cylindrical without handles and with a narrow neck that can be plugged or capped; a vessel fitted with a flexible teat and filled with milk or formula; used as a substitute for breast feeding infants and very young children; the quantity contained in a bottle; verb put into bottles; store (liquids or gases) in bottles
+
Cerea flexibilitas, meaning "waxy flexibility", refers to people allowing themselves to be placed in postures by others, and then maintaining those postures for long periods even if they are obviously uncomfortable. It is characterized by an individual's movements having the feeling of a plastic resistance, as if the person were made of wax. This occurs in catatonic schizophrenia, and a person suffering from this condition can have his limbs placed in fixed positions as if the person were in fact made from wax.
  
* '''[[bounty]]''' - noun a ship of the British navy; in 1789 part of the crew mutinied against their commander William Bligh and set him afloat in an open boat; generosity evidenced by a willingness to give freely; payment or reward (especially from a government) for acts such as catching criminals or killing predatory animals or enlisting in the military; the property of copious abundance
+
* '''[[Chorea]]'''
  
* '''[[boysenberry]]''' - noun large raspberry-flavored fruit; cross between blackberries and raspberries; cultivated hybrid bramble of California having large dark wine-red fruit with a flavor resembling raspberries
+
Main article: Chorea (disease)
  
* '''[[brachychiton populneus]]''' - noun widely distributed tree of eastern Australia yielding a tough durable fiber and soft light attractively grained wood; foliage is an important emergency food for cattle
+
Chorea is manifest by abnormal involuntary movements. The term comes from Greek word "choreia" as meaning dance, since large groups of muscles are usually involved, which leads to writhing dance-like movements.
  
* '''[[bracken]]''' - noun large coarse fern often several feet high; essentially weed ferns; cosmopolitan; fern of southeastern Asia; not hardy in cold temperate regions
+
* '''[[Circumstantial speech]]'''
  
* '''[[bran]]''' - noun food prepared from the husks of cereal grains; broken husks of the seeds of cereal grains that are separated from the flour by sifting
+
Circumstantial thinking, or circumstantial speech, refers to a person being unable to answer a question without giving excessive, unnecessary detail. This differs from tangential thinking, in that the person does eventually return to the original point, circling back on-topic.
  
* '''[[brand]]''' - noun a recognizable kind; identification mark on skin, made by burning; a piece of wood that has been burned or is burning; a cutting or thrusting weapon that has a long metal blade and a hilt with a hand guard; a symbol of disgrace or infamy; a name given to a product or service; verb burn with a branding iron to indicate ownership; of animals; mark or expose as infamous; to accuse or condemn or openly or formally or brand as disgraceful
+
* '''[[Clang association]]'''
  
* '''[[brandy]]''' - noun distilled from wine or fermented fruit juice
+
Clang associations are ideas that are related only by similar or rhyming sounds rather than actual meaning. Example: "He ate the skate, inflated yesterdays gate toward the cheese grater."
  
* '''[[brasenia]]''' - noun alternatively, a member of the family Nymphaeaceae
+
* '''[[Claparede's paradox]]'''
  
* '''[[brassica juncea]]''' - noun Asiatic mustard used as a potherb
+
Claparede's paradox refers to retention of non-verbal and implicit memory in sufferers of Korsakoff's syndrome.
  
* '''[[brassica nigra]]''' - noun widespread Eurasian annual plant cultivated for its pungent seeds; a principal source of table mustard
+
* '''[[Clouding of consciousness]]'''
  
* '''[[brassica rapa]]''' - noun widely cultivated plant having a large fleshy edible white or yellow root
+
Clouding of consciousness, also known as brain fog or mental fog, is a global impairment in higher central nervous functioning. All aspects of cognitive functioning are affected. On mental status examination it is manifest by disorientation in time, place and person, memory difficulties caused by failure to register and recall, aphasia, and agnosia. Impaired perception functioning leads to illusions and hallucinations often in the visual sensory modality. This then causes agitation and distress and secondary delusions. The term 'confusion state' is sometimes used to mean clouding of consciousness, but should be avoided if at all possible because it is ambiguous.
  
* '''[[brazil nut]]''' - noun three-sided tropical American nut with white oily meat and hard brown shell; tall South American tree bearing brazil nuts
+
* '''[[Coenestopathic state]]'''
  
* '''[[bread]]''' - noun food made from dough of flour or meal and usually raised with yeast or baking powder and then baked; informal terms for money; verb cover with bread crumbs
+
An individual in a coenestopathic state has a localized distortion of body awareness.
  
* '''[[breadfruit]]''' - noun a large round seedless or seeded fruit with a texture like bread; eaten boiled or baked or roasted or ground into flour; the roasted seeds resemble chestnuts; native to Pacific islands and having edible fruit with a texture like bread
+
* '''[[Confabulation]]'''
  
* '''[[breakaway]]''' - adj. having separated or advocating separation from another entity or policy or attitude; noun the act of breaking away or withdrawing from
+
Confabulation is the confusion of imagination with memory, and/or the confusion of true memories with false memories.
  
* '''[[british columbia]]''' - noun a province in western Canada
+
* '''[[Conversion disorder]]'''
  
* '''[[brittle]]''' - adj. having little elasticity; hence easily cracked or fractured or snapped; (of metal or glass) not annealed and consequently easily cracked or fractured; lacking warmth and generosity of spirit; noun caramelized sugar cooled in thin sheets
+
Conversion disorder involves the unintentional production of symptoms or deficits affecting motor or sensory function that are not fully explained by a neurological or medical condition. This can manifest as paralysis, for example. It generally involves psychological factors, and symptoms may worsen in the context of situational conflict.
  
* '''[[broad-bean]]''' - noun Old World upright plant grown especially for its large flat edible seeds but also as fodder
+
* '''[[Coprolalia]]'''
  
* '''[[broccoli]]''' - noun branched green undeveloped flower heads; plant with dense clusters of tight green flower buds
+
Coprolalia is the involuntary utterance of socially inappropriate phrases. It is a phonic tic associated with Tourette syndrome, although less than 15% of persons with Tourette's have coprolalia.
  
* '''[[brooks]]''' - noun United States literary critic and historian (1886-1963)
+
* '''[[Cotard delusion]]'''
  
* '''[[brown]]''' - adj. (of skin) deeply suntanned; of a color similar to that of wood or earth; noun an orange of low brightness and saturation; abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858); Scottish botanist who first observed the movement of small particles in fluids now known a Brownian motion (1773-1858); a university in Rhode Island; verb fry in a pan until it changes color
+
Cotard delusion involves the belief that one of the person's own bodily organs has changed in a bizarre way, has ceased functioning, or has disappeared. It is a type of delusion that can be experienced in schizophrenia.
  
* '''[[brown betty]]''' - noun baked pudding of apples and breadcrumbs
+
* '''[[Defenestration]]'''
  
* '''[[brown rice]]''' - noun unpolished rice retaining the yellowish-brown outer layer
+
Literally jumping out of window. Usually used in context of attempted or completed suicide. Also see Autokabalesis. |
  
* '''[[brussels sprout]]''' - noun plant grown for its stout stalks of edible small green heads resembling diminutive cabbages
+
* '''[[Déjà vu]]'''
  
* '''[[bryonia dioica]]''' - noun bryony having fleshy roots pale green flowers and very small red berries; Europe; North Africa; western Asia
+
In Déjà vu, a person feels undue familiarity to an event or a person. For example, he feels that the same thing has happened before or he or she has met this person before, etc.
  
* '''[[bubble and squeak]]''' - noun leftover cabbage and potatoes and meat fried together
+
* '''[[Déjà pensé]]'''
  
* '''[[buckwheat]]''' - noun grain ground into flour; a member of the genus Fagopyrum; annual Asian plant with clusters of small pinkish white flowers and small edible triangular seeds which are used whole or ground into flour
+
In Déjà pensé, a completely new thought sounds familiar to the person and he feels as he has thought the same thing before at some time.This feeling can be caused by seizures which occur in certain parts of the temporal lobe and possibly other areas of the brain as well.
  
* '''[[bullace]]''' - noun small wild or half-domesticated Eurasian plum bearing small ovoid fruit in clusters
+
* '''[[Dementia praecox]]'''
  
* '''[[bung]]''' - noun a plug used to close a hole in a barrel or flask; verb close with a cork or stopper; give a tip or gratuity to in return for a service, beyond the compensation agreed on
+
Main article: Dementia praecox
  
* '''[[burger]]''' - noun United States jurist appointed chief justice of the United States Supreme Court by Richard Nixon (1907-1995); a sandwich consisting of a fried cake of minced beef served on a bun, often with other ingredients
+
Dementia praecox refers to a chronic, deteriorating psychotic disorder characterized by rapid cognitive disintegration, usually beginning in the late teens or early adulthood.
  
* '''[[burnham]]''' - noun United States architect who designed the first important skyscraper with a skeleton (1846-1912)
+
* '''[[Dementia pugilistica]]'''
  
* '''[[burton]]''' - noun a strong dark English ale; Welsh film actor who often co-starred with Elizabeth Taylor (1925-1984); English explorer who with John Speke was the first European to explore Lake Tanganyika (1821-1890)
+
Main article: Dementia pugilistica
  
* '''[[butternut squash]]''' - noun buff-colored squash with a long usually straight neck and sweet orange flesh; plant bearing buff-colored squash having somewhat bottle-shaped fruit with fine-textured edible flesh and a smooth thin rind
+
Dementia pugilistica, also called "chronic traumatic encephalopathy", "pugilistic Parkinson's syndrome", "boxer's syndrome", and "punch-drunk syndrome", is a neurological disorder which affects career boxers and others who receive multiple dazing blows to the head. The condition develops over a period of years, with the average time of onset being about 16 years after the start of a career in boxing.
  
* '''[[cabbage]]''' - noun any of various types of cabbage; any of various cultivars of the genus Brassica oleracea grown for their edible leaves or flowers; informal terms for money; verb make off with belongings of others
+
* '''[[Derailment]]'''
  
* '''[[cabernet sauvignon]]''' - noun superior Bordeaux type of red wine
+
Main article: Derailment (thought disorder)
  
* '''[[caesar salad]]''' - noun typically having fried croutons and dressing made with a raw egg
+
Derailment, also known as loosening of associations, refers to disorganized thinking that jumps between ideas that seem entirely unrelated. Compare Akataphasia, Asyndesis, Entgleisen, Flight of ideas, Knight's Move thinking, and Logorrhoea. It can be seen in individuals with schizophrenia, as well as those experiencing mania.
  
* '''[[cajanus cajan]]''' - noun tropical woody herb with showy yellow flowers and flat pods; much cultivated in the tropics
+
* '''[[Dereistic thinking]]'''
  
* '''[[cake]]''' - noun a block of solid substance (such as soap or wax); made from or based on a mixture of flour and sugar and eggs; small flat mass of chopped food; verb form a coat over
+
Dereistic means: Away from reality, undirected fantasy thinking. Jung wrote “This is the basic activity of psychic life, this fantasy making", and he used the term “image” not from afterimage, something you've experienced or seen, but he says he takes it from poetic usage. Dereistic Thinking: An old descriptive term used to refer to thinking not in accordance with the facts of reality and experience and following illogical, idiosyncratic reasoning. This term is also used interchangeably with autistic thinking though they are not exact synonyms: * '''[[dereistic]]''' emphasizes disconnection from reality and * '''[[autistic]]''' emphasizes preoccupation with inner experience.
  
* '''[[calabash]]''' - noun a pipe for smoking; has a curved stem and a large bowl made from a calabash gourd; tropical American evergreen that produces large round gourds; round gourd of the calabash tree; bottle made from the dried shell of a bottle gourd; Old World climbing plant with hard-shelled bottle-shaped gourds as fruits
+
* '''[[Dermatozoenwahn]]'''
  
* '''[[calamus rotang]]''' - noun climbing palm of Sri Lanka and southern India remarkable for the great length of the stems which are used for malacca canes
+
Alternate term for organic hallucinosis and delusional parasitosis, the continuous belief that one's skin or body has been infested by parasites or insects. This state cannot be diagnosed if the hallucinatory state is produced while the individual is under the influence of drugs or alcohol, or if the individual fulfills the criterion for delirium. In general, if an individual is under the influence of a drug, or experiencing the symptoms of withdrawal from that drug, this condition is not psychiatric but medical, and termed formication.
  
* '''[[calendula officinalis]]''' - noun the common European annual marigold
+
* '''[[Dhat]]'''
  
* '''[[california]]''' - noun a state in the western United States on the Pacific; the 3rd largest state; known for earthquakes
+
Main article: Dhat syndrome
  
* '''[[calochortus amabilis]]''' - noun globe lily having open branched clusters of clear yellow egg-shaped flowers; northern California
+
In Dhat syndrome there is a complaint of premature ejaculation or impotence and a belief that semen is being passed in the urine.
  
* '''[[calochortus elegans]]''' - noun small plant with slender bent stems bearing branched clusters of a few white star-shaped flowers with petals shaped like cat's ears; southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon to Montana
+
* '''[[Doppelgänger]]'''
  
* '''[[calochortus nuttallii]]''' - noun perennial plant having clusters of one to four showy white bell-shaped flowers atop erect unbranched stems; edible bulbs useful in times of scarcity; eastern Montana and western North Dakota south to northern Arizona and northwestern New Mexico
+
Main article: Doppelgänger
  
* '''[[calvados]]''' - noun dry apple brandy made in Normandy
+
The Doppelgänger is a phenomenon in which the person feels that his exact “double” is present alongside him every time and goes with him wherever he goes.
  
* '''[[calypso bulbosa]]''' - noun rare north temperate bog orchid bearing a solitary white to pink flower marked with purple at the tip of an erect reddish stalk above 1 basal leaf
+
E
  
* '''[[camassia]]''' - noun genus of scapose herbs of North and South America having large edible bulbs
+
* '''[[Écho de la pensée]]'''
  
* '''[[camassia quamash]]''' - noun plant having a large edible bulb and linear basal leaves and racemes of light to deep violet-blue star-shaped flowers on tall green scapes; western North America
+
In écho de la pensée, meaning "thought echo" in French, thoughts seem to be spoken aloud just * '''[[after]]''' being produced. The individual hears the 'echo' of his thoughts in the form of a voice after he has made the thought. See also Gedankenlautwerden and Thought sonorization.
  
* '''[[cameo]]''' - noun engraving or carving in low relief on a stone (as in a brooch or ring)
+
* '''[[Entgleisen]]'''
  
* '''[[campanula rapunculus]]''' - noun bellflower of Europe and Asia and North Africa having bluish flowers and an edible tuberous root used with the leaves in salad
+
Literally means jumping off the rails. Alternate term used for derailment of thought (a morbid form of loosening of association or asyndesis). A Schneiderian term by origin. In this form of thought the individual jumps from one topic to another during conversation and both topics have literally no connection with each other. This is in contrast with flight of ideas where connection is present between one topic and another. Compare #Akataphasia, #Asyndesis, and #Derailment.
  
* '''[[campbell]]''' - noun United States mythologist (1904-1987)
+
* '''[[Extracampine]]'''
  
* '''[[camphor]]''' - noun a resin obtained from the camphor tree; used in making celluloid and liniment
+
Extracampine hallucinations are hallucinations beyond the possible sensory field, e.g., 'seeing' somebody standing behind you is a visual extracampine hallucination experience.
  
* '''[[cananga odorata]]''' - noun evergreen Asian tree with aromatic greenish-yellow flowers yielding a volatile oil; widely grown in the tropics as an ornamental
+
F
  
* '''[[canary grass]]''' - noun Canary Islands grass; seeds used as feed for caged birds
+
* '''[[Fantasy]]'''
  
* '''[[canavalia gladiata]]''' - noun twining tropical Old World plant bearing long pods usually with red or brown beans; long cultivated in Orient for food
+
Main article: Fantasy (psychology)
  
* '''[[candy]]''' - noun a rich sweet made of flavored sugar and often combined with fruit or nuts; verb coat with something sweet, such as a hard sugar glaze
+
Fantasy is imagining that expresses desires and aims.
  
* '''[[candy apple]]''' - noun an apple that is covered with a candy-like substance (usually caramelized sugar)
+
* '''[[Fatuous affect]]'''
  
* '''[[canella]]''' - noun highly aromatic inner bark of the Canella winterana used as a condiment and a tonic
+
The moods of an individual with fatuous affect resemble the moods of a child. This condition is seen in hebephrenic schizophrenia.
  
* '''[[canna indica]]''' - noun canna grown especially for its edible rootstock from which arrowroot starch is obtained
+
* '''[[Flight of ideas]]'''
  
* '''[[cannabis]]''' - noun the most commonly used illicit drug; considered a soft drug, it consists of the dried leaves of the hemp plant; smoked or chewed for euphoric effect; any plant of the genus Cannabis; a coarse bushy annual with palmate leaves and clusters of small green flowers; yields tough fibers and narcotic drugs
+
Flight of ideas describes excessive speech at a rapid rate that involves causal association between ideas. Links between ideas may involve usage of puns or rhymes. It is typical of mania, classically seen in bipolar disorder. Compare Derailment.
  
* '''[[canola oil]]''' - noun vegetable oil made from rapeseed
+
* '''[[Folie à deux]]'''
  
* '''[[canopy]]''' - noun a covering (usually of cloth) that serves as a roof to shelter an area from the weather; the umbrellalike part of a parachute that fills with air; the transparent covering of an aircraft cockpit; verb cover with a canopy
+
Main article: Folie à deux
  
* '''[[cantaloupe]]''' - noun a variety of muskmelon vine having fruit with a tan rind and orange flesh; the fruit of a cantaloup vine; small to medium-sized melon with yellowish flesh
+
Also called induced psychosis, folie à deux is a delusional disorder shared by two or more people who are closely related emotionally. One has real psychosis while the symptoms of psychosis are induced in the other or others due to close attachment to the one with psychosis. Separation usually results in symptomatic improvement in the one who is not psychotic.
  
* '''[[caper]]''' - noun a playful leap or hop; a crime (especially a robbery); pickled flower buds used as a pungent relish in various dishes and sauces; any of numerous plants of the genus Capparis; a ludicrous or grotesque act done for fun and amusement; gay or light-hearted recreational activity for diversion or amusement; verb jump about playfully
+
Folie communiquée, folie imposée, folie induite, and folie simultanée are the four subtypes of folie à deux.
  
* '''[[capparis mitchellii]]''' - noun small Australian tree bearing edible dark purple fruit
+
* '''[[Folie communiquée]]'''
  
* '''[[capsicum baccatum]]''' - noun plant bearing very small and very hot oblong red fruits; includes wild forms native to tropical America; thought to be ancestral to the sweet pepper and many hot peppers
+
Folie communiquée, or subtype C of folie à deux, occurs when a normal person suffers a contagion of his ideas after resisting them for a long time. Once he acquires these beliefs he maintains them despite separation.
  
* '''[[capsicum frutescens]]''' - noun plant bearing very hot medium-sized oblong red peppers; grown principally in the Gulf Coast states for production of hot sauce
+
* '''[[Folie imposée]]'''
  
* '''[[carabao]]''' - noun water buffalo of the Philippines
+
Folie imposée, or subtype A of folie a deux, is the most common form in which the dominant person imposes a delusion into a person who was not previously mentally ill. Separation of the two results in improvement of the non-dominant person.
  
* '''[[carafe]]''' - noun a bottle with a stopper; for serving wine or water
+
* '''[[Folie induite]]'''
  
* '''[[caragana arborescens]]''' - noun large spiny shrub of eastern Asia having clusters of yellow flowers; often cultivated in shelterbelts and hedges
+
In folie induite, or subtype D of folie a deux, a person who is already psychotic adds the delusions of a closely associated person to his own.
  
* '''[[carambola]]''' - noun deeply ridged yellow-brown tropical fruit; used raw as a vegetable or in salad or when fully ripe as a dessert; East Indian tree bearing deeply ridged yellow-brown fruit
+
* '''[[Folie simultanée]]'''
  
* '''[[caramel apple]]''' - noun an apple that is covered with a candy-like substance (usually caramelized sugar)
+
In folie simultanée, or subtype B of folie a deux, a delusional system emerges simultaneously and independently in two closely related persons, and the separation of the two would not be beneficial in the resolution of psychopathology.
  
* '''[[caraway]]''' - noun leaves used sparingly in soups and stews; a Eurasian plant with small white flowers yielding caraway seed
+
* '''[[Fregoli delusion]]'''
  
* '''[[carboy]]''' - noun a large bottle for holding corrosive liquids; usually cushioned in a special container
+
Main article: Fregoli delusion
  
* '''[[cardamine diphylla]]''' - noun North American herb with pungent scaly or toothed roots
+
In Fregoli delusion, the person has a delusional belief that various different people are in fact a certain other person, even if there is no physical resemblance.
  
* '''[[cardamom]]''' - noun aromatic seeds used as seasoning like cinnamon and cloves especially in pickles and barbecue sauces; rhizomatous herb of India having aromatic seeds used as seasoning
+
Fregoli syndrome is considered a form of delusional misidentification "in which the false identification of familiar people occurs in strangers".
  
* '''[[cardiff]]''' - noun the capital and largest city of Wales
+
* '''[[Gedankenlautwerden]]'''
  
* '''[[cardinal]]''' - adj. serving as an essential component; being or denoting a numerical quantity but not order; noun crested thick-billed North American finch having bright red plumage in the male; a variable color averaging a vivid red; (Roman Catholic Church) one of a group of more than 100 prominent bishops in the Sacred College who advise the Pope and elect new Popes; the number of elements in a mathematical set; denotes a quantity but not the order
+
In * '''[[Gedankenlautwerden]]''', an individual hears thoughts spoken aloud. Thoughts are heard in the form of a voice at the same time as they are thought, not afterwards. See also Écho de la pensée and Thought sonorization
  
* '''[[cardoon]]''' - noun only parts eaten are roots and especially stalks (blanched and used as celery); related to artichokes; southern European plant having spiny leaves and purple flowers cultivated for its edible leafstalks and roots
+
* '''[[Gegenhalten]]'''
  
* '''[[caribou]]''' - noun arctic deer with large antlers in both sexes; called `reindeer' in Eurasia and `caribou' in North America
+
Gegenhalten is a catatonic phenomenon in which the subject opposes all passive movements with the same degree of force as applied by the examiner. It is slightly different from negativism in which the subject does exactly the opposite to what is asked in addition to showing resistance.
  
* '''[[carica papaya]]''' - noun tropical American shrub or small tree having huge deeply palmately cleft leaves and large oblong yellow fruit
+
* '''[[Hemiasomatognosia]]'''
  
* '''[[carissa macrocarpa]]''' - noun very large closely branched South African shrub having forked bright green spines and shiny leaves
+
Hemiasomatognosia is a subtype of anosognosia in which the person suffering from hemiplegia neglects one half of his body.
  
* '''[[carnation]]''' - adj. pink or pinkish; noun a pink or reddish-pink color; Eurasian plant with pink to purple-red spice-scented usually double flowers; widely cultivated in many varieties and many colors
+
* '''[[Hyposchemazia; Aschemazia]]'''
  
* '''[[carob]]''' - noun powder from the ground seeds and pods of the carob tree; used as a chocolate substitute; evergreen Mediterranean tree with edible pods; the biblical carob; long pod containing small beans and sweetish edible pulp; used as animal feed and source of a chocolate substitute
+
Hyposchemazia is characterized by the reduced awareness of one's body image and Aschemazia by the absence of it. These disorders can have many varied causes such as physical injuries, mental disorders, or mental or physical states. These include transection of the spinal cord, parietal lobe lesions (e.g. right middle cerebral artery thrombosis), anxiety, depersonalization, epileptic auras, migraines, sensory deprivation, and vertigo (i.e. "floating on air").
  
* '''[[carpobrotus edulis]]''' - noun low-growing South African succulent plant having a capsular fruit containing edible pulp
+
* '''[[Idée fixe]]'''
  
* '''[[carrot]]''' - noun promise of reward as in "carrot and stick"; orange root; important source of carotene; perennial plant widely cultivated as an annual in many varieties for its long conical orange edible roots; temperate and tropical regions; deep orange edible root of the cultivated carrot plant
+
Idée fixe is an alternate term for an overvalued idea. In this condition, a belief that might seem reasonable both to the individual and to other people comes to dominate completely the individual's thinking and life.
  
* '''[[carrot juice]]''' - noun usually freshly squeezed juice of carrots
+
* '''[[Ideas of alienation]]'''
  
* '''[[carrot pudding]]''' - noun pudding made with grated carrots
+
Thoughts that one's own body part or action is not of one's own.
  
* '''[[carya glabra]]''' - noun an American hickory tree having bitter nuts
+
* '''[[Ideas of influence]]'''
  
* '''[[carya laciniosa]]''' - noun hickory of the eastern United States resembling the shagbark but having a much larger nut
+
Thoughts that one's own action is caused by someone else's will or some other external cause.
  
* '''[[carya myristiciformis]]''' - noun hickory of southern United States and Mexico having hard nutmeg-shaped nuts
+
* '''[[Ideas of reference]]'''
  
* '''[[carya ovata]]''' - noun North American hickory having loose grey shaggy bark and edible nuts
+
Main article: Ideas of reference and delusions of reference
  
* '''[[carya tomentosa]]''' - noun smooth-barked North American hickory with 7 to 9 leaflets bearing a hard-shelled edible nut
+
Ideas of reference are a delusional belief that general events are personally directed at oneself. For example, someone might believe that he or she is receiving messages from the TV that are directed especially at him or her.
  
* '''[[caryota urens]]''' - noun fishtail palm of India to Malay Peninsula; sap yields a brown sugar (jaggery) and trunk pith yields sago
+
* '''[[Illusion]]'''
  
* '''[[cascade]]''' - noun a succession of stages or operations or processes or units; a small waterfall or series of small waterfalls; a sudden downpour (as of tears or sparks etc) likened to a rain shower; verb arrange (open windows) on a computer desktop so that they overlap each other, with the title bars visible; rush down in big quantities, like a cascade
+
An illusion is a false perception of a detectable stimulus.
  
* '''[[cashew]]''' - noun kidney-shaped nut edible only when roasted; tropical American evergreen tree bearing kidney-shaped nuts that are edible only when roasted
+
* '''[[Jargon aphasia]]'''
  
* '''[[cassava]]''' - noun any of several plants of the genus Manihot having fleshy roots yielding a nutritious starch; cassava root eaten as a staple food after drying and leaching; source of tapioca; a starch made by leaching and drying the root of the cassava plant; the source of tapioca; a staple food in the tropics
+
Jargon aphasia is characterized by incoherent, meaningless speech with neologisms (newly invented words). These are unconscious thoughts that find expression when one is off one's guard and must be consciously repressed.
  
* '''[[castanea]]''' - noun chestnuts; chinkapins
+
* '''[[Klüver–Bucy syndrome]]'''
  
* '''[[castanea crenata]]''' - noun a spreading tree of Japan that has a short trunk
+
Main article: Klüver–Bucy syndrome
  
* '''[[castanea dentata]]''' - noun large tree found from Maine to Alabama
+
In Klüver–Bucy syndrome, an individual will display placidity, hyperorality, hypersexuality, and hyperphagia. This condition results from bilateral destruction of the amygdaloid bodies of the limbic system.
  
* '''[[castanea mollissima]]''' - noun a small tree with small sweet nuts; wild or naturalized in Korea and China
+
* '''[[Knight's Move thinking]]'''
  
* '''[[castanea pumila]]''' - noun shrubby chestnut tree of southeastern United States having small edible nuts
+
Knight's move thinking is a complete loosening of associations where there is no logical link between one idea and the next. Imagine a knight on a chessboard where the movement can be any L shaped direction, making it difficult to track. Compare Derailment.
  
* '''[[castanea sativa]]''' - noun wild or cultivated throughout southern Europe, northwestern Africa and southwestern Asia
+
* '''[[Koro]]'''
  
* '''[[castile soap]]''' - noun a good hard soap made from olive oil and sodium hydroxide
+
Main article: Koro (medicine)
  
* '''[[castilla]]''' - noun a region of central Spain; a former kingdom that comprised most of modern Spain and united with Aragon to form Spain in 1479
+
Koro is a culture-specific syndrome, generally seen only among Chinese people. It involves a panicked feeling that one's genitals are retracting into the abdomen, and that this will result in death.
  
* '''[[catawba]]''' - noun the Siouan language spoken by the Catawba; slipskin grape; a reddish American table grape; a member of the Siouan people formerly living in the Carolinas
+
* '''[[Kuru]]'''
  
* '''[[catechu]]''' - noun East Indian spiny tree having twice-pinnate leaves and yellow flowers followed by flat pods; source of black catechu; extract of the heartwood of Acacia catechu used for dying and tanning and preserving fishnets and sails; formerly used medicinally
+
Main article: Kuru (disease)
  
* '''[[cauliflower]]''' - noun compact head of white undeveloped flowers; a plant having a large edible head of crowded white flower buds
+
Kuru (also known as laughing sickness due to the outbursts of laughter that mark its second phase) was first noted in New Guinea in the early 1900s. Kuru is now known to be a prion disease, one of several known transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.
  
* '''[[celeriac]]''' - noun thickened edible aromatic root of a variety of celery plant; grown for its thickened edible aromatic root
+
* '''[[Latah]]'''
  
* '''[[celery]]''' - noun stalks eaten raw or cooked or used as seasoning; widely cultivated herb with aromatic leaf stalks that are eaten raw or cooked
+
Latah is a culture-specific syndrome usually seen in Southeast Asia and involves startle-induced disorganization, hypersuggestibility, automatic obedience, and echopraxia (a tendency to mimic examiner's or other person's actions). It is usually associated with women. There is controversy over whether Latah is a real psychiatric condition, or merely a display of exhibitionism that would otherwise not be socially acceptable.
  
* '''[[celosia]]''' - noun annual or perennial herbs or vines of tropical and subtropical America and Asia and Africa
+
* '''[[L'homme qui rit]]'''
  
* '''[[celosia argentea]]''' - noun weedy annual with spikes of silver-white flowers
+
In l'homme qui rit (from the French, meaning "The man who laughs"), an individual displays inappropriate laughter accompanied by release phenomena of the frontal subdominant lobe.
  
* '''[[celtuce]]''' - noun leaves having celery-like stems eaten raw or cooked; lettuce valued especially for its edible stems
+
* '''[[Lilliputian hallucinations]]'''
  
* '''[[cenchrus ciliaris]]''' - noun erect tussock-forming perennial bur grass used particularly in South Africa and Australia for pasture and forage
+
Main article: Alice in Wonderland syndrome
  
* '''[[centranthus ruber]]''' - noun European herb with small fragrant crimson or white spurred flowers
+
Lilliputian hallucinations are characterized by abnormal perception of objects as being shrunken in size but normal in detail. Usually seen in delirium tremens.
  
* '''[[cereal]]''' - adj. made of grain or relating to grain or the plants that produce it; noun a breakfast food prepared from grain; grass whose starchy grains are used as food: wheat; rice; rye; oats; maize; buckwheat; millet; foodstuff prepared from the starchy grains of cereal grasses
+
* '''[[Logoclonia]]'''
  
* '''[[chaenomeles]]''' - noun flowering quince
+
In logoclonia, the individual often repeats the last syllable of a word. Compare Echolalia. Often a symptom of Alzheimers or Parkinson's Disease.
  
* '''[[chamomile]]''' - noun Eurasian plant apple-scented foliage and white-rayed flowers and feathery leaves used medicinally; in some classification systems placed in genus Anthemis
+
* '''[[Logorrhoea]]'''
  
* '''[[champ]]''' - noun someone who has won first place in a competition; verb chafe at the bit, like horses; chew noisily
+
Logorrhoea, also known as "volubility", is characterized by fluent and rambling speech using numerous words. Compare Derailment.
  
* '''[[champion]]''' - adj. holding first place in a contest; noun someone who fights for a cause; someone who has won first place in a competition; someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field; a person who backs a politician or a team etc.; verb protect or fight for as a champion
+
* '''[[Mania]]'''
  
* '''[[chancellor]]''' - noun the honorary or titular head of a university; the person who is head of state (in several countries)
+
It's often mirrored as a minor image of depression. Mania is a state abnormally elevated arousal, affected, and energy level. As mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in anxiety or violence. Mania symptoms are elevated mood, flights of ideas, pressure of speech, increased energy, decreased need, desire sleep, and hyperactivity.
  
* '''[[chard]]''' - noun long succulent whitish stalks with large green leaves; beet lacking swollen root; grown as a vegetable for its edible leaves and stalks
+
* '''[[Mania a potu]]'''
  
* '''[[chardonnay]]''' - noun dry white table wine resembling Chablis but made from Chardonnay grapes; white wine grape
+
Mania a potu is an alcohol intoxication state with violent and markedly disinhibited behavior. This condition is different from violent behavior in otherwise normal individuals who are intoxicated.
  
* '''[[charlotte]]''' - noun a mold lined with cake or crumbs and filled with fruit or whipped cream or custard; the largest city in North Carolina; located in south central North Carolina
+
* '''[[Metonymy]]'''
  
* '''[[chartreuse]]''' - adj. of something having the yellowish green color of Chartreuse liqueur; noun aromatic green or yellow liqueur flavored with orange peel and hyssop and peppermint; made at monastery near Grenoble, France; a shade of green tinged with yellow
+
Speech disturbance in which patients, commonly schizophrenia, use inappropriate words or expressions that are related to the proper ones. Examples include: consume a menu, instead of a meal; lose the piece of string of the conversation, not the thread of the conversation. See also word approximation.
  
* '''[[cheerio]]''' - noun a farewell remark
+
* '''[[Mitgehen]]'''
  
* '''[[chenin blanc]]''' - noun made in California and the Loire valley in France; white grape grown especially in California and the lower Loire valley of France
+
Mitgehen is an extreme form of mitmachen in which very slight pressure leads to movement in any direction, also called the "anglepoise" effect or "anglepoise lamp sign". This movement occurs despite instructions to resist the pressure, as individuals with this condition often experience even slight pressure as forcible grasping and pushing.
  
* '''[[chenopodium album]]''' - noun common weedy European plant introduced into North America; often used as a potherb
+
* '''[[Mitmachen]]'''
  
* '''[[cherimoya]]''' - noun large tropical fruit with leathery skin and soft pulp; related to custard apples; small tropical American tree bearing round or oblong fruit
+
In mitmachen, one's body can be put into any posture, despite instructions given to resist. Compare Mitgehen.
  
* '''[[cherry]]''' - adj. of a color at the end of the color spectrum (next to orange); resembling the color of blood or cherries or tomatoes or rubies; noun a red fruit with a single hard stone; any of numerous trees and shrubs producing a small fleshy round fruit with a single hard stone; many also produce a valuable hardwood; wood of any of various cherry trees especially the black cherry; a red the color of ripe cherries
+
* '''[[Moria]]'''
  
* '''[[cherry plum]]''' - noun small Asiatic tree bearing edible red or yellow fruit; used in Europe as budding stock
+
Moria is the condition characterized by euphoric behavior, such as frivolity and the inability to act seriously. In addition, there is a lack of foresight and a general indifference. It is found in frontal lobe lesions, often along with Witzelsucht, particularly when the orbital surface is damaged. Recent research has shown its presence in frontotemporal dementia.
  
* '''[[cherry tomato]]''' - noun small red to yellow tomatoes; plant bearing small red to yellow fruit
+
* '''[[Negativism]]'''
  
* '''[[chervil]]''' - noun fresh ferny parsley-like leaves used as a garnish with chicken and veal and omelets and green salads and spinach; aromatic annual Old World herb cultivated for its finely divided and often curly leaves for use especially in soups and salads
+
Resistance to attempts to move the subject, who then does the opposite of what is asked. Negativism is usually a sign of catatonia, and may progress to (catatonic) rigidity. It is slightly different from gegenhalten, in which the individual resists movement but does not perform the opposite movement. Also see: Oppositional Defiance Disorder (ODD).
  
* '''[[chestnut]]''' - adj. (of hair) of a golden brown to reddish brown color; noun a dark golden-brown or reddish-brown horse; a small horny callus on the inner surface of a horse's leg; edible nut of any of various chestnut trees of the genus Castanea; any of several attractive deciduous trees yellow-brown in autumn; yield a hard wood and edible nuts in a prickly bur; wood of any of various chestnut trees of the genus Castanea
+
* '''[[Neologism]]'''
  
* '''[[chicha]]''' - noun an oriental tobacco pipe with a long flexible tube connected to a container where the smoke is cooled by passing through water
+
In a neurological or psychopathological context, * '''[[neologisms]]''' are nonsensical words or phrases whose origins are unrecognizable (e.g., klipno for watch), and are associated with aphasia or schizophrenia. Incorrectly constructed words whose origins are understandable (e.g., headshoe for hat) may also be called neologisms, but are more properly referred as word approximations.
  
* '''[[chickpea]]''' - noun large white roundish Asiatic legume; usually dried; Asiatic herb cultivated for its short pods with one or two edible seeds; the seed of the chickpea plant
+
* '''[[Omega sign]]'''
  
* '''[[chicory]]''' - noun crisp spiky leaves with somewhat bitter taste; root of the chicory plant roasted and ground to substitute for or adulterate coffee; perennial Old World herb having rayed flower heads with blue florets cultivated for its root and its heads of crisp edible leaves used in salads; the dried root of the chicory plant: used as a coffee substitute
+
The omega sign is the occurrence of a fold (like the Greek letter omega, Ω ) in the forehead, above the nose, produced by the excessive action of the corrugator muscle. It is sometimes seen in depression.
  
* '''[[chili con carne]]''' - noun ground beef and chili peppers or chili powder often with tomatoes and kidney beans
+
* '''[[Oneiroid state]]'''
  
* '''[[chili dog]]''' - noun a hotdog with chili con carne on it
+
From Greek "oneiros" as meaning 'dream'. In the Oneiroid state one feels and behaves as though in a dream. Also known as oneirophrenia as described by Ladislas J. Meduna.
  
* '''[[chili pepper]]''' - noun very hot and finely tapering pepper of special pungency; plant bearing very hot and finely tapering long peppers; usually red
+
* '''[[Oneirophrenia]]'''
  
* '''[[chili powder]]''' - noun powder made of ground chili peppers mixed with e.g. cumin and garlic and oregano
+
See Oneiroid state or article on Oneirophrenia.
  
* '''[[chinese cabbage]]''' - noun elongated head of crisp celery-like stalks and light green leaves; plant with an elongated head of broad stalked leaves resembling celery; used as a vegetable in east Asia
+
* '''[[Overvalued idea]]'''
  
* '''[[chinese yam]]''' - noun hardy Chinese vine naturalized in United States and cultivated as an ornamental climber for its glossy heart-shaped cinnamon-scented leaves and in the tropics for its edible tubers
+
Overvalued ideas are exaggerated beliefs that a person sustains beyond reasons, but are not as unbelievable and are not as persistently held as delusions. Preoccupation with spouse's possible infidelity can be an overvalued idea if no evidence exists to arouse suspicion. Body dysmorphic disorder's obsessive preoccupation that some aspect of one's own appearance is severely flawed is another example of an overvalued idea.
  
* '''[[chipotle]]''' - noun a ripe jalapeno that has been dried for use in cooking
+
* '''[[Palilalia]]'''
  
* '''[[chives]]''' - noun cylindrical leaves used fresh as a mild onion-flavored seasoning; perennial having hollow cylindrical leaves used for seasoning
+
Main article: Palilalia
  
* '''[[chloris gayana]]''' - noun perennial grass of South Africa introduced into United States; cultivated as forage grass in dry regions
+
Palilalia is characterized by the repetition of a word or phrase; i.e., the subject continues to repeat a word or phrase after once having said. It is a perseveratory phenomenon.
  
* '''[[chocolate]]''' - noun a medium brown to dark-brown color; a food made from roasted ground cacao beans; a beverage made from cocoa powder and milk and sugar; usually drunk hot
+
* '''[[Palinacousis]]'''
  
* '''[[chocolate bar]]''' - noun a bar of chocolate candy
+
Palinacousis refers to a phenomenon in which the subject continues to listen to a word, a syllable or any sound, even after the withdrawal of stimulus. It is a type of Perseveration.
  
* '''[[chocolate cake]]''' - noun cake containing chocolate
+
* '''[[Palinopsia]]'''
  
* '''[[chocolate chip cookie]]''' - noun cookies containing chocolate chips
+
Main article: Palinopsia
  
* '''[[chocolate ice cream]]''' - noun ice cream flavored with chocolate
+
In palinopsia a visual image persists after the stimulus has gone (similar to an afterimage seen after looking into a bright light).
  
* '''[[chocolate liquor]]''' - noun the liquid or paste that is produced when cocoa beans are roasted and ground; the basis of all chocolate
+
* '''[[Parapraxis]]'''
  
* '''[[chocolate milk]]''' - noun milk flavored with chocolate syrup
+
Main article: Freudian slip
  
* '''[[chocolate pudding]]''' - noun sweet chocolate flavored custard-like pudding usually thickened with flour rather than eggs
+
A Freudian slip, or parapraxis, is an error in speech, memory or physical action that is believed to be caused by the unconscious mind.
  
* '''[[chocolate syrup]]''' - noun sauce made with unsweetened chocolate or cocoa and sugar and water
+
* '''[[Paraprosopia]]'''
  
* '''[[chocolate truffle]]''' - noun creamy chocolate candy
+
A delusion in which a person believes he or she has seen a face transform into a grotesque form – often described as a 'monster', 'vampire', 'werewolf' or similar. This is very rare and most likely to be described by people suffering from schizophrenia.
  
* '''[[chondrus crispus]]''' - noun dark purple edible seaweed of the Atlantic coasts of Europe and North America
+
* '''[[Paraschemazia]]'''
  
* '''[[chrism]]''' - noun a consecrated ointment consisting of a mixture of oil and balsam
+
Paraschemazia is characterized by a distortion of body image. It can be caused by hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD and mescalin, epileptic auras, and sometimes migraines.
  
* '''[[christmas cake]]''' - noun a rich fruitcake (usually covered with icing and marzipan) and eaten at Christmas
+
* '''[[Pareidolia]]'''
  
* '''[[chrysanthemum]]''' - noun any of numerous perennial Old World herbs having showy brightly colored flower heads of the genera Chrysanthemum, Argyranthemum, Dendranthema, Tanacetum; widely cultivated; the flower of a chrysanthemum plant
+
Main article: Pareidolia
  
* '''[[chrysobalanus icaco]]''' - noun small tropical American tree bearing edible plumlike fruit
+
In pareidolia a vague or random stimulus is mistakenly perceived as recognizable. A common example is perceiving the image of a face in clouds. Pareidolia is a type of illusion and hence called pareidolic illusion.
  
* '''[[chrysolepis]]''' - noun two species: golden chinkapins
+
* '''[[Perseveration]]'''
  
* '''[[chrysophyllum cainito]]''' - noun evergreen tree of West Indies and Central America having edible purple fruit star-shaped in cross section and dark green leaves with golden silky undersides
+
Main article: Perseveration
  
* '''[[cicer]]''' - noun chickpea plant; Asiatic herbs
+
This term refers to uncontrollable repetition of a particular response, such as a word, phrase, or gesture, despite the absence or cessation of the original stimulus. Usually it is seen in organic disorders of brain, head injury, delirium or dementia, however can be seen in schizophrenia as well.
  
* '''[[cicer arietinum]]''' - noun Asiatic herb cultivated for its short pods with one or two edible seeds
+
* '''[[Pfropfschizophrenie]]'''
  
* '''[[cichorium endivia]]''' - noun widely cultivated herb with leaves valued as salad green; either curly serrated leaves or broad flat ones that are usually blanched
+
This refers to schizophrenia in people with mild learning disability.
  
* '''[[cider]]''' - noun a beverage made from juice pressed from apples
+
* '''[[Piblokto]]'''
  
* '''[[cider mill]]''' - noun mill that extracts juice from apples to make apple cider
+
Main article: Piblokto
  
* '''[[cinnamomum camphora]]''' - noun large evergreen tree of warm regions whose aromatic wood yields camphor
+
Piblokto, Pibloktoq, or Arctic hysteria is a condition exclusively appearing in Inuit societies living within the Arctic Circle. Appearing most prevalently in winter, it is considered to be a form of a culture-specific disorder.
  
* '''[[cinnamomum cassia]]''' - noun Chinese tree with aromatic bark; yields a less desirable cinnamon than Ceylon cinnamon
+
Symptoms can include intense "hysteria" (including screaming and uncontrolled wild behavior), depression, coprophagia, and insensitivity to extreme cold. This condition is most often seen in Inuit women.
  
* '''[[cinnamon]]''' - noun spice from the dried aromatic bark of the Ceylon cinnamon tree; used as rolled strips or ground; tropical Asian tree with aromatic yellowish-brown bark; source of the spice cinnamon; aromatic bark used as a spice
+
* '''[[Poverty of ideas]]'''
  
* '''[[cinnamon roll]]''' - noun rolled dough spread with cinnamon and sugar (and raisins) then sliced before baking
+
Often associated with schizophrenia, dementia, and severe depression, * '''[[poverty of ideas]]''' is a thought disturbance in which thought spontaneity and productivity are reduced, and are seen in speech that is vague, has many simple or meaningless repetitions, or full of stereotyped phrases.
  
* '''[[cirsium arvense]]''' - noun European thistle naturalized in United States and Canada where it is a pernicious weed
+
* '''[[Pseudologia fantastica]]'''
  
* '''[[cirsium vulgare]]''' - noun European thistle with rather large heads and prickly leaves; extensively naturalized as a weed in the United States
+
Pseudologia fantastica is a condition in which a person grossly exaggerates his symptoms or even tells a lie about his symptoms in order to get medical attention . Seen in malingering and Munchausen syndrome.
  
* '''[[citrange]]''' - noun more aromatic and acid tasting than oranges; used in beverages and marmalade; more aromatic and acidic than oranges
+
* '''[[Psychological pillow]]'''
  
* '''[[citric acid cycle]]''' - noun in all plants and animals: a series of enzymatic reactions in mitochondria involving oxidative metabolism of acetyl compounds to produce high-energy phosphate compounds that are the source of cellular energy
+
Where the individual holds his/her head a few centimetres above the bed. No explanation is offered for this. It is a symptom of catatonia and can last for many hours.
  
* '''[[citron]]''' - noun large lemonlike fruit with thick aromatic rind; usually preserved; thorny evergreen small tree or shrub of India widely cultivated for its large lemonlike fruits that have thick warty rind
+
* '''[[Psychopathology]]'''
  
* '''[[citrus]]''' - noun any of numerous fruits of the genus Citrus having thick rind and juicy pulp; grown in warm regions; any of numerous tropical usually thorny evergreen trees of the genus Citrus having leathery evergreen leaves and widely cultivated for their juicy edible fruits having leathery aromatic rinds
+
Main article: Psychopathology
  
* '''[[citrus aurantium]]''' - noun any of various common orange trees yielding sour or bitter fruit; used as grafting stock
+
Psychopathology is a term which refers to either the study of mental illness or mental distress or to the manifestation of behaviours and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment.
  
* '''[[citrus limetta]]''' - noun lemon tree having fruit with a somewhat insipid sweetish pulp
+
* '''[[Rabbit syndrome]]'''
  
* '''[[citrus maxima]]''' - noun southeastern Asian tree producing large fruits resembling grapefruits
+
This syndrome is characterized by rapid rhythmic movements of lips so that it resembles a rabbit chewing. It is a type of dystonic reaction.
  
* '''[[citrus medica]]''' - noun thorny evergreen small tree or shrub of India widely cultivated for its large lemonlike fruits that have thick warty rind
+
* '''[[Reduplicative hallucination]]'''
  
* '''[[citrus reticulata]]''' - noun shrub or small tree having flattened globose fruit with very sweet aromatic pulp and thin yellow-orange to flame-orange rind that is loose and easily removed; native to southeastern Asia
+
In reduplicative hallucinations there is the perception of seeing a double. Particular kinds of reduplicative hallucination include autoscopy, heautoscopy and out-of-body experiences.
  
* '''[[claviceps purpurea]]''' - noun a fungus that infects various cereal plants forming compact black masses of branching filaments that replace many grains of the plant; source of medicinally important alkaloids and of lysergic acid
+
* '''[[Reduplicative paramnesia]]'''
  
* '''[[claytonia virginica]]''' - noun small cormous perennial grown for its low rosette of succulent foliage and racemes of pink-tinged white flowers; eastern North America
+
Reduplicative paramnesia is a delusional misidentification syndrome in which one's surroundings are believed to exist in more than one physical location.
  
* '''[[clementine]]''' - noun a mandarin orange of a deep reddish orange color and few seeds; a variety of mandarin orange that is grown around the Mediterranean and in South Africa
+
* '''[[Reflex hallucination]]'''
  
* '''[[cleome serrulata]]''' - noun plant of western North America having trifoliate leaves and white or pink spider-shaped flowers; sometimes used as an ornamental
+
Reflex hallucinations occur when true sensory input in one sense leads to production of a hallucination in another sense, e.g. seeing a doctor writing (visual) and then feeling him writing across one's stomach (tactile).
  
* '''[[clinton]]''' - noun a town in east central Iowa; United States politician who as governor of New York supported the project to build the Erie Canal (1769-1828); 42nd President of the United States (1946-); wife of President Clinton and later a woman member of the United States Senate (1947-)
+
* '''[[Restlessness]]'''
  
* '''[[closure]]''' - noun termination of operations; a Gestalt principle of organization holding that there is an innate tendency to perceive incomplete objects as complete and to close or fill gaps and to perceive asymmetric stimuli as symmetric; a rule for limiting or ending debate in a deliberative body; approaching a particular destination; a coming closer; a narrowing of a gap; the act of blocking; an obstruction in a pipe or tube; something settled or resolved; the outcome of decision making; verb terminate debate by calling for a vote
+
Restlessness has two components: akathisia (subjective "inner" restlessness) and psychomotor agitation (an excess of motor activity).
  
* '''[[clove]]''' - noun spice from dried unopened flower bud of the clove tree; used whole or ground; one of the small bulblets that can be split off of the axis of a larger garlic bulb; moderate sized very symmetrical red-flowered evergreen widely cultivated in the tropics for its flower buds which are source of cloves; aromatic flower bud of a clove tree; yields a spice
+
* '''[[Retardation]]'''
  
* '''[[clover]]''' - noun a plant of the genus Trifolium
+
Mental retardation is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as communicating, taking care of him or herself, and social skills.
  
* '''[[club]]''' - noun stout stick that is larger at one end; a playing card in the minor suit that has one or more black trefoils on it; a formal association of people with similar interests; a spot that is open late at night and that provides entertainment (as singers or dancers) as well as dancing and food and drink; a building that is occupied by a social club; golf equipment used by a golfer to hit a golf ball; a team of professional baseball players who play and travel together; verb strike with a club or a bludgeon; gather and spend time together; unite with a common purpose
+
* '''[[In Children:]]''' These limitations will cause a child to learn and develop more slowly than a typical child. Children with mental retardation may take longer to learn to speak, walk, and take care of their personal needs such as dressing or eating. They are likely to have trouble learning in school. They will learn, but it will take them longer. There may be some things they cannot learn.
  
* '''[[cobbler]]''' - noun tall sweetened iced drink of wine or liquor with fruit; a person who makes or repairs shoes; made of fruit with rich biscuit dough usually only on top of the fruit
+
* '''[[Left–right disorientation]]'''
  
* '''[[cochlearia]]''' - noun a genus of the family Cruciferae
+
Left–right disorientation is one of the four cardinal signs of Gerstmann's syndrome.
  
* '''[[cocktail]]''' - noun an appetizer served as a first course at a meal; a short mixed drink
+
* '''[[Scanning speech]]'''
  
* '''[[cocoa bean]]''' - noun seed of the cacao tree; ground roasted beans are source of chocolate
+
Scanning speech is an ataxic dysarthria in which syllable durations are equalized. It is characteristic of the dysarthria of multiple sclerosis. Together with nystagmus and intention tremor it forms Charcot's triad 1.
  
* '''[[cocoa butter]]''' - noun the vegetable fat from the cacao that is extracted from chocolate liquor; the basis for white chocolate; a yellow-white fat from cocoa beans
+
* '''[[Schizophasia]]'''
  
* '''[[coconut]]''' - noun large hard-shelled oval nut with a fibrous husk containing thick white meat surrounding a central cavity filled (when fresh) with fluid or milk; the edible white meat a coconut; often shredded for use in e.g. cakes and curries; tall palm tree bearing coconuts as fruits; widely planted throughout the tropics
+
Main article: Schizophasia
  
* '''[[coconut cake]]''' - noun cake containing shredded coconut in batter and frosting
+
Schizophasia, commonly referred to as word salad, is confused, and often repetitious, language that is symptomatic of various mental illnesses.
  
* '''[[coconut milk]]''' - noun clear to whitish fluid from within a fresh coconut; white liquid obtained from compressing fresh coconut meat
+
* '''[[Schnauzkrampf]]'''
  
* '''[[coconut oil]]''' - noun oil from coconuts
+
A schnauzkrampf is a grimace resembling pouting sometimes observed in catatonic individuals.
  
* '''[[coconut water]]''' - noun clear to whitish fluid from within a fresh coconut
+
* '''[[Sensitiver beziehungswahn]]'''
  
* '''[[cocos]]''' - noun coconut palms
+
Sensitiver beziehungswahn, is an alternate term for ideas of reference. In this the person thinks as people are talking about him or observing him or a talk is going on about him on television or radio. Seen in social phobia, depression, delusional disorder and in schizophrenia where they are often present up to a delusional extent.
  
* '''[[cocos nucifera]]''' - noun tall palm tree bearing coconuts as fruits; widely planted throughout the tropics
+
* '''[[Stockholm syndrome]]'''
  
* '''[[coddle]]''' - verb cook in nearly boiling water; treat with excessive indulgence
+
Main article: Stockholm syndrome
  
* '''[[coffea]]''' - noun coffee trees
+
The Stockholm syndrome is a psychological response sometimes seen in a hostage, in which the hostage exhibits loyalty to the hostage-taker, in spite of the danger (or at least risk) in which the hostage has been placed. Stockholm syndrome is also sometimes discussed in reference to other situations with similar tensions, such as battered person syndrome, child abuse cases, and bride kidnapping.
  
* '''[[coffea arabica]]''' - noun shrubby tree of northeastern tropical Africa widely cultivated in tropical or near tropical regions for its seed which form most of the commercial coffee
+
* '''[[Synaesthesiae]]'''
  
* '''[[coffea canephora]]''' - noun native to West Africa but grown in Java and elsewhere; resistant to coffee rust
+
(also spelled synæsthesia, synaesthesia, or synesthesia—plural synesthesiae), from the Greek "syn-" meaning union and "aesthesis" meaning sensation, is a neurological phenomenon in which two or more bodily senses are coupled. For instance, a person may hear colors.
  
* '''[[coffea liberica]]''' - noun small tree of West Africa
+
* '''[[Telegrammatic or telegraphic speech]]'''
  
* '''[[coffee]]''' - noun a beverage consisting of an infusion of ground coffee beans; any of several small trees and shrubs native to the tropical Old World yielding coffee beans; a medium brown to dark-brown color; a seed of the coffee tree; ground to make coffee
+
Main article: Telegraphic speech
  
* '''[[coffee bean]]''' - noun a seed of the coffee tree; ground to make coffee
+
In telegraphic speech conjunctions and articles are missed out; meaning is retained and few words are used.
  
* '''[[cohune oil]]''' - noun semisolid fat from nuts of the cohune palm; used in cooking and soap making
+
* '''[[Thought blocking]]'''
  
* '''[[coir]]''' - noun stiff coarse fiber from the outer husk of a coconut
+
Main article: Thought blocking
  
* '''[[coleslaw]]''' - noun basically shredded cabbage
+
Thought blocking, also referred to as thought withdrawal, refers to an abrupt stop in the middle of a train of thought; the individual might or might not be unable to continue the idea. This is type of formal thought disorder that can be seen in schizophrenia.
  
* '''[[collard]]''' - noun variety of kale having smooth leaves
+
* '''[[Thought sonorization]]'''
  
* '''[[colocasia esculenta]]''' - noun herb of the Pacific islands grown throughout the tropics for its edible root and in temperate areas as an ornamental for its large glossy leaves
+
A combined term for Gedankenlautwerden and Écho de la pensée ("thought echo")
  
* '''[[color]]''' - adj. having or capable of producing colors; noun the appearance of objects (or light sources) described in terms of a person's perception of their hue and lightness (or brightness) and saturation; a visual attribute of things that results from the light they emit or transmit or reflect; the timbre of a musical sound; interest and variety and intensity; (physics) the characteristic of quarks that determines their role in the strong interaction; each flavor of quarks comes in three colors; a race with skin pigmentation different from the white race (especially Blacks); an outward or token appearance or form that is deliberately misleading; any material used for its color; verb add color to; gloss or excuse; decorate with colors; modify or bias; change color, often in an undesired manner; affect as in thought or feeling
+
* '''[[Torpor]]'''
  
* '''[[colorado potato beetle]]''' - noun black-and-yellow beetle that feeds in adult and larval stages on potato leaves; originally of eastern Rocky Mountains; now worldwide
+
Torpor in psychopathology is usually taken to mean profound inactivity not caused by reduction in consciousness.
  
* '''[[colza oil]]''' - noun edible light yellow to brown oil from rapeseed used also as a lubricant or illuminant
+
* '''[[Tourette Syndrome]]'''
  
* '''[[comfit]]''' - noun candy containing a fruit or nut; verb make into a confection
+
Tourette syndrome (abbreviated as TS or Tourette's) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that begins in childhood or adolescence. It is characterized by multiple movement (motor) tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic. Common tics are blinking, coughing, throat clearing, sniffing, and facial movements. These are typically preceded by an unwanted urge or sensation in the affected muscles, can sometimes be suppressed temporarily, and characteristically change in location, strength, and frequency. Tourette's is at the more severe end of a spectrum of tic disorders. The tics often go unnoticed by casual observers.
  
* '''[[common fig]]''' - noun Mediterranean tree widely cultivated for its edible fruit
+
* '''[[Traumatic bonding]]'''
  
* '''[[common wheat]]''' - noun widely cultivated in temperate regions in many varieties for its commercially important grain
+
Traumatic bonding occurs as the result of ongoing cycles of abuse in which the intermittent reinforcement of reward and punishment creates powerful emotional bonds that are resistant to change.
  
* '''[[company]]''' - noun an institution created to conduct business; a unit of firefighters including their equipment; a social gathering of guests or companions; organization of performers and associated personnel (especially theatrical); small military unit; usually two or three platoons; the state of being with someone; crew of a ship including the officers; the whole force or personnel of a ship; a band of people associated temporarily in some activity; a social or business visitor; verb be a companion to somebody
+
* '''[[Trichotillomania (TTM)]]'''
  
* '''[[compote]]''' - noun dessert of stewed or baked fruit
+
Trichotillomania also known as hair pulling disorder, is an impulse control disorder characterised by a long term urge that results in the pulling out of one's hair. This occurs to such a degree that hair loss can be seen. Efforts to stop pulling hair typically fail. Hair removal may occur anywhere; however, the head and around the eyes are most common. The hair pulling is to such a degree that it results in distress
  
* '''[[concord grape]]''' - noun slipskin grape; a purple table grape of the northeastern United States
+
* '''[[Verbigeration]]'''
  
* '''[[condiment]]''' - noun a preparation (a sauce or relish or spice) to enhance flavor or enjoyment
+
Verbigeration is a verbal stereotypy in which usually one or several sentences or strings of fragmented words are repeated continuously. Sometimes individuals will produce incomprehensible jargon in which stereotypies are embedded. The tone of voice is usually monotonous. This can be produced spontaneously or precipitated by questioning. The term verbigeration was first used in psychiatry by Karl Kahlbaum in 1874, and it referred to a manner of talking which was very fast and incomprehensible. At the time verbigeration was seen as a ‘disorder of language’ and represented a central feature of catatonia. The word is derived from the Latin word ‘verbum’ (also the source of ‘verbiage’), plus the verb ‘gerĕre’, to carry on or conduct, from which the Latin verb ‘verbigerāre’, to talk or chat, is derived. However, clinically the term verbigeration never achieved popularity and as such has virtually disappeared from psychiatric terminology. Compare Echolalia.
  
* '''[[conestoga]]''' - noun a large wagon with broad wheels and an arched canvas top; used by the United States pioneers to cross the prairies in the 19th century
+
* '''[[Verstimmung]]'''
  
* '''[[confectionery]]''' - noun the occupation and skills of a confectioner; a confectioner's shop; candy and other sweets considered collectively
+
It refers to an ill-humoured mood state often accompanied by low mood and depressive symptoms. The people surrounding the individual often feel upset by this condition.
  
* '''[[confetti]]''' - noun small pieces or streamers of colored paper that are thrown around on festive occasions (as at a wedding)
+
* '''[[Vorbeigehen; Vorbeireden]]'''
  
* '''[[cookie]]''' - noun a short line of text that a web site puts on your computer's hard drive when you access the web site; any of various small flat sweet cakes (`biscuit' is the British term); the cook on a ranch or at a camp
+
In vorbeigehen or vorbeireden, an individual will answer a question in such a way that it is clear the question was understood, though the answer itself is very obviously wrong. For example: "How many legs does a dog have?" – "Six". This condition occurs in Ganser syndrome and has been observed in prisoners awaiting trial. Vorbeigehen (giving approximate answers) was the original term used by Ganser but Vorbeireden (talking past the point) is the term generally in use (Goldin 1955). This behaviour is also seen in people trying to feign psychiatric disorders (hence its association with prisoners).
  
* '''[[cooking]]''' - noun the act of preparing something (as food) by the application of heat
 
  
* '''[[cooking apple]]''' - noun an apple used primarily in cooking for pies and applesauce etc
 
  
* '''[[cooperative]]''' - adj. done with or working with others for a common purpose or benefit; willing to adjust to differences in order to obtain agreement; involving the joint activity of two or more; noun a jointly owned commercial enterprise (usually organized by farmers or consumers) that produces and distributes goods and services and is run for the benefit of its owners; an association formed and operated for the benefit of those using it
+
* '''[[Wahneinfall]]'''
  
* '''[[copaiba]]''' - noun an oleoresin used in varnishes and ointments
+
Wahneinfall is alternate term for autochthonous delusions or delusional intuition. This is one of the types of primary delusions in which a firm belief comes into the individual's mind 'out of the blue' or as an intuition, hence called delusional intuition. Other types of primary delusions include delusional mood (or atmosphere), delusional (apophanous) perception and delusional memories. Care must be taken not to impugn an otherwise-rational individual's instinctive aversion or inexpressible sense of or belief about a thing by dismissing it as Wahneinfall.
  
* '''[[copra]]''' - noun the dried meat of the coconut from which oil is extracted
+
* '''[[Waxy flexibility]]'''
  
* '''[[coptis]]''' - noun small genus of low perennial herbs having yellow rhizomes and white or yellow flowers
+
Waxy flexibility, also known as cerea flexibilitas, meaning is characterized by an individual's movements having the feeling of a plastic resistance, as if the person were made of wax. This occurs in catatonic schizophrenia, and a person suffering from this condition can have his limbs placed in fixed positions as if the person were in fact made from wax.
  
* '''[[coq au vin]]''' - noun chicken and onions and mushrooms braised in red wine and seasonings
+
* '''[[Waxy rigidity]]'''
  
* '''[[corchorus]]''' - noun widely distributed genus of tropical herbs or subshrubs; especially Asia; any of various plants of the genus Corchorus having large leaves and cymose clusters of yellow flowers; a source of jute
+
Compare Mitmachen and Waxy flexibility.
  
* '''[[cordia]]''' - noun tropical deciduous or evergreen trees or shrubs of the family Boraginaceae
+
* '''[[Windigo Psychosis]]'''
  
* '''[[cordial]]''' - adj. sincerely or intensely felt; showing warm and heartfelt friendliness; diffusing warmth and friendliness; noun strong highly flavored sweet liquor usually drunk after a meal
+
Main article: Wendigo
  
* '''[[cordyline australis]]''' - noun elegant tree having either a single trunk or a branching trunk each with terminal clusters of long narrow leaves and large panicles of fragrant white, yellow or red flowers; New Zealand
+
Windigo (also Wendigo, Windago, Windiga, Witiko, and numerous other variants) psychosis is a culture-bound disorder which involves an intense craving for human flesh and the fear that one will turn into a cannibal. This was alleged to have occurred among Algonquian Indian cultures.
  
* '''[[coriander]]''' - noun parsley-like herb used as seasoning or garnish; dried coriander seeds used whole or ground; Old World herb with aromatic leaves and seed resembling parsley
+
* '''[[Witzelsucht]]'''
  
* '''[[cork]]''' - noun the plug in the mouth of a bottle (especially a wine bottle); a port city in southern Ireland; outer bark of the cork oak; used for stoppers for bottles etc.; a small float usually made of cork; attached to a fishing line; (botany) outer tissue of bark; a protective layer of dead cells; verb stuff with cork; close a bottle with a cork
+
Witzelsucht is a tendency to tell inappropriate jokes and creating excessive facetiousness and inappropriate or pointless humor. It is seen in Frontal lobe disorders usually along with moria. Recent research has shown that it may also be seen in frontotemporal dementia.
  
* '''[[corkscrew]]''' - noun a bottle opener that pulls corks; verb move in a spiral or zigzag course
+
* '''[[Word approximation]]'''
  
* '''[[corn belt]]''' - noun midwestern United States (Iowa, Illinois, Indiana); excellent for raising corn and corn-fed livestock
+
Usage of words in an unconventional or inappropriate way (as in metonymy), or usage of new but understandable words that are conventionally constructed (e.g., handshoes for gloves, time measure for clock, and easify for simplify), contrasting with neologisms which are new words whose origins cannot be understood.
  
* '''[[corn chowder]]''' - noun chowder containing corn
+
* '''[[Word-salad]]'''
  
* '''[[corn exchange]]''' - noun an exchange where grains are bought and sold
+
Word Salad (derived from the German Wortsalat) is characterized by confused, and often repetitious, language with no apparent meaning or relationship attached to them. It is often symptomatic of various mental illnesses, such as psychoses, including schizophrenia. Compare Derailment.
  
* '''[[corn fritter]]''' - noun fritter containing corn or corn kernels
+
* '''[[Würgstimme]]'''
  
* '''[[corn oil]]''' - noun oil from the germs of corn grains
+
Würgstimme refers to speaking in an odd muffled or strangled voice. It is mainly seen in schizophrenia.
  
* '''[[corn pudding]]''' - noun pudding made of corn and cream and egg
+
* '''[[Zoophilia]]'''
  
* '''[[corn smut]]''' - noun a smut fungus attacking Indian corn
+
Main article: Zoophilia
  
* '''[[corn syrup]]''' - noun syrup prepared from corn
+
One of the paraphilias, characterized by marked distress over, or acting on, urges to indulge in sexual activity that involves animals.
 
 
* '''[[corn whiskey]]''' - noun whiskey distilled from a mash of not less than 80 percent corn
 
 
 
* '''[[cornbread]]''' - noun bread made primarily of cornmeal
 
 
 
* '''[[corncob]]''' - noun the hard cylindrical core that bears the kernels of an ear of corn
 
 
 
* '''[[cornmeal]]''' - noun coarsely ground corn
 
 
 
* '''[[cornus mas]]''' - noun deciduous European shrub or small tree having bright red fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[coronation]]''' - noun the ceremony of installing a new monarch
 
 
 
* '''[[cortland]]''' - noun large apple with a red skin
 
 
 
* '''[[corylus americana]]''' - noun nut-bearing shrub of eastern North America
 
 
 
* '''[[corylus cornuta]]''' - noun hazel of western United States with conspicuous beaklike involucres on the nuts
 
 
 
* '''[[cosmopolitan]]''' - adj. of worldwide scope or applicability; composed of people from or at home in many parts of the world; especially not provincial in attitudes or interests; growing or occurring in many parts of the world; noun a sophisticated person who has travelled in many countries
 
 
 
* '''[[cotoneaster]]''' - noun any shrub of the genus Cotoneaster: erect or creeping shrubs having richly colored autumn foliage and many small white to pinkish flowers followed by tiny red or black fruits
 
 
 
* '''[[cottonseed oil]]''' - noun edible oil pressed from cottonseeds
 
 
 
* '''[[covered smut]]''' - noun a smut fungus causing a smut disease of grains in which the spore masses are covered or held together by the grain membranes
 
 
 
* '''[[cowpea]]''' - noun sprawling Old World annual cultivated especially in southern United States for food and forage and green manure; fruit or seed of the cowpea plant; eaten fresh as shell beans or dried
 
 
 
* '''[[cox's orange pippin]]''' - noun a yellow Pippin with distinctive flavor
 
 
 
* '''[[crabapple]]''' - noun small sour apple; suitable for preserving; any of numerous wild apple trees usually with small acid fruit; any of numerous varieties of crab apples cultivated for their small acid (usually bright red) fruit used for preserving or as ornamentals for their blossoms
 
 
 
* '''[[crambe maritima]]''' - noun perennial of coastal sands and shingles of northern Europe and Baltic and Black Seas having racemes of small white flowers and large fleshy blue-green leaves often used as potherbs
 
 
 
* '''[[cranberry]]''' - noun very tart red berry used for sauce or juice; any of numerous shrubs of genus Vaccinium bearing cranberries
 
 
 
* '''[[cranberry juice]]''' - noun the juice of cranberries (always diluted and sweetened)
 
 
 
* '''[[cranberry sauce]]''' - noun sauce made of cranberries and sugar
 
 
 
* '''[[crataegus]]''' - noun thorny shrubs and small trees: hawthorn; thorn; thorn apple
 
 
 
* '''[[crataegus aestivalis]]''' - noun hawthorn of southern United States bearing juicy acid scarlet fruit often used in jellies or preserves
 
 
 
* '''[[crescentia]]''' - noun a genus of tropical American trees of the family Bignoniaceae; has a short trunk and crooked limbs and drooping branches
 
 
 
* '''[[crescentia cujete]]''' - noun tropical American evergreen that produces large round gourds
 
 
 
* '''[[criollo]]''' - noun cocoa of superior quality; a Spanish American of pure European stock (usually Spanish)
 
 
 
* '''[[crisp]]''' - adj. brief and to the point; effectively cut short; (of something seen or heard) clearly defined; of hair in small tight curls; pleasingly firm and fresh and making a crunching noise when chewed; pleasantly cold and invigorating; tender and brittle; noun a thin crisp slice of potato fried in deep fat; verb make brown and crisp by heating; make wrinkles or creases into a smooth surface
 
 
 
* '''[[crocus sativus]]''' - noun Old World crocus having purple or white flowers with aromatic pungent orange stigmas used in flavoring food
 
 
 
* '''[[crookneck squash]]''' - noun yellow squash with a thin curved neck and somewhat warty skin
 
 
 
* '''[[croquette]]''' - noun minced cooked meats (or vegetables) in thick white sauce; breaded and deep-fried
 
 
 
* '''[[croton oil]]''' - noun viscid acrid brownish-yellow oil from the seeds of Croton tiglium having a violent cathartic action
 
 
 
* '''[[crumble]]''' - verb break or fall apart into fragments; fall apart; fall into decay or ruin
 
 
 
* '''[[crush]]''' - noun the act of crushing; a dense crowd of people; temporary love of an adolescent; leather that has had its grain pattern accentuated; verb break into small pieces; become injured, broken, or distorted by pressure; humiliate or depress completely; come out better in a competition, race, or conflict; make ineffective; crush or bruise; to compress with violence, out of natural shape or condition; come down on or keep down by unjust use of one's authority
 
 
 
* '''[[cucumber]]''' - noun cylindrical green fruit with thin green rind and white flesh eaten as a vegetable; related to melons; a melon vine of the genus Cucumis; cultivated from earliest times for its cylindrical green fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[cucurbita]]''' - noun type genus of the Cucurbitaceae
 
 
 
* '''[[cucurbita argyrosperma]]''' - noun plant bearing squash having globose to ovoid fruit with variously striped grey and green and white warty rinds
 
 
 
* '''[[cucurbita foetidissima]]''' - noun perennial vine of dry parts of central and southwestern United States and Mexico having small hard mottled green inedible fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[cucurbita maxima]]''' - noun any of several winter squash plants producing large greyish-green football-shaped fruit with a rough warty rind; plant bearing buff-colored squash having somewhat bottle-shaped fruit with fine-textured edible flesh and a smooth thin rind
 
 
 
* '''[[cucurbita moschata]]''' - noun any of various plants bearing squash having hard rinds and elongated recurved necks
 
 
 
* '''[[cucurbita pepo]]''' - noun a coarse vine widely cultivated for its large pulpy round orange fruit with firm orange skin and numerous seeds; subspecies of Cucurbita pepo include the summer squashes and a few autumn squashes
 
 
 
* '''[[curry powder]]''' - noun pungent blend of cumin and ground coriander seed and turmeric and other spices
 
 
 
* '''[[cycloloma]]''' - noun a caryophyllaceous genus of the family Chenopodiaceae
 
 
 
* '''[[cyclopia]]''' - noun a developmental abnormality in which there is only one eye
 
 
 
* '''[[cynodon dactylon]]''' - noun trailing grass native to Europe now cosmopolitan in warm regions; used for lawns and pastures especially in southern United States and India
 
 
 
* '''[[cyperus esculentus]]''' - noun European sedge having small edible nutlike tubers
 
 
 
* '''[[cyperus rotundus]]''' - noun a widely distributed perennial sedge having small edible nutlike tubers
 
 
 
* '''[[dactylis glomerata]]''' - noun widely grown stout Old World hay and pasture grass
 
 
 
* '''[[dahlia]]''' - noun any of several plants of or developed from the species Dahlia pinnata having tuberous roots and showy rayed variously colored flower heads; native to the mountains of Mexico and Central America and Colombia
 
 
 
* '''[[daikon]]''' - noun radish of Japan with a long hard durable root eaten raw or cooked
 
 
 
* '''[[daiquiri]]''' - noun a cocktail made with rum and lime or lemon juice
 
 
 
* '''[[damson]]''' - noun sweet dark purple plum
 
 
 
* '''[[dash]]''' - noun a quick run; the act of moving with great haste; distinctive and stylish elegance; the longer of the two telegraphic signals used in Morse code; a footrace run at top speed; a punctuation mark (-) used between parts of a compound word or between the syllables of a word when the word is divided at the end of a line of text; verb add an enlivening or altering element to; destroy or break; break into pieces, as by striking or knocking over; hurl or thrust violently; cause to lose courage; run or move very quickly or hastily
 
 
 
* '''[[date palm]]''' - noun tall tropical feather palm tree native to Syria bearing sweet edible fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[date plum]]''' - noun an Asiatic persimmon tree cultivated for its small yellow or purplish-black edible fruit much valued by Afghan tribes
 
 
 
* '''[[daylily]]''' - noun any of numerous perennials having tuberous roots and long narrow bladelike leaves and usually yellow lilylike flowers that bloom for only a day
 
 
 
* '''[[debit]]''' - noun an accounting entry acknowledging sums that are owing; verb enter as debit
 
 
 
* '''[[decanter]]''' - noun a bottle with a stopper; for serving wine or water
 
 
 
* '''[[deity]]''' - noun any supernatural being worshipped as controlling some part of the world or some aspect of life or who is the personification of a force
 
 
 
* '''[[delaware]]''' - noun the Algonquian language spoken by the Delaware; a Mid-Atlantic state; one of the original 13 colonies; one of the British colonies that formed the United States; a river that rises in the Catskills in southeastern New York and flows southward along the border of Pennsylvania with New York and New Jersey to northern Delaware where it empties into Delaware Bay; a member of an Algonquian people formerly living in New Jersey and New York and parts of Delaware and Pennsylvania
 
 
 
* '''[[demulcent]]''' - adj. having a softening or soothing effect especially to the skin; noun a medication (in the form of an oil or salve etc.) that soothes inflamed or injured skin
 
 
 
* '''[[dent corn]]''' - noun corn whose kernels contain both hard and soft starch and become indented at maturity
 
 
 
* '''[[descurainia pinnata]]''' - noun North American herb with bitter-tasting pinnate leaves resembling those of tansy
 
 
 
* '''[[desmodium]]''' - noun beggarweed; tick trefoil
 
 
 
* '''[[dessert]]''' - noun a dish served as the last course of a meal
 
 
 
* '''[[dessert wine]]''' - noun still sweet wine often served with dessert or after a meal
 
 
 
* '''[[devil's food cake]]''' - noun very dark chocolate cake
 
 
 
* '''[[diamante]]''' - noun adornment consisting of a small piece of shiny material used to decorate clothing
 
 
 
* '''[[diamond]]''' - noun a playing card in the minor suit that has one or more red rhombuses on it; a transparent piece of diamond that has been cut and polished and is valued as a precious gem; very hard native crystalline carbon valued as a gem; the baseball playing field; the area of a baseball field that is enclosed by 3 bases and home plate
 
 
 
* '''[[dill]]''' - noun aromatic threadlike foliage of the dill plant used as seasoning; aromatic Old World herb having aromatic threadlike foliage and seeds used as seasoning
 
 
 
* '''[[dinka]]''' - noun a Nilotic language
 
 
 
* '''[[dionysus]]''' - noun (Greek mythology) god of wine and fertility and drama; the Greek name of Bacchus
 
 
 
* '''[[dioscorea alata]]''' - noun grown in Australasia and Polynesia for its large root with fine edible white flesh
 
 
 
* '''[[dioscorea bulbifera]]''' - noun yam of tropical Africa and Asia cultivated for it large tubers
 
 
 
* '''[[dioscorea elephantipes]]''' - noun South African vine having a massive rootstock covered with deeply fissured bark
 
 
 
* '''[[dioscorea trifida]]''' - noun tropical American yam with small yellow edible tubers
 
 
 
* '''[[diospyros]]''' - noun a genus of trees or shrubs that have beautiful and valuable wood
 
 
 
* '''[[diospyros kaki]]''' - noun small deciduous Asiatic tree bearing large red or orange edible astringent fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[diospyros virginiana]]''' - noun medium-sized tree of dry woodlands in the southern and eastern United States bearing yellow or orange very astringent fruit that is edible when fully ripe
 
 
 
* '''[[diplotaxis tenuifolia]]''' - noun yellow-flowered European plant that grows on old walls and in waste places; an adventive weed in North America
 
 
 
* '''[[dipteryx odorata]]''' - noun tall tropical South American tree having pulpy egg-shaped pods of fragrant black almond-shaped seeds used for flavoring
 
 
 
* '''[[discovery]]''' - noun the act of discovering something; a productive insight; something that is discovered; (law) compulsory pretrial disclosure of documents relevant to a case; enables one side in a litigation to elicit information from the other side concerning the facts in the case
 
 
 
* '''[[disease]]''' - noun an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning
 
 
 
* '''[[dish]]''' - noun a piece of dishware normally used as a container for holding or serving food; directional antenna consisting of a parabolic reflector for microwave or radio frequency radiation; a particular item of prepared food; the quantity that a dish will hold; an activity that you like or at which you are superior; a very attractive or seductive looking woman; verb make concave; shape like a dish; provide (usually but not necessarily food)
 
 
 
* '''[[donald duck]]''' - noun a fictional duck created in animated film strips by Walt Disney
 
 
 
* '''[[dovyalis caffra]]''' - noun vigorous South African spiny shrub grown for its round yellow juicy edible fruits
 
 
 
* '''[[drag]]''' - noun the act of dragging (pulling with force); clothing that is conventionally worn by the opposite sex (especially women's clothing when worn by a man); something tedious and boring; something that slows or delays progress; the phenomenon of resistance to motion through a fluid; a slow inhalation (as of tobacco smoke); verb proceed for an extended period of time; persuade to come away from something attractive or interesting; pull, as against a resistance; to lag or linger behind; move slowly and as if with great effort; use a computer mouse to move icons on the screen and select commands from a menu; suck in or take (air); search (as the bottom of a body of water) for something valuable or lost; draw slowly or heavily; walk without lifting the feet; force into some kind of situation, condition, or course of action
 
 
 
* '''[[drambuie]]''' - noun a sweet Scotch whisky liqueur
 
 
 
* '''[[dried apricot]]''' - noun apricots preserved by drying
 
 
 
* '''[[dried fruit]]''' - noun fruit preserved by drying
 
 
 
* '''[[drimys winteri]]''' - noun South American evergreen tree yielding winter's bark and a light soft wood similar to basswood
 
 
 
* '''[[drink]]''' - noun the act of drinking alcoholic beverages to excess; a single serving of a beverage; any large deep body of water; the act of swallowing; any liquid suitable for drinking; verb take in liquids; consume alcohol; drink excessive amounts of alcohol; be an alcoholic; be fascinated or spell-bound by; pay close attention to; propose a toast to
 
 
 
* '''[[drupe]]''' - noun fleshy indehiscent fruit with a single seed: e.g. almond; peach; plum; cherry; elderberry; olive; jujube
 
 
 
* '''[[duff]]''' - noun a stiff flour pudding steamed or boiled usually and containing e.g. currants and raisins and citron
 
 
 
* '''[[duncan]]''' - noun United States dancer and pioneer of modern dance (1878-1927)
 
 
 
* '''[[durian]]''' - noun huge fruit native to southeastern Asia `smelling like Hell and tasting like Heaven'; seeds are roasted and eaten like nuts; tree of southeastern Asia having edible oval fruit with a hard spiny rind
 
 
 
* '''[[durio zibethinus]]''' - noun tree of southeastern Asia having edible oval fruit with a hard spiny rind
 
 
 
* '''[[durum]]''' - noun wheat with hard dark-colored kernels high in gluten and used for bread and pasta; grown especially in southern Russia, North Africa, and northern central North America
 
 
 
* '''[[eau de vie]]''' - noun strong coarse brandy
 
 
 
* '''[[eccles cake]]''' - noun a flat round cake of sweetened pastry filled with dried fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[echinochloa]]''' - noun annual or perennial succulent grasses of warm regions
 
 
 
* '''[[echinochloa frumentacea]]''' - noun coarse annual grass cultivated in Japan and southeastern Asia for its edible seeds and for forage; important wildlife food in United States
 
 
 
* '''[[edelweiss]]''' - noun alpine perennial plant native to Europe having leaves covered with whitish down and small flower heads held in stars of glistening whitish bracts
 
 
 
* '''[[edward]]''' - noun son of Edward III who defeated the French at Crecy and Poitiers in the Hundred Years' War (1330-1376); third son of Elizabeth II (born in 1964); King of England from 1272 to 1307; conquered Wales (1239-1307); King of England from 1307 to 1327 and son of Edward I; was defeated at Bannockburn by the Scots led by Robert the Bruce; was deposed and died in prison (1284-1327); son of Edward II and King of England from 1327-1377; his claim to the French throne provoked the Hundred Years' War; his reign was marked by an epidemic of the Black Plague and by the emergence of the House of Commons as the powerful arm of British Parliament (1312-1377); King of England from 1461 to 1470 and from 1471 to 1483; was dethroned in 1470 but regained the throne in 1471 by his victory at the battle of Tewkesbury (1442-1483); King of England who was crowned at the age of 13 on the death of his father Edward IV but was immediately confined to the Tower of London where he and his younger brother were murdered (1470-1483); King of England and Ireland from 1547 to 1553; son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour; died of tuberculosis (1537-1553); King of England from 1901 to 1910; son of Victoria and Prince Albert; famous for his elegant sporting ways (1841-1910); King of England and Ireland in 1936; his marriage to Wallis Warfield Simpson created a constitutional crisis leading to his abdication (1894-1972)
 
 
 
* '''[[egg cream]]''' - noun made of milk and flavored syrup with soda water
 
 
 
* '''[[eggplant]]''' - noun egg-shaped vegetable having a shiny skin typically dark purple but occasionally white or yellow; hairy upright herb native to southeastern Asia but widely cultivated for its large glossy edible fruit commonly used as a vegetable
 
 
 
* '''[[elaeis]]''' - noun oil palms
 
 
 
* '''[[elaeis guineensis]]''' - noun oil palm of Africa
 
 
 
* '''[[elaeis oleifera]]''' - noun palm of Central and South America
 
 
 
* '''[[eleocharis dulcis]]''' - noun Chinese sedge yielding edible bulb-shaped tubers
 
 
 
* '''[[elettaria]]''' - noun cardamom
 
 
 
* '''[[elettaria cardamomum]]''' - noun rhizomatous herb of India having aromatic seeds used as seasoning
 
 
 
* '''[[eleusine coracana]]''' - noun East Indian cereal grass whose seed yield a somewhat bitter flour, a staple in the Orient
 
 
 
* '''[[emir]]''' - noun an independent ruler or chieftain (especially in Africa or Arabia)
 
 
 
* '''[[emmenagogue]]''' - noun any agent that promotes menstrual discharge
 
 
 
* '''[[emmer]]''' - noun hard red wheat grown especially in Russia and Germany; in United States as stock feed
 
 
 
* '''[[emperor]]''' - noun large moth of temperate forests of Eurasia having heavily scaled transparent wings; red table grape of California; the male ruler of an empire; large richly colored butterfly
 
 
 
* '''[[empire]]''' - noun an eating apple that somewhat resembles a McIntosh; used as both an eating and a cooking apple; a group of countries under a single authority; a monarchy with an emperor as head of state; the domain ruled by an emperor or empress; the region over which imperial dominion is exercised; a group of diverse companies under common ownership and run as a single organization
 
 
 
* '''[[endive]]''' - noun widely cultivated herb with leaves valued as salad green; either curly serrated leaves or broad flat ones that are usually blanched; variety of endive having leaves with irregular frilled edges
 
 
 
* '''[[engineer]]''' - noun a person who uses scientific knowledge to solve practical problems; the operator of a railway locomotive; verb design as an engineer; plan and direct (a complex undertaking)
 
 
 
* '''[[ensete]]''' - noun Old World tropical herbs: Abyssinian bananas
 
 
 
* '''[[ensete ventricosum]]''' - noun large evergreen arborescent herb having huge paddle-shaped leaves and bearing inedible fruit that resemble bananas but edible young flower shoots; sometimes placed in genus Musa
 
 
 
* '''[[enterprise]]''' - noun a purposeful or industrious undertaking (especially one that requires effort or boldness); readiness to embark on bold new ventures; an organization created for business ventures
 
 
 
* '''[[envy]]''' - noun spite and resentment at seeing the success of another (personified as one of the deadly sins); a feeling of grudging admiration and desire to have something that is possessed by another; verb be envious of; set one's heart on; feel envious towards; admire enviously
 
 
 
* '''[[ergot]]''' - noun a fungus that infects various cereal plants forming compact black masses of branching filaments that replace many grains of the plant; source of medicinally important alkaloids and of lysergic acid; a plant disease caused by the ergot fungus
 
 
 
* '''[[eriobotrya]]''' - noun Asiatic evergreen fruit trees
 
 
 
* '''[[erodium cicutarium]]''' - noun European weed naturalized in southwestern United States and Mexico having reddish decumbent stems with small fernlike leaves and small deep reddish-lavender flowers followed by slender fruits that stick straight up; often grown for forage
 
 
 
* '''[[erodium moschatum]]''' - noun low annual European herb naturalized in America; similar to alfilaria
 
 
 
* '''[[erythronium]]''' - noun perennial bulbous herbs most of northern United States: dogtooth violet; adder's tongue; trout lily; fawn lily
 
 
 
* '''[[espalier]]''' - noun a trellis on which ornamental shrub or fruit tree is trained to grow flat
 
 
 
* '''[[essential oil]]''' - noun an oil having the odor or flavor of the plant from which it comes; used in perfume and flavorings
 
 
 
* '''[[eucalyptus oil]]''' - noun an essential oil obtained from the leaves of eucalypts
 
 
 
* '''[[eyespot]]''' - noun an eyelike marking (as on the wings of some butterflies); usually a spot of color inside a ring of another color
 
 
 
* '''[[fagopyrum esculentum]]''' - noun a member of the genus Fagopyrum; annual Asian plant with clusters of small pinkish white flowers and small edible triangular seeds which are used whole or ground into flour
 
 
 
* '''[[fagus grandifolia]]''' - noun North American forest tree with light green leaves and edible nuts
 
 
 
* '''[[fagus sylvatica]]''' - noun large European beech with minutely-toothed leaves; widely planted as an ornamental in North America
 
 
 
* '''[[falafel]]''' - noun small croquette of mashed chick peas or fava beans seasoned with sesame seeds
 
 
 
* '''[[famine]]''' - noun a severe shortage of food (as through crop failure) resulting in violent hunger and starvation and death; an acute insufficiency
 
 
 
* '''[[farina]]''' - noun fine meal made from cereal grain especially wheat; often used as a cooked cereal or in puddings
 
 
 
* '''[[fava bean]]''' - noun shell beans cooked as lima beans; seed of the broad-bean plant
 
 
 
* '''[[fennel]]''' - noun fennel seeds are ground and used as a spice or as an ingredient of a spice mixture; leaves used for seasoning; aromatic bulbous stem base eaten cooked or raw in salads; any of several aromatic herbs having edible seeds and leaves and stems
 
 
 
* '''[[fenugreek]]''' - noun aromatic seeds used as seasoning especially in curry; annual herb or southern Europe and eastern Asia having off-white flowers and aromatic seeds used medicinally and in curry
 
 
 
* '''[[fermentation]]''' - noun a process in which an agent causes an organic substance to break down into simpler substances; especially, the anaerobic breakdown of sugar into alcohol; a state of agitation or turbulent change or development
 
 
 
* '''[[fern]]''' - noun any of numerous flowerless and seedless vascular plants having true roots from a rhizome and fronds that uncurl upward; reproduce by spores
 
 
 
* '''[[fiasco]]''' - noun a sudden and violent collapse
 
 
 
* '''[[ficus carica]]''' - noun Mediterranean tree widely cultivated for its edible fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[ficus sycomorus]]''' - noun thick-branched wide-spreading tree of Africa and adjacent southwestern Asia often buttressed with branches rising from near the ground; produces cluster of edible but inferior figs on short leafless twigs; the biblical sycamore
 
 
 
* '''[[fiddlehead fern]]''' - noun New World fern having woolly cinnamon-colored spore-bearing fronds in early spring later surrounded by green fronds; the early uncurling fronds are edible
 
 
 
* '''[[field]]''' - noun a particular kind of commercial enterprise; the area that is visible (as through an optical instrument); all the competitors in a particular contest or sporting event; all of the horses in a particular horse race; (mathematics) a set of elements such that addition and multiplication are commutative and associative and multiplication is distributive over addition and there are two elements 0 and 1; (computer science) a set of one or more adjacent characters comprising a unit of information; a region in which active military operations are in progress; somewhere (away from a studio or office or library or laboratory) where practical work is done or data is collected; a piece of land cleared of trees and usually enclosed; a geographic region (land or sea) under which something valuable is found; the space around a radiating body within which its electromagnetic oscillations can exert force on another similar body not in contact with it; a place where planes take off and land; a branch of knowledge; a region where a battle is being (or has been) fought; a piece of land prepared for playing a game; extensive tract of level open land; a particular environment or walk of life; verb select (a team or individual player) for a game; answer adequately or successfully; play as a fielder; catch or pick up (balls) in baseball or cricket
 
 
 
* '''[[field corn]]''' - noun corn grown primarily for animal feed or market grain
 
 
 
* '''[[field pea]]''' - noun coarse small-seeded pea often used as food when young and tender; variety of pea plant native to the Mediterranean region and North Africa and widely grown especially for forage; seed of the field pea plant
 
 
 
* '''[[fiesta]]''' - noun an elaborate party (often outdoors)
 
 
 
* '''[[film]]''' - noun a thin coating or layer; photographic material consisting of a base of celluloid covered with a photographic emulsion; used to make negatives or transparencies; a thin sheet of (usually plastic and usually transparent) material used to wrap or cover things; a medium that disseminates moving pictures; a form of entertainment that enacts a story by a sequence of images giving the illusion of continuous movement; verb make a film or photograph of something; record in film
 
 
 
* '''[[financier]]''' - noun a person skilled in large scale financial transactions; verb conduct financial operations, often in an unethical manner
 
 
 
* '''[[fines herbes]]''' - noun a mixture of finely chopped fresh herbs
 
 
 
* '''[[fire blight]]''' - noun a disease blackening the leaves of pear and apple trees
 
 
 
* '''[[fish and chips]]''' - noun fried fish and french-fried potatoes
 
 
 
* '''[[fitness]]''' - noun the condition of being suitable; the quality of being qualified; good physical condition; being in shape or in condition; fitness to traverse the seas
 
 
 
* '''[[five spice powder]]''' - noun Chinese seasoning made by grinding star anise and fennel and pepper and cloves and cinnamon
 
 
 
* '''[[flacourtia indica]]''' - noun small shrubby tree of Madagascar cultivated in tropical regions as a hedge plant and for its deep red acid fruits resembling small plums
 
 
 
* '''[[flamenco]]''' - noun a style of dancing characteristic of the Andalusian Gypsies; vigorous and rhythmic with clapping and stamping of feet; guitar music composed for dancing the flamenco
 
 
 
* '''[[flapjack]]''' - noun a flat cake of thin batter fried on both sides on a griddle
 
 
 
* '''[[flax]]''' - noun plant of the genus Linum that is cultivated for its seeds and for the fibers of its stem; fiber of the flax plant that is made into thread and woven into linen fabric
 
 
 
* '''[[flint corn]]''' - noun corn having kernels with a hard outer layer enclosing the soft endosperm
 
 
 
* '''[[flora]]''' - noun a living organism lacking the power of locomotion; all the plant life in a particular region or period
 
 
 
* '''[[florida]]''' - noun a state in southeastern United States between the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico; one of the Confederate states during the American Civil War
 
 
 
* '''[[florida arrowroot]]''' - noun small tough woody zamia of Florida and West Indies and Cuba; roots and half-buried stems yield an arrowroot
 
 
 
* '''[[flour]]''' - noun fine powdery foodstuff obtained by grinding and sifting the meal of a cereal grain; verb convert grain into flour; cover with flour
 
 
 
* '''[[flour corn]]''' - noun corn having kernels almost entirely of soft starch
 
 
 
* '''[[flowering quince]]''' - noun Asiatic ornamental shrub with spiny branches and pink or red blossoms
 
 
 
* '''[[food]]''' - noun any substance that can be metabolized by an organism to give energy and build tissue; anything that provides mental stimulus for thinking; any solid substance (as opposed to liquid) that is used as a source of nourishment
 
 
 
* '''[[food manufacturer]]''' - noun a person who manufactures food products
 
 
 
* '''[[forage]]''' - noun the act of searching for food and provisions; animal food for browsing or grazing; verb wander and feed; collect or look around for (food)
 
 
 
* '''[[force]]''' - noun physical energy or intensity; a powerful effect or influence; a group of people having the power of effective action; group of people willing to obey orders; (physics) the influence that produces a change in a physical quantity; a putout of a base runner who is required to run; the putout is accomplished by holding the ball while touching the base to which the runner must advance before the runner reaches that base; an act of aggression (as one against a person who resists); (of a law) having legal validity; a unit that is part of some military service; one possessing or exercising power or influence or authority; verb impose or thrust urgently, importunately, or inexorably; do forcibly; exert force; force into or from an action or state, either physically or metaphorically; cause to move by pulling; squeeze like a wedge into a tight space; take by force; urge or force (a person) to an action; constrain or motivate; move with force, "He pushed the table into a corner"; to cause to do through pressure or necessity, by physical, moral or intellectual means :"She forced him to take a job in the city"
 
 
 
* '''[[ford]]''' - noun the act of crossing a stream or river by wading or in a car or on a horse; a shallow area in a stream that can be forded; United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production (1863-1947); 38th President of the United States; appointed vice president and succeeded Nixon when Nixon resigned (1913-); English writer and editor (1873-1939); son of Henry Ford (1893-1943); grandson of Henry Ford (1917-1987); United States film maker (1896-1973); verb cross a river where it's shallow
 
 
 
* '''[[fortified wine]]''' - noun wine to which alcohol (usually grape brandy) has been added
 
 
 
* '''[[foxtail millet]]''' - noun coarse drought-resistant annual grass grown for grain, hay and forage in Europe and Asia and chiefly for forage and hay in United States
 
 
 
* '''[[fragaria]]''' - noun strawberries
 
 
 
* '''[[fragaria chiloensis]]''' - noun wild strawberry of western United States and South America; source of many varieties of cultivated strawberries
 
 
 
* '''[[fragaria vesca]]''' - noun Europe
 
 
 
* '''[[fragaria virginiana]]''' - noun North American wild strawberry with sweet scarlet fruit; a source of many cultivated strawberries
 
 
 
* '''[[framboise]]''' - noun the common European raspberry; fruit red or orange
 
 
 
* '''[[francis ford coppola]]''' - noun United States filmmaker (born in 1939)
 
 
 
* '''[[frangipane]]''' - noun pastry with a creamy almond-flavored filling
 
 
 
* '''[[french fries]]''' - noun strips of potato fried in deep fat
 
 
 
* '''[[fruit]]''' - noun the consequence of some effort or action; the ripened reproductive body of a seed plant; an amount of a product; verb bear fruit; cause to bear fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[fruit salad]]''' - noun salad composed of fruits
 
 
 
* '''[[fruit tree]]''' - noun tree bearing edible fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[fruitcake]]''' - noun a rich cake containing dried fruit and nuts and citrus peel and so on; a whimsically eccentric person
 
 
 
* '''[[fucus vesiculosus]]''' - noun a common rockweed used in preparing kelp and as manure
 
 
 
* '''[[fudge]]''' - noun soft creamy candy; verb fake or falsify; avoid or try to avoid fulfilling, answering, or performing (duties, questions, or issues)
 
 
 
* '''[[fuji]]''' - noun an extinct volcano in south central Honshu that is the highest peak in Japan; last erupted in 1707; famous for its symmetrical snow-capped peak; a sacred mountain and site for pilgrimages; shrubby Japanese cherry tree having pale pink blossoms
 
 
 
* '''[[gala]]''' - noun a gay festivity
 
 
 
* '''[[galangal]]''' - noun southeastern Asian perennial with aromatic roots; European sedge having rough-edged leaves and spikelets of reddish flowers and aromatic roots
 
 
 
* '''[[galium odoratum]]''' - noun Old World fragrant stoloniferous perennial having small white flowers and narrow leaves used as flavoring and in sachets; widely cultivated as a ground cover; in some classifications placed in genus Asperula
 
 
 
* '''[[galliano]]''' - noun golden Italian liqueur flavored with herbs
 
 
 
* '''[[garden cress]]''' - noun cress cultivated for salads and garnishes
 
 
 
* '''[[garlic]]''' - noun aromatic bulb used as seasoning; bulbous herb of southern Europe widely naturalized; bulb breaks up into separate strong-flavored cloves
 
 
 
* '''[[garlic bread]]''' - noun French or Italian bread sliced and spread with garlic butter then crisped in the oven
 
 
 
* '''[[garlic butter]]''' - noun butter seasoned with mashed garlic
 
 
 
* '''[[garlic press]]''' - noun a press for extracting juice from garlic
 
 
 
* '''[[garlic salt]]''' - noun ground dried garlic and salt
 
 
 
* '''[[garnish]]''' - noun any decoration added as a trimming or adornment; something (such as parsley) added to a dish for flavor or decoration; verb decorate (food), as with parsley or other ornamental foods; take a debtor's wages on legal orders, such as for child support
 
 
 
* '''[[gary]]''' - noun a city in northwest Indiana on Lake Michigan; steel production
 
 
 
* '''[[gaultheria hispidula]]''' - noun slow-growing procumbent evergreen shrublet of northern North America and Japan having white flowers and numerous white fleshy rough and hairy seeds
 
 
 
* '''[[gaultheria procumbens]]''' - noun creeping shrub of eastern North America having white bell-shaped flowers followed by spicy red berrylike fruit and shiny aromatic leaves that yield wintergreen oil
 
 
 
* '''[[gaultheria shallon]]''' - noun small evergreen shrub of Pacific coast of North America having edible dark purple grape-size berries
 
 
 
* '''[[gaylussacia baccata]]''' - noun low shrub of the eastern United States bearing shiny black edible fruit; best known of the huckleberries
 
 
 
* '''[[gazpacho]]''' - noun a soup made with chopped tomatoes and onions and cucumbers and peppers and herbs; served cold
 
 
 
* '''[[geisha]]''' - noun a Japanese woman trained to entertain men with conversation and singing and dancing
 
 
 
* '''[[general]]''' - adj. prevailing among and common to the general public; not specialized or limited to one class of things; applying to all or most members of a category or group; of national scope; affecting the entire body; somewhat indefinite; of worldwide scope or applicability; noun a fact about the whole (as opposed to particular); a general officer of the highest rank; the head of a religious order or congregation; verb command as a general
 
 
 
* '''[[genipa americana]]''' - noun tree of the West Indies and northern South America bearing succulent edible orange-sized fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[genus]]''' - noun a general kind of something; (biology) taxonomic group containing one or more species
 
 
 
* '''[[gimlet]]''' - noun a cocktail made of gin or vodka and lime juice; hand tool for boring holes
 
 
 
* '''[[ginger]]''' - adj. (used especially of hair or fur) having a bright orange-brown color; noun pungent rhizome of the common ginger plant; used fresh as a seasoning especially in Oriental cookery; dried ground gingerroot; perennial plants having thick branching aromatic rhizomes and leafy reedlike stems; liveliness and energy; verb add ginger to in order to add flavor
 
 
 
* '''[[ginger ale]]''' - noun ginger-flavored carbonated drink
 
 
 
* '''[[ginger beer]]''' - noun carbonated slightly alcoholic drink flavored with fermented ginger
 
 
 
* '''[[ginger snap]]''' - noun a crisp round cookie flavored with ginger
 
 
 
* '''[[gingerbread]]''' - noun cake flavored with ginger
 
 
 
* '''[[gingerbread man]]''' - noun gingerbread cut in the shape of a person
 
 
 
* '''[[gingerol]]''' - noun derived from ginger; source of the hotness of ginger
 
 
 
* '''[[ginkgo biloba]]''' - noun deciduous dioecious Chinese tree having fan-shaped leaves and fleshy yellow seeds; exists almost exclusively in cultivation especially as an ornamental street tree
 
 
 
* '''[[ginseng]]''' - noun Chinese herb with palmately compound leaves and small greenish flowers and forked aromatic roots believed to have medicinal powers; aromatic root of ginseng plants
 
 
 
* '''[[glasswort]]''' - noun fleshy maritime plant having fleshy stems with rudimentary scalelike leaves and small spikes of minute flowers; formerly used in making glass; bushy plant of Old World salt marshes and sea beaches having prickly leaves; burned to produce a crude soda ash
 
 
 
* '''[[glenn]]''' - noun made the first orbital rocket-powered flight by a United States astronaut in 1962; later in United States Senate (1921-)
 
 
 
* '''[[glycerol]]''' - noun a sweet syrupy trihydroxy alcohol obtained by saponification of fats and oils
 
 
 
* '''[[glycine max]]''' - noun erect bushy hairy annual herb having trifoliate leaves and purple to pink flowers; extensively cultivated for food and forage and soil improvement but especially for its nutritious oil-rich seeds; native to Asia
 
 
 
* '''[[glycyrrhiza glabra]]''' - noun deep-rooted coarse-textured plant native to the Mediterranean region having blue flowers and pinnately compound leaves; widely cultivated in Europe for its long thick sweet roots
 
 
 
* '''[[gnetum gnemon]]''' - noun small tropical tree with tiered branches and divaricate branchlets having broad glossy dark green leaves; exploited for its edible young leaves and seeds that provide a fine flour
 
 
 
* '''[[godfather]]''' - noun someone having a relation analogous to that of a male sponsor to his godchild; any man who serves as a sponsor for a child at baptism
 
 
 
* '''[[goethe]]''' - noun German poet and novelist and dramatist who lived in Weimar (1749-1832)
 
 
 
* '''[[golden delicious]]''' - noun a sweet eating apple with yellow skin
 
 
 
* '''[[golden star]]''' - noun California plant having grasslike leaves and showy orange flowers
 
 
 
* '''[[good]]''' - adj. thorough; generally admired; resulting favorably; not left to spoil; not forged; having desirable or positive qualities especially those suitable for a thing specified; morally admirable; in excellent physical condition; appealing to the mind; agreeable or pleasing; most suitable or right for a particular purpose; capable of pleasing; of moral excellence; promoting or enhancing well-being; having the normally expected amount; with or in a close or intimate relationship; exerting force or influence; tending to promote physical well-being; beneficial to health; deserving of esteem and respect; having or showing knowledge and skill and aptitude; financially sound; adv. (often used as a combining form) in a good or proper or satisfactory manner or to a high standard (`good' is a nonstandard dialectal variant for `well'); in a complete and thorough manner (`good' is sometimes used informally for `thoroughly'); noun moral excellence or admirableness; that which is pleasing or valuable or useful; benefit; articles of commerce
 
 
 
* '''[[gooseberry]]''' - noun currant-like berry used primarily in jams and jellies; spiny Eurasian shrub having greenish purple-tinged flowers and ovoid yellow-green or red-purple berries
 
 
 
* '''[[gossypium hirsutum]]''' - noun native tropical American plant now cultivated in the United States yielding short-staple cotton
 
 
 
* '''[[graham]]''' - noun United States dancer and choreographer whose work was noted for its austerity and technical rigor (1893-1991); United States evangelical preacher famous as a mass evangelist (born in 1918); flour made by grinding the entire wheat berry including the bran; (`whole meal flour' is British usage)
 
 
 
* '''[[grain]]''' - noun the direction or texture of fibers found in wood or leather or stone or in a woven fabric; foodstuff prepared from the starchy grains of cereal grasses; a small hard particle; dry seedlike fruit produced by the cereal grasses: e.g. wheat, barley, Indian corn; 1/7000 pound; equals a troy grain or 64.799 milligrams; 1/60 dram; equals an avoirdupois grain or 64.799 milligrams; a weight unit used for pearls or diamonds: 50 mg or 1/4 carat; verb paint (a surface) to make it look like stone or wood; become granular; form into grains; thoroughly work in
 
 
 
* '''[[granada]]''' - noun a city in southeastern Spain that was the capital of the Moorish kingdom until it was captured by Ferdinand and Isabella in 1492; site of the Alhambra (a palace and fortress built by Moors in the Middle Ages) which is now a major tourist attraction
 
 
 
* '''[[granary]]''' - noun a storehouse for threshed grain or animal feed
 
 
 
* '''[[granny smith]]''' - noun apple with a green skin and hard tart flesh
 
 
 
* '''[[granola]]''' - noun cereal made of especially rolled oats with dried fruits and nuts and honey or brown sugar
 
 
 
* '''[[grape]]''' - noun any of various juicy fruit of the genus Vitis with green or purple skins; grow in clusters; any of numerous woody vines of genus Vitis bearing clusters of edible berries
 
 
 
* '''[[grape arbor]]''' - noun an arbor where grapes are grown
 
 
 
* '''[[grape juice]]''' - noun the juice of grapes
 
 
 
* '''[[grapefruit]]''' - noun large yellow fruit with somewhat acid juicy pulp; usual serving consists of a half; citrus tree bearing large round edible fruit having a thick yellow rind and juicy somewhat acid pulp
 
 
 
* '''[[grapefruit juice]]''' - noun the juice of grapefruits
 
 
 
* '''[[greco]]''' - noun Spanish painter (born in Greece) remembered for his religious works characterized by elongated human forms and dramatic use of color (1541-1614)
 
 
 
* '''[[green]]''' - adj. of the color between blue and yellow in the color spectrum; similar to the color of fresh grass; not fully developed or mature; not ripe; looking pale and unhealthy; concerned with or supporting or in conformity with the political principles of the Green Party; naive and easily deceived or tricked; noun green color or pigment; resembling the color of growing grass; an area of closely cropped grass surrounding the hole on a golf course; a river that rises in western Wyoming and flows southward through Utah to become a tributary of the Colorado River; an environmentalist who belongs to the Green Party; United States labor leader who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1924 to 1952 and who led the struggle with the Congress of Industrial Organizations (1873-1952); street names for ketamine; any of various leafy plants or their leaves and stems eaten as vegetables; a piece of open land for recreational use in an urban area; verb turn or become green
 
 
 
* '''[[green bean]]''' - noun immature bean pod eaten as a vegetable; a common bean plant cultivated for its slender green edible pods
 
 
 
* '''[[green river]]''' - noun a river that rises in western Wyoming and flows southward through Utah to become a tributary of the Colorado River
 
 
 
* '''[[greengage]]''' - noun sweet green or greenish-yellow variety of plum
 
 
 
* '''[[grenadier]]''' - noun deep-sea fish with a large head and body and long tapering tail; an infantryman equipped with grenades
 
 
 
* '''[[greyhound]]''' - noun a tall slender dog of an ancient breed noted for swiftness and keen sight; used as a racing dog
 
 
 
* '''[[grist]]''' - noun grain intended to be or that has been ground
 
 
 
* '''[[grit]]''' - noun a hard coarse-grained siliceous sandstone; fortitude and determination; verb clench together; cover with a grit
 
 
 
* '''[[grits]]''' - noun coarsely ground hulled corn boiled as a breakfast dish in the southern United States
 
 
 
* '''[[groat]]''' - noun a former English silver coin worth four pennies
 
 
 
* '''[[guacamole]]''' - noun a dip made of mashed avocado mixed with chopped onions and other seasonings
 
 
 
* '''[[guar]]''' - noun drought-tolerant herb grown for forage and for its seed which yield a gum used as a thickening agent or sizing material
 
 
 
* '''[[guava]]''' - noun tropical fruit having yellow skin and pink pulp; eaten fresh or used for e.g. jellies; small tropical American shrubby tree; widely cultivated in warm regions for its sweet globular yellow fruit; small tropical shrubby tree bearing small yellowish fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[halo blight]]''' - noun a blight of bean plants; a blight affecting the leaves of oats and other grasses
 
 
 
* '''[[hand grenade]]''' - noun a grenade designed to be thrown by hand
 
 
 
* '''[[harvest]]''' - noun the season for gathering crops; the gathering of a ripened crop; the consequence of an effort or activity; the yield from plants in a single growing season; verb remove from a culture or a living or dead body, as for the purposes of transplantation; gather, as of natural products
 
 
 
* '''[[hasty pudding]]''' - noun cornmeal mush served with sweetening (maple syrup or brown sugar); sweetened porridge made of tapioca or flour or oatmeal cooked quickly in milk or water
 
 
 
* '''[[hazel]]''' - adj. of a light brown or yellowish brown color; noun the fine-grained wood of a hazelnut tree (genus Corylus) and the hazel tree (Australian genus Pomaderris); Australian tree grown especially for ornament and its fine-grained wood and bearing edible nuts; any of several shrubs or small trees of the genus Corylus bearing edible nuts enclosed in a leafy husk
 
 
 
* '''[[hazelnut]]''' - noun nut of any of several trees of the genus Corylus; any of several shrubs or small trees of the genus Corylus bearing edible nuts enclosed in a leafy husk
 
 
 
* '''[[helianthus annuus]]''' - noun annual sunflower grown for silage and for its seeds which are a source of oil; common throughout United States and much of North America
 
 
 
* '''[[hemp]]''' - noun a plant fiber; a rope that is used by a hangman to execute persons who have been condemned to death by hanging; any plant of the genus Cannabis; a coarse bushy annual with palmate leaves and clusters of small green flowers; yields tough fibers and narcotic drugs
 
 
 
* '''[[herb]]''' - noun aromatic potherb used in cookery for its savory qualities; a plant lacking a permanent woody stem; many are flowering garden plants or potherbs; some having medicinal properties; some are pests
 
 
 
* '''[[herbal tea]]''' - noun tea-like drink made of leaves of various herbs
 
 
 
* '''[[herbert]]''' - noun United States musician and composer and conductor noted for his comic operas (1859-1924)
 
 
 
* '''[[hickory]]''' - noun American hardwood tree bearing edible nuts; valuable tough heavy hardwood from various hickory trees
 
 
 
* '''[[hideous]]''' - adj. so extremely ugly as to be terrifying; grossly offensive to decency or morality; causing horror
 
 
 
* '''[[hieroglyph]]''' - noun a writing system using picture symbols; used in ancient Egypt; writing that resembles hieroglyphics (usually by being illegible)
 
 
 
* '''[[hock]]''' - noun tarsal joint of the hind leg of hoofed mammals; corresponds to the human ankle; any of several white wines from the Rhine River valley in Germany (`hock' is British usage); verb disable by cutting the hock; leave as a guarantee in return for money
 
 
 
* '''[[hogshead]]''' - noun a large cask especially one holding 63 gals; a British unit of capacity for alcoholic beverages
 
 
 
* '''[[home fries]]''' - noun sliced pieces of potato fried in a pan until brown and crisp
 
 
 
* '''[[hominy]]''' - noun hulled corn with the bran and germ removed
 
 
 
* '''[[honey]]''' - adj. of something having the color of honey; noun a sweet yellow liquid produced by bees; a beloved person; used as terms of endearment; verb sweeten with honey
 
 
 
* '''[[honey locust]]''' - noun tall usually spiny North American tree having small greenish-white flowers in drooping racemes followed by long twisting seed pods; yields very hard durable reddish-brown wood; introduced to temperate Old World
 
 
 
* '''[[honeydew]]''' - noun the fruit of a variety of winter melon vine; a large smooth greenish-white melon with pale green flesh
 
 
 
* '''[[hordeum pusillum]]''' - noun annual barley native to western North America and widespread in southern United States and tropical America
 
 
 
* '''[[hordeum vulgare]]''' - noun grass yielding grain used for breakfast food and animal feed and in malt beverages
 
 
 
* '''[[horseradish]]''' - noun grated horseradish root; coarse Eurasian plant cultivated for its thick white pungent root; the root of the horseradish plant; it is grated or ground and used for seasoning
 
 
 
* '''[[hot chocolate]]''' - noun a beverage made from cocoa powder and milk and sugar; usually drunk hot
 
 
 
* '''[[howe]]''' - noun United States inventor who built early sewing machines and won suits for patent infringement against other manufacturers (including Isaac M. Singer) (1819-1867); United States feminist who was active in the women's suffrage movement (1819-1910); Canadian hockey player who holds the record for playing the most games (born 1928); United States editor (1920-1993)
 
 
 
* '''[[huarache]]''' - noun a sandal with flat heels and an upper of woven leather straps
 
 
 
* '''[[huckleberry]]''' - noun blue-black berry similar to blueberries and bilberries of the eastern United States; any of several shrubs of the genus Gaylussacia bearing small berries resembling blueberries; any of various dark-fruited as distinguished from blue-fruited blueberries
 
 
 
* '''[[hummus]]''' - noun a thick spread made from mashed chickpeas, tahini, lemon juice and garlic; used especially as a dip for pita; originated in the Middle East
 
 
 
* '''[[humulus]]''' - noun hops: hardy perennial vines of Europe, North America and central and eastern Asia producing a latex sap; in some classifications included in the family Urticaceae
 
 
 
* '''[[hushpuppy]]''' - noun deep-fried cornbread ball (southern)
 
 
 
* '''[[hypericum perforatum]]''' - noun yellow-flowered perennial common in fields and waste places but a weed in rangelands
 
 
 
* '''[[hypochaeris radicata]]''' - noun European weed widely naturalized in North America having yellow flower heads and leaves resembling a cat's ears
 
 
 
* '''[[hyssopus]]''' - noun Eurasian genus of perennial herbs or subshrubs
 
 
 
* '''[[hyssopus officinalis]]''' - noun a European mint with aromatic and pungent leaves used in perfumery and as a seasoning in cookery; often cultivated as a remedy for bruises; yields hyssop oil
 
 
 
* '''[[ice cream]]''' - noun frozen dessert containing cream and sugar and flavoring
 
 
 
* '''[[iceberg lettuce]]''' - noun lettuce with crisp tightly packed light-green leaves in a firm head
 
 
 
* '''[[icebox cake]]''' - noun ice cream molded to look like a cake
 
 
 
* '''[[ilama]]''' - noun whitish tropical fruit with a pinkish tinge related to custard apples; grown in the southern United States; tropical American tree grown in southern United States having a whitish pink-tinged fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[ilex paraguariensis]]''' - noun South American holly; leaves used in making a drink like tea
 
 
 
* '''[[illicium verum]]''' - noun small tree of China and Vietnam bearing anise-scented star-shaped fruit used in food and medicinally as a carminative
 
 
 
* '''[[illinois]]''' - noun the Algonquian language of the Illinois and Miami; a Midwest state in north-central United States; a member of the Algonquian people formerly of Illinois and regions to the west
 
 
 
* '''[[incorporated]]''' - adj. introduced into as a part of the whole; organized and maintained as a legal corporation; formed or united into a whole
 
 
 
* '''[[indian lettuce]]''' - noun a plant of the genus Montia having edible pleasant-tasting leaves
 
 
 
* '''[[inga edulis]]''' - noun ornamental evergreen tree with masses of white flowers; tropical and subtropical America
 
 
 
* '''[[ingredient]]''' - noun a component of a mixture or compound; food that is a component of a mixture in cooking; an abstract part of something
 
 
 
* '''[[inventor]]''' - noun someone who is the first to think of or make something
 
 
 
* '''[[ireland]]''' - noun an island comprising the republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland; a republic consisting of 26 of 32 counties comprising the island of Ireland; achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1921
 
 
 
* '''[[irvingia]]''' - noun wild mango
 
 
 
* '''[[irvingia gabonensis]]''' - noun African tree with edible yellow fruit resembling mangos; valued for its oil-rich seed and hardy green wood that resists termites
 
 
 
* '''[[isabella]]''' - noun the queen of Castile whose marriage to Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469 marked the beginning of the modern state of Spain; they instituted the Spanish Inquisition in 1478 and sponsored the voyages of Christopher Columbus in 1492 (1451-1504)
 
 
 
* '''[[isinglass]]''' - noun any of various minerals consisting of hydrous silicates of aluminum or potassium etc. that crystallize in forms that allow perfect cleavage into very thin leaves; used as dielectrics because of their resistance to electricity
 
 
 
* '''[[italia]]''' - noun a republic in southern Europe on the Italian Peninsula; was the core of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire between the 4th century BC and the 5th century AD
 
 
 
* '''[[ivory]]''' - noun a hard smooth ivory colored dentine that makes up most of the tusks of elephants and walruses; a shade of white the color of bleached bones
 
 
 
* '''[[jackfruit]]''' - noun immense East Indian fruit resembling breadfruit; it contains an edible pulp and nutritious seeds that are commonly roasted; East Indian tree cultivated for its immense edible fruit and seeds
 
 
 
* '''[[jaffa orange]]''' - noun sweet almost seedless orange of Israel
 
 
 
* '''[[jakarta]]''' - noun capital and largest city of Indonesia; located on the island of Java; founded by the Dutch in 17th century
 
 
 
* '''[[japanese millet]]''' - noun coarse annual grass cultivated in Japan and southeastern Asia for its edible seeds and for forage; important wildlife food in United States
 
 
 
* '''[[japanese radish]]''' - noun radish of Japan with a long hard durable root eaten raw or cooked
 
 
 
* '''[[jazz]]''' - noun a style of dance music popular in the 1920s; similar to New Orleans jazz but played by large bands; a genre of popular music that originated in New Orleans around 1900 and developed through increasingly complex styles; empty rhetoric or insincere or exaggerated talk; verb play something in the style of jazz; have sexual intercourse with
 
 
 
* '''[[jerk]]''' - noun an abrupt spasmodic movement; raising a weight from shoulder height to above the head by straightening the arms; a dull stupid fatuous person; (mechanics) the rate of change of acceleration; a sudden abrupt pull; meat (especially beef) cut in strips and dried in the sun; verb throw or toss with a quick motion; move with abrupt, seemingly uncontrolled motions; make an uncontrolled, short, jerky motion; pull, or move with a sudden movement; jump vertically, with legs stiff and back arched
 
 
 
* '''[[jerusalem artichoke]]''' - noun sunflower tuber eaten raw or boiled or sliced thin and fried as Saratoga chips; tall perennial with hairy stems and leaves; widely cultivated for its large irregular edible tubers; edible tuber of the Jerusalem artichoke
 
 
 
* '''[[jesus]]''' - noun a teacher and prophet born in Bethlehem and active in Nazareth; his life and sermons form the basis for Christianity (circa 4 BC - AD 29)
 
 
 
* '''[[job's tears]]''' - noun hard pearly seeds of an Asiatic grass; often used as beads
 
 
 
* '''[[johnny appleseed]]''' - noun United States pioneer who planted apple trees as he traveled (1774-1845)
 
 
 
* '''[[johnnycake]]''' - noun cornbread usually cooked pancake-style on a griddle (chiefly New England)
 
 
 
* '''[[johnson grass]]''' - noun tall perennial grass that spreads by creeping rhizomes and is grown for fodder; naturalized in southern United States where it is a serious pest on cultivated land
 
 
 
* '''[[jonah]]''' - noun a book in the Old Testament that tells the story of Jonah and the whale; a person believed to bring bad luck to those around him; (Old Testament) Jonah did not wish to become a prophet so God caused a great storm to throw him overboard from a ship; he was saved by being swallowed by a whale that vomited him out onto dry land
 
 
 
* '''[[jonathan]]''' - noun red late-ripening apple; primarily eaten raw
 
 
 
* '''[[joseph]]''' - noun (New Testament) husband of Mary and (in Christian belief) the foster father of Jesus; (Old Testament) the 11th son of Jacob and one of the 12 patriarchs of Israel; Jacob gave Joseph a coat of many colors, which made his brothers jealous and they sold him into slavery in Egypt; leader of the Nez Perce in their retreat from United States troops (1840-1904)
 
 
 
* '''[[jug wine]]''' - noun inexpensive wine sold in large bottles or jugs
 
 
 
* '''[[juglans]]''' - noun type genus of the Juglandaceae
 
 
 
* '''[[juglans californica]]''' - noun medium-sized tree with somewhat aromatic compound leaves and edible nuts
 
 
 
* '''[[juglans cinerea]]''' - noun North American walnut tree having light-brown wood and edible nuts; source of a light-brown dye
 
 
 
* '''[[juglans nigra]]''' - noun North American walnut tree with hard dark wood and edible nut
 
 
 
* '''[[juglans regia]]''' - noun Eurasian walnut valued for its large edible nut and its hard richly figured wood; widely cultivated
 
 
 
* '''[[juice]]''' - noun any of several liquids of the body; the liquid part that can be extracted from plant or animal tissue; electric current; energetic vitality
 
 
 
* '''[[juicer]]''' - noun a squeezer with a conical ridged center that is used for squeezing juice from citrus fruit; a person who drinks alcoholic beverages (especially to excess)
 
 
 
* '''[[jujube]]''' - noun chewy fruit-flavored jellied candy (sometimes medicated to soothe a sore throat); dark red plumlike fruit of Old World buckthorn trees; spiny tree having dark red edible fruits
 
 
 
* '''[[jumble]]''' - noun small flat ring-shaped cake or cookie; a theory or argument made up of miscellaneous or incongruous ideas; a confused multitude of things; verb assemble without order or sense; be all mixed up or jumbled together; bring into random order
 
 
 
* '''[[juniper berry]]''' - noun berrylike fruit of a plant of the genus Juniperus especially the berrylike cone of the common juniper
 
 
 
* '''[[juniperus communis]]''' - noun densely branching shrub or small tree having pungent blue berries used to flavor gin; widespread in northern hemisphere; only conifer on coasts of Iceland and Greenland
 
 
 
* '''[[jupiter]]''' - noun the largest planet and the 5th from the sun; has many satellites and is one of the brightest objects in the night sky; (Roman mythology) supreme god of Romans; counterpart of Greek Zeus
 
 
 
* '''[[just right]]''' - adv. in every detail
 
 
 
* '''[[jute]]''' - noun a member of a Germanic people who conquered England and merged with the Angles and Saxons to become Anglo-Saxons; a plant fiber used in making rope or sacks
 
 
 
* '''[[kaiser roll]]''' - noun rounded raised poppy-seed roll made of a square piece of dough by folding the corners in to the center
 
 
 
* '''[[kale]]''' - noun coarse curly-leafed cabbage; a hardy cabbage with coarse curly leaves that do not form a head; informal terms for money
 
 
 
* '''[[kama]]''' - noun god of love and erotic desire; opposite of Mara
 
 
 
* '''[[kamikaze]]''' - noun a fighter plane used for suicide missions by Japanese pilots in World War II; a pilot trained and willing to cause a suicidal crash
 
 
 
* '''[[kasha]]''' - noun boiled or baked buckwheat
 
 
 
* '''[[kava]]''' - noun an alcoholic drink made from the aromatic roots of the kava shrub
 
 
 
* '''[[kebab]]''' - noun cubes of meat marinated and cooked on a skewer usually with vegetables
 
 
 
* '''[[kelp]]''' - noun large brown seaweeds having fluted leathery fronds
 
 
 
* '''[[kent]]''' - noun a county in southeastern England on the English Channel; formerly an Anglo-Saxon kingdom, it was the first to be colonized by the Romans; United States painter noted for his woodcuts (1882-1971)
 
 
 
* '''[[ketchup]]''' - noun thick spicy sauce made from tomatoes
 
 
 
* '''[[key lime]]''' - noun small yellow-green limes of southern Florida
 
 
 
* '''[[kidney bean]]''' - noun large dark red bean; usually dried; the common bean plant grown for the beans rather than the pods (especially a variety with large red kidney-shaped beans)
 
 
 
* '''[[kirsch]]''' - noun from fermented juice of black morello cherries
 
 
 
* '''[[kitchen garden]]''' - noun a small garden where vegetables are grown
 
 
 
* '''[[knish]]''' - noun (Yiddish) baked or fried turnover filled with potato or meat or cheese; often eaten as a snack
 
 
 
* '''[[kohlrabi]]''' - noun fleshy turnip-shaped edible stem of the kohlrabi plant; plant cultivated for its enlarged fleshy turnip-shaped edible stem
 
 
 
* '''[[kola nut]]''' - noun bitter brown seed containing caffein; source of cola extract; tree bearing large brown nuts containing e.g. caffeine; source of cola extract
 
 
 
* '''[[kumquat]]''' - noun small oval citrus fruit with thin sweet rind and very acid pulp; any of several trees or shrubs of the genus Fortunella bearing small orange-colored edible fruits with thick sweet-flavored skin and sour pulp
 
 
 
* '''[[kylix]]''' - noun a shallow drinking cup with two handles; used in ancient Greece
 
 
 
* '''[[la crosse]]''' - noun a town in western Wisconsin on the Mississippi River
 
 
 
* '''[[lablab]]''' - noun one species: hyacinth bean
 
 
 
* '''[[lablab purpureus]]''' - noun perennial twining vine of Old World tropics having trifoliate leaves and racemes of fragrant purple pea-like flowers followed by maroon pods of edible seeds; grown as an ornamental and as a vegetable on the Indian subcontinent; sometimes placed in genus Dolichos
 
 
 
* '''[[labrador tea]]''' - noun evergreen shrub of eastern North America having white or creamy bell-shaped flowers and dark green hairy leaves used for tea during American Revolution
 
 
 
* '''[[lactuca sativa]]''' - noun annual or perennial garden plant having succulent leaves used in salads; widely grown
 
 
 
* '''[[lactuca serriola]]''' - noun European annual wild lettuce having prickly stems; a troublesome weed in parts of United States
 
 
 
* '''[[lambda]]''' - noun the craniometric point at the junction of the sagittal and lamboid sutures of the skull; the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet
 
 
 
* '''[[lathyrus japonicus]]''' - noun wild pea of seashores of north temperate zone having tough roots and purple flowers and useful as a sand binder
 
 
 
* '''[[lathyrus sativus]]''' - noun European annual grown for forage; seeds used for food in India and for stock elsewhere
 
 
 
* '''[[lathyrus tuberosus]]''' - noun European herb bearing small tubers used for food and in Scotland to flavor whiskey
 
 
 
* '''[[lauric acid]]''' - noun a crystalline fatty acid occurring as glycerides in natural fats and oils (especially coconut oil and palm-kernel oil)
 
 
 
* '''[[laurus nobilis]]''' - noun small Mediterranean evergreen tree with small blackish berries and glossy aromatic leaves used for flavoring in cooking; also used by ancient Greeks to crown victors
 
 
 
* '''[[lava]]''' - noun rock that in its molten form (as magma) issues from volcanos; lava is what magma is called when it reaches the surface
 
 
 
* '''[[lavandula]]''' - noun lavender
 
 
 
* '''[[lavandula angustifolia]]''' - noun aromatic Mediterranean shrub widely cultivated for its lilac flowers which are dried and used in sachets
 
 
 
* '''[[lavandula latifolia]]''' - noun Mediterranean plant with pale purple flowers that yields spike lavender oil
 
 
 
* '''[[leaf]]''' - noun hinged or detachable flat section (as of a table or door); a sheet of any written or printed material (especially in a manuscript or book); the main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants; verb produce leaves, of plants; turn over pages; look through a book or other written material
 
 
 
* '''[[lecithin]]''' - noun a yellow phospholipid essential for the metabolism of fats; found in egg yolk and in many plant and animal cells; used commercially as an emulsifier
 
 
 
* '''[[ledum]]''' - noun evergreen shrubs of north temperate regions
 
 
 
* '''[[lees]]''' - noun the sediment from fermentation of an alcoholic beverage
 
 
 
* '''[[legume]]''' - noun the seedpod of a leguminous plant (such as peas or beans or lentils); an erect or climbing bean or pea plant of the family Leguminosae; the fruit or seed of any of various bean or pea plants consisting of a case that splits along both sides when ripe and having the seeds attach to one side of the case
 
 
 
* '''[[lemon]]''' - noun an artifact (especially an automobile) that is defective or unsatisfactory; a distinctive tart flavor characteristic of lemons; yellow oval fruit with juicy acidic flesh; a small evergreen tree that originated in Asia but is widely cultivated for its fruit; a strong yellow color
 
 
 
* '''[[lemon balm]]''' - noun lemony leaves used for a tisane or in soups or fruit punches; bushy perennial Old World mint having small white or yellowish flowers and fragrant lemon-flavored leaves; a garden escapee in northern Europe and North America
 
 
 
* '''[[lemon drop]]''' - noun a hard candy with lemon flavor and a yellow color and (usually) the shape of a lemon
 
 
 
* '''[[lemon juice]]''' - noun usually freshly squeezed juice of lemons
 
 
 
* '''[[lemon meringue pie]]''' - noun pie containing lemon custard and topped with meringue
 
 
 
* '''[[lemon mint]]''' - noun an annual horsemint of central and western United States and northern Mexico; mint with leaves having perfume like that of the bergamot orange
 
 
 
* '''[[lemon oil]]''' - noun fragrant yellow oil obtained from the lemon peel
 
 
 
* '''[[lemon tree]]''' - noun a small evergreen tree that originated in Asia but is widely cultivated for its fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[lemonade]]''' - noun sweetened beverage of diluted lemon juice
 
 
 
* '''[[lens culinaris]]''' - noun widely cultivated Eurasian annual herb grown for its edible flattened seeds that are cooked like peas and also ground into meal and for its leafy stalks that are used as fodder
 
 
 
* '''[[lentil]]''' - noun round flat seed of the lentil plant used for food; widely cultivated Eurasian annual herb grown for its edible flattened seeds that are cooked like peas and also ground into meal and for its leafy stalks that are used as fodder; the fruit or seed of a lentil plant
 
 
 
* '''[[lettuce]]''' - noun leaves of any of various plants of Lactuca sativa; any of various plants of the genus Lactuca; informal terms for money
 
 
 
* '''[[leucaena leucocephala]]''' - noun low scrubby tree of tropical and subtropical North America having white flowers tinged with yellow resembling mimosa and long flattened pods
 
 
 
* '''[[leucanthemum vulgare]]''' - noun tall leafy-stemmed Eurasian perennial with white flowers; widely naturalized; often placed in genus Chrysanthemum
 
 
 
* '''[[lewisia]]''' - noun genus of western North American low-growing herbs having linear woolly leaves and large pink flowers
 
 
 
* '''[[lilium]]''' - noun type genus of Liliaceae
 
 
 
* '''[[lilium canadense]]''' - noun common lily of the eastern United States having nodding yellow or reddish flowers spotted with brown
 
 
 
* '''[[lilium columbianum]]''' - noun lily of western North America with showy orange-red purple-spotted flowers
 
 
 
* '''[[lilium lancifolium]]''' - noun east Asian perennial having large reddish-orange black-spotted flowers with reflexed petals
 
 
 
* '''[[lilt]]''' - noun a jaunty rhythm in music; verb articulate in a very careful and rhythmic way
 
 
 
* '''[[lima bean]]''' - noun broad flat beans simmered gently; never eaten raw; bush or tall-growing bean plant having large flat edible seeds; bush bean plant cultivated especially in southern United States having small flat edible seeds
 
 
 
* '''[[lime]]''' - noun the green acidic fruit of any of various lime trees; any of various related trees bearing limes; any of various deciduous trees of the genus Tilia with heart-shaped leaves and drooping cymose clusters of yellowish often fragrant flowers; several yield valuable timber; a sticky adhesive that is smeared on small branches to capture small birds; a white crystalline oxide used in the production of calcium hydroxide; a caustic substance produced by heating limestone; verb cover with lime so as to induce growth; spread birdlime on branches to catch birds
 
 
 
* '''[[limeade]]''' - noun sweetened beverage of lime juice and water
 
 
 
* '''[[limit]]''' - noun the greatest possible degree of something; the boundary of a specific area; as far as something can go; the greatest amount of something that is possible or allowed; the mathematical value toward which a function goes as the independent variable approaches infinity; final or latest limiting point; verb restrict or confine, "I limit you to two visits to the pub a day"; place limits on (extent or access); decide upon or fix definitely
 
 
 
* '''[[linseed oil]]''' - noun a drying oil extracted from flax seed and used in making such things as oil paints
 
 
 
* '''[[liqueur]]''' - noun strong highly flavored sweet liquor usually drunk after a meal
 
 
 
* '''[[liquor]]''' - noun the liquid in which vegetables or meat have be cooked; an alcoholic beverage that is distilled rather than fermented; a liquid substance that is a solution (or emulsion or suspension) used or obtained in an industrial process
 
 
 
* '''[[liquorice]]''' - noun a black candy flavored with the dried root of the licorice plant; deep-rooted coarse-textured plant native to the Mediterranean region having blue flowers and pinnately compound leaves; widely cultivated in Europe for its long thick sweet roots
 
 
 
* '''[[list]]''' - noun a database containing an ordered array of items (names or topics); the property possessed by a line or surface that departs from the vertical; verb give or make a list of; name individually; give the names of; tilt to one side; cause to lean to the side; include in a list; enumerate
 
 
 
* '''[[little barley]]''' - noun annual barley native to western North America and widespread in southern United States and tropical America
 
 
 
* '''[[lobularia maritima]]''' - noun perennial European plant having clusters of small fragrant usually white flowers; widely grown in gardens
 
 
 
* '''[[loganberry]]''' - noun large red variety of the dewberry; red-fruited bramble native from Oregon to Baja California
 
 
 
* '''[[long pepper]]''' - noun slender tropical climber of the eastern Himalayas; plant bearing very hot and finely tapering long peppers; usually red
 
 
 
* '''[[longan]]''' - noun tree of southeastern Asia to Australia grown primarily for its sweet edible fruit resembling litchi nuts; sometimes placed in genera Euphorbia or Nephelium
 
 
 
* '''[[loose smut]]''' - noun a smut fungus of the genus Ustilago causing a smut disease of grains in which the entire head is transformed into a dusty mass of spores; disease of grains; the entire head is a dusty mass of spores
 
 
 
* '''[[loquat]]''' - noun yellow olive-sized semitropical fruit with a large free stone and relatively little flesh; used for jellies; evergreen tree of warm regions having fuzzy yellow olive-sized fruit with a large free stone; native to China and Japan
 
 
 
* '''[[lovage]]''' - noun stalks eaten like celery or candied like angelica; seeds used for flavoring or pickled like capers; herb native to southern Europe; cultivated for its edible stalks and foliage and seeds
 
 
 
* '''[[love]]''' - noun any object of warm affection or devotion; a deep feeling of sexual desire and attraction; a strong positive emotion of regard and affection; a score of zero in tennis or squash; sexual activities (often including sexual intercourse) between two people; a beloved person; used as terms of endearment; verb have a great affection or liking for; be enamored or in love with; get pleasure from; have sexual intercourse with
 
 
 
* '''[[luffa]]''' - noun any of several tropical annual climbers having large yellow flowers and edible young fruits; grown commercially for the mature fruit's dried fibrous interior that is used as a sponge; the dried fibrous part of the fruit of a plant of the genus Luffa; used as a washing sponge or strainer
 
 
 
* '''[[luffa acutangula]]''' - noun loofah of Pakistan; widely cultivated throughout tropics
 
 
 
* '''[[lupinus]]''' - noun herbs or shrubs: lupin
 
 
 
* '''[[lupinus luteus]]''' - noun yellow-flowered European lupine cultivated for forage
 
 
 
* '''[[lychee]]''' - noun Chinese fruit having a thin brittle shell enclosing a sweet jellylike pulp and a single seed; often dried
 
 
 
* '''[[lycium barbarum]]''' - noun deciduous erect or spreading shrub with spiny branches and violet-purple flowers followed by orange-red berries; southeastern Europe to China
 
 
 
* '''[[macadamia]]''' - noun any tree of the genus Macadamia
 
 
 
* '''[[macadamia integrifolia]]''' - noun medium-sized tree of eastern Australia having creamy-white flowers
 
 
 
* '''[[macadamia tetraphylla]]''' - noun bushy tree with pink to purple flowers
 
 
 
* '''[[macaroon]]''' - noun chewy cookie usually containing almond paste
 
 
 
* '''[[macedonia]]''' - noun landlocked republic on the Balkan Peninsula; achieved independence from Yugoslavia in 1991; the ancient kingdom of Philip II and Alexander the Great in the southeastern Balkans that is now divided among modern Macedonia and Greece and Bulgaria
 
 
 
* '''[[maceration]]''' - noun softening due to soaking or steeping; extreme leanness (usually caused by starvation or disease)
 
 
 
* '''[[macrotyloma uniflorum]]''' - noun twining herb of Old World tropics cultivated in India for food and fodder; sometimes placed in genus Dolichos
 
 
 
* '''[[madia elegans]]''' - noun California annual having red-brown spots near the base of its yellow flower rays
 
 
 
* '''[[madrasa]]''' - noun Muslim schools in Bangladesh and Pakistan
 
 
 
* '''[[mahonia aquifolium]]''' - noun ornamental evergreen shrub of Pacific coast of North America having dark green pinnate leaves and racemes of yellow flowers followed by blue-black berries
 
 
 
* '''[[maize]]''' - noun a strong yellow color; tall annual cereal grass bearing kernels on large ears: widely cultivated in America in many varieties; the principal cereal in Mexico and Central and South America since pre-Columbian times
 
 
 
* '''[[malosma]]''' - noun one species; often included in the genus Rhus
 
 
 
* '''[[malt]]''' - noun a cereal grain that is kiln-dried after having been germinated by soaking in water; used especially in brewing and distilling; a lager of high alcohol content; by law it is considered too alcoholic to be sold as lager or beer; a milkshake made with malt powder; verb convert into malt; convert grain into malt; turn into malt, become malt; treat with malt or malt extract
 
 
 
* '''[[malted milk]]''' - noun powder made of dried milk and malted cereals; a milkshake made with malt powder
 
 
 
* '''[[maltose]]''' - noun a white crystalline sugar formed during the digestion of starches
 
 
 
* '''[[malus]]''' - noun apple trees; found throughout temperate zones of the northern hemisphere
 
 
 
* '''[[malus angustifolia]]''' - noun small tree or shrub of southeastern United States; cultivated as an ornamental for its rose-colored blossoms
 
 
 
* '''[[malus baccata]]''' - noun Asian wild crab apple cultivated in many varieties for it small acid usually red fruit used for preserving
 
 
 
* '''[[malus coronaria]]''' - noun medium-sized tree of the eastern United States having pink blossoms and small yellow fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[malus fusca]]''' - noun small tree or shrub of western United States having white blossoms and tiny yellow or red fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[malus ioensis]]''' - noun wild crab apple of western United States with fragrant pink flowers
 
 
 
* '''[[malus pumila]]''' - noun native Eurasian tree widely cultivated in many varieties for its firm rounded edible fruits
 
 
 
* '''[[malus sylvestris]]''' - noun wild crab apple native to Europe; a chief ancestor of cultivated apples
 
 
 
* '''[[malva neglecta]]''' - noun annual Old World plant with clusters of pink or white flowers; naturalized in United States
 
 
 
* '''[[malva sylvestris]]''' - noun erect or decumbent Old World perennial with axillary clusters of rosy-purple flowers; introduced in United States
 
 
 
* '''[[malvasia]]''' - noun used to make malmsey wine
 
 
 
* '''[[mandarin orange]]''' - noun a somewhat flat reddish-orange loose skinned citrus of China; shrub or small tree having flattened globose fruit with very sweet aromatic pulp and thin yellow-orange to flame-orange rind that is loose and easily removed; native to southeastern Asia
 
 
 
* '''[[mandelbrot]]''' - noun French mathematician (born in Poland) noted for inventing fractals (born in 1924)
 
 
 
* '''[[manduca sexta]]''' - noun moth whose larvae are tobacco hornworms; large green white-striped hawkmoth larva that feeds on tobacco and related plants; similar to tomato hornworm
 
 
 
* '''[[mangifera indica]]''' - noun large evergreen tropical tree cultivated for its large oval fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[mango]]''' - noun large oval tropical fruit having smooth skin, juicy aromatic pulp, and a large hairy seed; large evergreen tropical tree cultivated for its large oval fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[mangosteen]]''' - noun two- to three-inch tropical fruit with juicy flesh suggestive of both peaches and pineapples; East Indian tree with thick leathery leaves and edible fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[manilkara zapota]]''' - noun large tropical American evergreen yielding chicle gum and edible fruit; sometimes placed in genus Achras
 
 
 
* '''[[manzanilla]]''' - noun very dry pale sherry from Spain
 
 
 
* '''[[manzanita]]''' - noun chiefly evergreen shrubs of warm dry areas of western North America; evergreen tree of the Pacific coast of North America having glossy leathery leaves and orange-red edible berries; wood used for furniture and bark for tanning
 
 
 
* '''[[mara]]''' - noun hare-like rodent of the pampas of Argentina; god of death; opposite of Kama
 
 
 
* '''[[marasca cherry]]''' - noun Dalmatian bitter wild cherry tree bearing fruit whose juice is made into maraschino liqueur
 
 
 
* '''[[maraschino]]''' - noun cherry preserved in true or imitation maraschino liqueur; distilled from fermented juice of bitter wild marasca cherries
 
 
 
* '''[[maraschino cherry]]''' - noun cherry preserved in true or imitation maraschino liqueur; Dalmatian bitter wild cherry tree bearing fruit whose juice is made into maraschino liqueur
 
 
 
* '''[[margarita]]''' - noun a cocktail made of tequila and triple sec with lime and lemon juice
 
 
 
* '''[[marjoram]]''' - noun pungent leaves used as seasoning with meats and fowl and in stews and soups and omelets; aromatic Eurasian perennial
 
 
 
* '''[[marmalade]]''' - noun a preserve made of the pulp and rind of citrus fruits
 
 
 
* '''[[marquette]]''' - noun a town on Lake Superior on the Upper Peninsula in northwest Michigan; French missionary who accompanied Louis Joliet in exploring the upper Mississippi River valley (1637-1675)
 
 
 
* '''[[marrakesh]]''' - noun a city in western Morocco; tourist center
 
 
 
* '''[[marrow]]''' - noun the fatty network of connective tissue that fills the cavities of bones; large elongated squash with creamy to deep green skins; very tender and very nutritious tissue from marrowbones; any of various squash plants grown for their elongated fruit with smooth dark green skin and whitish flesh; the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience
 
 
 
* '''[[marrubium vulgare]]''' - noun European aromatic herb with hairy leaves and numerous white flowers in axillary cymes; leaves yield a bitter extract use medicinally and as flavoring
 
 
 
* '''[[mary jane]]''' - noun street names for marijuana
 
 
 
* '''[[mary pickford]]''' - noun United States film actress (born in Canada) who starred in silent films (1893-1979)
 
 
 
* '''[[marzipan]]''' - noun almond paste and egg whites
 
 
 
* '''[[masa]]''' - noun an independent group of closely related Chadic languages spoken in the area between the Biu-Mandara and East Chadic languages
 
 
 
* '''[[mashed potato]]''' - noun potato that has been peeled and boiled and then mashed
 
 
 
* '''[[massasoit]]''' - noun Wampanoag leader who aided the Pilgrims (1580-1661)
 
 
 
* '''[[mast]]''' - noun a vertical spar for supporting sails; any sturdy upright pole; nuts of forest trees used as feed for swine; nuts of forest trees (as beechnuts and acorns) accumulated on the ground; used especially as food for swine
 
 
 
* '''[[mastic]]''' - noun an evergreen shrub of the Mediterranean region that is cultivated for its resin; a pasty cement used as an adhesive or filler; an aromatic exudate from the mastic tree; used chiefly in varnishes
 
 
 
* '''[[mate]]''' - noun South American tea-like drink made from leaves of a South American holly called mate; the officer below the master on a commercial ship; informal term for a friend of the same sex; the partner of an animal (especially a sexual partner); South American holly; leaves used in making a drink like tea; a chess move constituting an inescapable and indefensible attack on the opponent's king; an exact duplicate; a person's partner in marriage; a fellow member of a team; verb place an opponent's king under an attack from which it cannot escape and thus ending the game; bring two objects, ideas, or people together; make love
 
 
 
* '''[[material]]''' - adj. derived from or composed of matter; directly relevant to a matter especially a law case; concerned with or affecting physical as distinct from intellectual or psychological well-being; concerned with worldly rather than spiritual interests; having substance or capable of being treated as fact; not imaginary; having material or physical form or substance; noun things needed for doing or making something; information (data or ideas or observations) that can be used or reworked into a finished form; a person judged suitable for admission or employment; the tangible substance that goes into the makeup of a physical object; artifact made by weaving or felting or knitting or crocheting natural or synthetic fibers
 
 
 
* '''[[matricaria chamomilla]]''' - noun annual Eurasian herb similar in fragrance and medicinal uses to chamomile though taste is more bitter and effect is considered inferior
 
 
 
* '''[[matteuccia]]''' - noun small genus sometimes included in genus Onoclea; in some classifications both genera are placed in Polypodiaceae
 
 
 
* '''[[may wine]]''' - noun a punch made of Moselle and sugar and sparkling water or champagne flavored with sweet woodruff
 
 
 
* '''[[mayhaw]]''' - noun hawthorn of southern United States bearing juicy acid scarlet fruit often used in jellies or preserves
 
 
 
* '''[[mcintosh]]''' - noun early-ripening apple popular in the northeastern United States; primarily eaten raw but suitable for applesauce
 
 
 
* '''[[medlar]]''' - noun crabapple-like fruit used for preserves; a South African globular fruit with brown leathery skin and pithy flesh having a sweet-acid taste; small deciduous Eurasian tree cultivated for its fruit that resemble crab apples; small deciduous tree of southern Africa having edible fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[melba]]''' - noun Australian operatic soprano (1861-1931)
 
 
 
* '''[[melody]]''' - noun the perception of pleasant arrangements of musical notes; a succession of notes forming a distinctive sequence
 
 
 
* '''[[melon]]''' - noun any of numerous fruits of the gourd family having a hard rind and sweet juicy flesh; any of various fruit of cucurbitaceous vines including: muskmelons; watermelons; cantaloupes; cucumbers
 
 
 
* '''[[melon ball]]''' - noun a bite of melon cut as a sphere
 
 
 
* '''[[mentha]]''' - noun mint plants
 
 
 
* '''[[mentha pulegium]]''' - noun Eurasian perennial mint have small lilac-blue flowers and ovate leaves; yields an aromatic oil
 
 
 
* '''[[mentha suaveolens]]''' - noun mint with apple-scented stems of southern and western Europe; naturalized in United States
 
 
 
* '''[[merlot]]''' - noun dry red wine made from a grape grown widely in Bordeaux and California; black wine grape originally from the region of Bordeaux
 
 
 
* '''[[mespilus germanica]]''' - noun small deciduous Eurasian tree cultivated for its fruit that resemble crab apples
 
 
 
* '''[[mesquite]]''' - noun any of several small spiny trees or shrubs of the genus Prosopis having small flowers in axillary cylindrical spikes followed by large pods rich in sugar
 
 
 
* '''[[millet]]''' - noun small seed of any of various annual cereal grasses especially Setaria italica; French painter of rural scenes (1814-1875); any of various small-grained annual cereal and forage grasses of the genera Panicum, Echinochloa, Setaria, Sorghum, and Eleusine
 
 
 
* '''[[milo]]''' - noun small drought-resistant sorghums having large yellow or whitish grains
 
 
 
* '''[[mimosa]]''' - noun a mixed drink containing champagne and orange juice; any of various tropical shrubs or trees of the genus Mimosa having usually yellow flowers and compound leaves; evergreen Australasian tree having white or silvery bark and young leaves and yellow flowers
 
 
 
* '''[[mince pie]]''' - noun pie containing mincemeat
 
 
 
* '''[[mincemeat]]''' - noun spiced mixture of chopped raisins and apples and other ingredients with or without meat
 
 
 
* '''[[minestrone]]''' - noun soup made with a variety of vegetables
 
 
 
* '''[[mirabilis jalapa]]''' - noun common garden plant of North America having fragrant red or purple or yellow or white flowers that open in late afternoon
 
 
 
* '''[[mission]]''' - noun the organized work of a religious missionary; a special assignment that is given to a person or group; an operation that is assigned by a higher headquarters; an organization of missionaries in a foreign land sent to carry on religious work; a group of representatives or delegates
 
 
 
* '''[[mojo]]''' - noun a magic power or magic spell
 
 
 
* '''[[momordica balsamina]]''' - noun a tropical Old World flowering vine with red or orange warty fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[momordica charantia]]''' - noun tropical Old World vine with yellow-orange fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[monarda citriodora]]''' - noun an annual horsemint of central and western United States and northern Mexico
 
 
 
* '''[[monroe]]''' - noun a town in north central Louisiana; a town of southeast Michigan on Lake Erie; 5th President of the United States; author of the Monroe Doctrine (1758-1831); United States film actress noted for sex appeal (1926-1962)
 
 
 
* '''[[monstera deliciosa]]''' - noun tropical American vine having roots that hang like cords and cylindrical fruit with a pineapple and banana flavor
 
 
 
* '''[[mont blanc]]''' - noun the highest mountain peak in the Alps; on the border between France and Italy south of Geneva (15,781 feet high)
 
 
 
* '''[[moore]]''' - noun British sculptor whose works are monumental organic forms (1898-1986); United States poet noted for irony and wit (1887-1872); Irish poet who wrote nostalgic and patriotic verse (1779-1852); English philosopher (1873-1958); English actor and comedian who appeared on television and in films (born in 1935); United States composer of works noted for their use of the American vernacular (1893-1969)
 
 
 
* '''[[mors]]''' - noun (Roman mythology) Roman god of death; counterpart of Thanatos
 
 
 
* '''[[morus]]''' - noun type genus of the Moraceae: mulberries
 
 
 
* '''[[morus alba]]''' - noun Asiatic mulberry with white to pale red fruit; leaves used to feed silkworms
 
 
 
* '''[[morus nigra]]''' - noun European mulberry having dark foliage and fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[morus rubra]]''' - noun North American mulberry having dark purple edible fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[moses]]''' - noun (Old Testament) the Hebrew prophet who led the Israelites from Egypt across the Red sea on a journey known as the Exodus; Moses received the Ten Commandments from God on Mount Sinai; United States painter of colorful and primitive rural scenes (1860-1961)
 
 
 
* '''[[mote]]''' - noun (nontechnical usage) a tiny piece of anything
 
 
 
* '''[[moussaka]]''' - noun casserole of eggplant and ground lamb with onion and tomatoes bound with white sauce and beaten eggs
 
 
 
* '''[[muesli]]''' - noun mixture of untoasted dry cereals and fruits
 
 
 
* '''[[mugwort]]''' - noun any of several weedy composite plants of the genus Artemisia
 
 
 
* '''[[mulled wine]]''' - noun wine heated with sugar and spices and often citrus fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[mung bean]]''' - noun erect bushy annual widely cultivated in warm regions of India and Indonesia and United States for forage and especially its edible seeds; chief source of bean sprouts used in Chinese cookery; sometimes placed in genus Phaseolus
 
 
 
* '''[[musa]]''' - noun type genus of the Musaceae: bananas
 
 
 
* '''[[muscadelle]]''' - noun wine from muscat grapes
 
 
 
* '''[[muscat]]''' - noun sweet aromatic grape used for raisins and wine; wine from muscat grapes; a port on the Gulf of Oman and capital of the sultanate of Oman; any of several cultivated grapevines that produce sweet white grapes
 
 
 
* '''[[muscatel]]''' - noun sweet aromatic grape used for raisins and wine; wine from muscat grapes
 
 
 
* '''[[museum]]''' - noun a depository for collecting and displaying objects having scientific or historical or artistic value
 
 
 
* '''[[mush]]''' - noun a journey by dogsled; cornmeal boiled in water; an expression that is excessively sweet and sentimental; any soft or soggy mass; verb drive (a team of dogs or a dogsled); travel with a dogsled
 
 
 
* '''[[mushy peas]]''' - noun marrowfat peas that have been soaked overnight and then boiled; served with fish and chips
 
 
 
* '''[[muskmelon]]''' - noun the fruit of a muskmelon vine; any of several sweet melons related to cucumbers; any of several varieties of vine whose fruit has a netted rind and edible flesh and a musky smell
 
 
 
* '''[[must]]''' - adj. highly recommended; noun grape juice before or during fermentation; a necessary or essential thing; the quality of smelling or tasting old or stale or mouldy
 
 
 
* '''[[mustard]]''' - noun leaves eaten as cooked greens; pungent powder or paste prepared from ground mustard seeds; any of several cruciferous plants of the genus Brassica
 
 
 
* '''[[mustard oil]]''' - noun oil obtained from mustard seeds and used in making soap
 
 
 
* '''[[mustard seed]]''' - noun black or white seeds ground to make mustard pastes or powders
 
 
 
* '''[[myrrh]]''' - noun aromatic resin that is burned as incense and used in perfume
 
 
 
* '''[[nara]]''' - noun the independent agency that oversees management of federal government records including presidential libraries and historic collections
 
 
 
* '''[[nectar]]''' - noun fruit juice especially when undiluted; a sweet liquid secretion that is attractive to pollinators; (classical mythology) the food and drink of the gods; mortals who ate it became immortal
 
 
 
* '''[[nectarine]]''' - noun a variety or mutation of the peach that has a smooth skin; variety or mutation of the peach bearing fruit with smooth skin and (usually) yellow flesh
 
 
 
* '''[[negus]]''' - noun wine and hot water with sugar and lemon juice and nutmeg
 
 
 
* '''[[nelumbo lutea]]''' - noun water lily of eastern North America having pale yellow blossoms and edible globular nutlike seeds
 
 
 
* '''[[nelumbo nucifera]]''' - noun native to eastern Asia; widely cultivated for its large pink or white flowers
 
 
 
* '''[[nepeta]]''' - noun catmint
 
 
 
* '''[[nero]]''' - noun Roman Emperor notorious for his monstrous vice and fantastic luxury (was said to have started a fire that destroyed much of Rome in 64) but the Empire remained prosperous during his rule (37-68)
 
 
 
* '''[[niagara]]''' - noun a river flowing from Lake Erie into Lake Ontario; forms boundary between Ontario and New York; waterfall in Canada is the Horseshoe Falls; in the United States it is the American Falls
 
 
 
* '''[[nigella sativa]]''' - noun herb of the Mediterranean region having pungent seeds used like those of caraway
 
 
 
* '''[[nixon]]''' - noun vice president under Eisenhower and 37th President of the United States; resigned after the Watergate scandal in 1974 (1913-1994)
 
 
 
* '''[[noah]]''' - noun the Hebrew patriarch who saved himself and his family and the animals by building an ark in which they survived 40 days and 40 nights of rain; the story of Noah and the flood is told in the Book of Genesis
 
 
 
* '''[[nolina microcarpa]]''' - noun stemless plant with tufts of grasslike leaves and erect panicle of minute creamy white flowers; southwestern United States and Mexico
 
 
 
* '''[[noodle]]''' - noun a ribbonlike strip of pasta; informal terms for a human head
 
 
 
* '''[[nopal]]''' - noun any of several cacti of the genus Nopalea resembling prickly pears; cactus having yellow flowers and purple fruits
 
 
 
* '''[[northern ireland]]''' - noun a division of the United Kingdom located on the northern part of the island of Ireland
 
 
 
* '''[[northern spy]]''' - noun large late-ripening apple with skin striped with yellow and red
 
 
 
* '''[[nougat]]''' - noun nuts or fruit pieces in a sugar paste
 
 
 
* '''[[novel]]''' - adj. pleasantly new or different; original and of a kind not seen before; noun a printed and bound book that is an extended work of fiction; a extended fictional work in prose; usually in the form of a story
 
 
 
* '''[[nuphar advena]]''' - noun common water lily of eastern and central North America, having broad leaves and globe-shaped yellow flowers; in sluggish fresh or slightly brackish water
 
 
 
* '''[[nurseryman]]''' - noun someone who takes care of a garden
 
 
 
* '''[[nutcracker]]''' - noun speckled birds that feed on nuts; a compound lever used to crack nuts open; any of various small short-tailed songbirds with strong feet and a sharp beak that feed on small nuts and insects
 
 
 
* '''[[nutmeg]]''' - noun hard aromatic seed of the nutmeg tree used as spice when grated or ground; East Indian tree widely cultivated in the tropics for its aromatic seed; source of two spices: nutmeg and mace
 
 
 
* '''[[oak]]''' - noun a deciduous tree of the genus Quercus; has acorns and lobed leaves; the hard durable wood of any oak; used especially for furniture and flooring
 
 
 
* '''[[oat]]''' - noun seed of the annual grass Avena sativa (spoken of primarily in the plural as `oats'); annual grass of Europe and North Africa; grains used as food and fodder (referred to primarily in the plural: `oats')
 
 
 
* '''[[oatcake]]''' - noun thin flat unleavened cake of baked oatmeal
 
 
 
* '''[[oatmeal]]''' - noun meal made from rolled or ground oats; porridge made of rolled oats
 
 
 
* '''[[ocimum]]''' - noun basil
 
 
 
* '''[[oenology]]''' - noun the art of wine making
 
 
 
* '''[[oenothera biennis]]''' - noun a coarse biennial of eastern North America with yellow flowers that open in the evening; naturalized in Europe
 
 
 
* '''[[oenothera fruticosa]]''' - noun a day-flowering biennial or perennial of the genus Oenothera
 
 
 
* '''[[oil]]''' - noun oil paint containing pigment that is used by an artist; a slippery or viscous liquid or liquefiable substance not miscible with water; any of a group of liquid edible fats that are obtained from plants; verb cover with oil, as if by rubbing; administer an oil or ointment to ; often in a religious ceremony of blessing
 
 
 
* '''[[ois]]''' - noun agency that oversees the intelligence relationships of the Treasury's offices and bureaus and provides a link between the Intelligence Community and officials responsible for international economic policy
 
 
 
* '''[[okra]]''' - noun tall coarse annual of Old World tropics widely cultivated in southern United States and West Indies for its long mucilaginous green pods used as basis for soups and stews; sometimes placed in genus Hibiscus; long green edible beaked pods of the okra plant; long mucilaginous green pods; may be simmered or sauteed but used especially in soups and stews
 
 
 
* '''[[old south]]''' - noun the South of the United States before the American Civil War
 
 
 
* '''[[olive]]''' - adj. of a yellow-green color similar to that of an unripe olive; noun a yellow-green color of low brightness and saturation; one-seeded fruit of the European olive tree usually pickled and used as a relish; hard yellow often variegated wood of an olive tree; used in cabinetwork; evergreen tree cultivated in the Mediterranean region since antiquity and now elsewhere; has edible shiny black fruits; small ovoid fruit of the European olive tree; important food and source of oil
 
 
 
* '''[[olive branch]]''' - noun something offered to an adversary in the hope of obtaining peace
 
 
 
* '''[[olive oil]]''' - noun oil from olives
 
 
 
* '''[[olla podrida]]''' - noun Spanish version of burgoo
 
 
 
* '''[[onion]]''' - noun an aromatic flavorful bulb; bulbous plant having hollow leaves cultivated worldwide for its rounded edible bulb; edible bulb of an onion plant
 
 
 
* '''[[onobrychis]]''' - noun genus of Old World herbs having pinnate leaves and pink or whites racemose flowers followed by flat unjointed pods
 
 
 
* '''[[onobrychis viciifolia]]''' - noun Eurasian perennial herb having pale pink flowers and curved pods; naturalized in Britain and North America grasslands on calcareous soils; important forage crop and source of honey in Britain
 
 
 
* '''[[ontario]]''' - noun a prosperous and industrialized province in central Canada; the smallest of the Great Lakes
 
 
 
* '''[[opal]]''' - noun a translucent mineral consisting of hydrated silica of variable color; some varieties are used as gemstones
 
 
 
* '''[[opuntia]]''' - noun large genus of cactuses native to America: prickly pears
 
 
 
* '''[[orange]]''' - adj. of the color between red and yellow; similar to the color of a ripe orange; noun orange color or pigment; any of a range of colors between red and yellow; round yellow to orange fruit of any of several citrus trees; a river in South Africa that flows generally westward to the Atlantic Ocean; any citrus tree bearing oranges; any pigment producing the orange color
 
 
 
* '''[[orange juice]]''' - noun bottled or freshly squeezed juice of oranges
 
 
 
* '''[[orchard]]''' - noun garden consisting of a small cultivated wood without undergrowth
 
 
 
* '''[[oregano]]''' - noun aromatic Eurasian perennial; pungent leaves used as seasoning with meats and fowl and in stews and soups and omelets
 
 
 
* '''[[organisation]]''' - noun the act of forming something; the activity or result of distributing or disposing persons or things properly or methodically; the act of organizing a business or an activity related to a business; an ordered manner; orderliness by virtue of being methodical and well organized; an organized structure for arranging or classifying; a group of people who work together; the persons (or committees or departments etc.) who make up a body for the purpose of administering something
 
 
 
* '''[[orion]]''' - noun a constellation on the equator east of Taurus; contains Betelgeuse and Rigel; (Greek mythology) a giant Boeotian hunter who pursued the Pleiades and was eventually slain by Artemis; was then placed in the sky as a constellation
 
 
 
* '''[[ortega]]''' - noun Nicaraguan statesman (born in 1945)
 
 
 
* '''[[oryza sativa]]''' - noun yields the staple food of 50 percent of world's population
 
 
 
* '''[[oryzopsis hymenoides]]''' - noun valuable forage grass of dry upland areas and plains of western North America to northern Mexico
 
 
 
* '''[[ostryopsis]]''' - noun deciduous monoecious shrubs of China and Mongolia resembling trees of the genus Ostrya; sometimes placed in subfamily or family Carpinaceae
 
 
 
* '''[[ouzo]]''' - noun a Greek liquor flavored with anise
 
 
 
* '''[[oxalis tuberosa]]''' - noun South American wood sorrel cultivated for its edible tubers
 
 
 
* '''[[oxalis violacea]]''' - noun perennial herb of eastern North America with palmately compound leaves and usually rose-purple flowers
 
 
 
* '''[[pablum]]''' - noun a soft form of cereal for infants; worthless or oversimplified ideas
 
 
 
* '''[[pachyrhizus]]''' - noun small genus of tropical vines having tuberous roots
 
 
 
* '''[[pachyrhizus erosus]]''' - noun Central American twining plant with edible roots and pods; large tubers are eaten raw or cooked especially when young and young pods must be thoroughly cooked; pods and seeds also yield rotenone and oils
 
 
 
* '''[[paddy field]]''' - noun an irrigated or flooded field where rice is grown
 
 
 
* '''[[palm]]''' - noun the inner surface of the hand from the wrist to the base of the fingers; any plant of the family Palmae having an unbranched trunk crowned by large pinnate or palmate leaves; a linear unit based on the length or width of the human hand; an award for winning a championship or commemorating some other event; verb touch, lift, or hold with the hands
 
 
 
* '''[[palm kernel]]''' - noun see o any oil palm
 
 
 
* '''[[palm oil]]''' - noun oil from nuts of oil palms especially the African oil palm
 
 
 
* '''[[palmer]]''' - noun United States golfer (born in 1929)
 
 
 
* '''[[palmitic acid]]''' - noun a saturated fatty acid that is the major fat in meat and dairy products
 
 
 
* '''[[palomino]]''' - noun a horse of light tan or golden color with cream or white mane and tail
 
 
 
* '''[[panax ginseng]]''' - noun Chinese herb with palmately compound leaves and small greenish flowers and forked aromatic roots believed to have medicinal powers
 
 
 
* '''[[pandanus tectorius]]''' - noun Polynesian screw pine
 
 
 
* '''[[panicum virgatum]]''' - noun grass of western America used for hay
 
 
 
* '''[[papaver somniferum]]''' - noun southwestern Asian herb with greyish leaves and white or reddish flowers; source of opium
 
 
 
* '''[[papaya]]''' - noun large oval melon-like tropical fruit with yellowish flesh; tropical American shrub or small tree having huge deeply palmately cleft leaves and large oblong yellow fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[parkia javanica]]''' - noun tall evergreen rain forest tree with wide-spreading crown having yellow-white flowers; grown as an ornamental in parks and large gardens
 
 
 
* '''[[parkinsonia florida]]''' - noun densely branched spiny tree of southwestern United States having showy yellow flowers and blue-green bark; sometimes placed in genus Cercidium
 
 
 
* '''[[parrish]]''' - noun United States painter (1870-1966)
 
 
 
* '''[[parsley]]''' - noun aromatic herb with flat or crinkly leaves that are cut finely and used to garnish food; annual or perennial herb with aromatic leaves
 
 
 
* '''[[parsnip]]''' - noun whitish edible root; eaten cooked; a strong-scented plant cultivated for its edible root; the whitish root of cultivated parsnip
 
 
 
* '''[[parthenium argentatum]]''' - noun much-branched subshrub with silvery leaves and small white flowers of Texas and northern Mexico; cultivated as a source of rubber
 
 
 
* '''[[passerina]]''' - noun a genus of small North American finches including the New World buntings
 
 
 
* '''[[passiflora]]''' - noun type genus of the Passifloraceae
 
 
 
* '''[[passiflora edulis]]''' - noun Brazilian passionflower cultivated for its deep purple fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[passiflora incarnata]]''' - noun of southern United States; having an insipid berry the size of a hen egg
 
 
 
* '''[[passiflora ligularis]]''' - noun considered best for fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[pastis]]''' - noun similar to absinthe but containing no wormwood
 
 
 
* '''[[pastry]]''' - noun any of various baked foods made of dough or batter; a dough of flour and water and shortening
 
 
 
* '''[[pasty]]''' - adj. resembling paste in color; pallid; having the sticky properties of an adhesive; noun (usually used in the plural) one of a pair of adhesive patches worn to cover the nipples of exotic dancers and striptease performers; small meat pie or turnover
 
 
 
* '''[[patchouli]]''' - noun a heavy perfume made from the patchouli plant; small East Indian shrubby mint; fragrant oil from its leaves is used in perfumes
 
 
 
* '''[[pattypan squash]]''' - noun round greenish-white squash having one face flattened with a scalloped edge; squash plant having flattened round fruit with a scalloped edge; usually greenish white
 
 
 
* '''[[pea]]''' - noun seed of a pea plant used for food; a leguminous plant of the genus Pisum with small white flowers and long green pods containing edible green seeds; the fruit or seed of a pea plant
 
 
 
* '''[[peach]]''' - noun downy juicy fruit with sweet yellowish or whitish flesh; cultivated in temperate regions; a shade of pink tinged with yellow; a very attractive or seductive looking woman; verb divulge confidential information or secrets; "Be careful--his secretary talks"
 
 
 
* '''[[peach melba]]''' - noun ice cream and peaches with a liqueur
 
 
 
* '''[[peanut]]''' - adj. of little importance or influence or power; of minor status; noun pod of the peanut vine containing usually 2 nuts or seeds; `groundnut' and `monkey nut' are British terms; a young child who is small for his age; widely cultivated American plant cultivated in tropical and warm regions; showy yellow flowers on stalks that bend over to the soil so that seed pods ripen underground; underground pod of the peanut vine
 
 
 
* '''[[peanut butter]]''' - noun a spread made from ground peanuts
 
 
 
* '''[[peanut oil]]''' - noun a oil from peanuts; used in cooking and making soap
 
 
 
* '''[[peanuts]]''' - noun an insignificant sum of money; a trifling amount
 
 
 
* '''[[pear]]''' - noun sweet juicy gritty-textured fruit available in many varieties; Old World tree having sweet gritty-textured juicy fruit; widely cultivated in many varieties
 
 
 
* '''[[pear-shaped]]''' - adj. having a round shape tapered at one end; (of sounds) full and rich
 
 
 
* '''[[pearl barley]]''' - noun barley ground into small round pellets
 
 
 
* '''[[pearl millet]]''' - noun tall grass having cattail like spikes; grown in Africa and Asia for its grain and in the United States chiefly for forage; sometimes used in making beer
 
 
 
* '''[[pearmain]]''' - noun any of several varieties of apples with red skins
 
 
 
* '''[[pease pudding]]''' - noun a pudding made with strained split peas mixed with egg
 
 
 
* '''[[pecan]]''' - noun smooth brown oval nut of south central United States; tree of southern United States and Mexico cultivated for its nuts; wood of a pecan tree
 
 
 
* '''[[pecan pie]]''' - noun pie made of pecans and sugar and corn syrup and butter and eggs
 
 
 
* '''[[pectin]]''' - noun any of various water-soluble colloidal carbohydrates that occur in ripe fruit and vegetables; used in making fruit jellies and jams
 
 
 
* '''[[pelargonium graveolens]]''' - noun any of several southern African geraniums having fragrant three-lobed to five-lobed leaves and pink flowers
 
 
 
* '''[[pennisetum glaucum]]''' - noun tall grass having cattail like spikes; grown in Africa and Asia for its grain and in the United States chiefly for forage; sometimes used in making beer
 
 
 
* '''[[pepin]]''' - noun king of the Franks and father of Charlemagne who defended papal interests and founded the Carolingian dynasty in 751 (714-768)
 
 
 
* '''[[pepper]]''' - noun sweet and hot varieties of fruits of plants of the genus Capsicum; pungent seasoning from the berry of the common pepper plant of East India; use whole or ground; climber having dark red berries (peppercorns) when fully ripe; southern India and Sri Lanka; naturalized in northern Burma and Assam; any of various tropical plants of the genus Capsicum bearing peppers; verb attack and bombard with or as if with missiles; add pepper to
 
 
 
* '''[[peppermint]]''' - noun a candy flavored with peppermint oil; herb with downy leaves and small purple or white flowers that yields a pungent oil used as a flavoring; red gum tree of Tasmania
 
 
 
* '''[[peronospora destructor]]''' - noun fungus causing a downy mildew on onions
 
 
 
* '''[[perry]]''' - noun a fermented and often effervescent beverage made from juice of pears; similar in taste to hard cider; United States commodore who led the fleet that defeated the British on Lake Erie during the War of 1812; brother of Matthew Calbraith Perry (1785-1819); United States admiral who led a naval expedition to Japan and signed a treaty in 1854 opening up trade relations between United States and Japan; brother of Oliver Hazard Perry (1794-1858); United States philosopher (1876-1957)
 
 
 
* '''[[persian melon]]''' - noun the fruit of a variety of winter melon vine; a large green melon with orange flesh; any of a variety of muskmelon vines having fruit with a smooth white rind and white or greenish flesh that does not have a musky smell
 
 
 
* '''[[persimmon]]''' - noun orange fruit resembling a plum; edible when fully ripe; any of several tropical trees of the genus Diospyros
 
 
 
* '''[[phalaris]]''' - noun a genus of grasses with broad leaves and a dense spike of flowers
 
 
 
* '''[[phalaris aquatica]]''' - noun perennial grass of Australia and South Africa; introduced in North America as forage grass
 
 
 
* '''[[phaseolus coccineus]]''' - noun tropical American bean with red flowers and mottled black beans similar to Phaseolus vulgaris but perennial; a preferred food bean in Great Britain
 
 
 
* '''[[phaseolus vulgaris]]''' - noun the common annual twining or bushy bean plant grown for its edible seeds or pods
 
 
 
* '''[[phleum pratense]]''' - noun grass with long cylindrical spikes frown in northern United States and Europe for hay
 
 
 
* '''[[phoenix]]''' - noun the state capital and largest city located in south central Arizona; situated in a former desert that has become a prosperous agricultural area thanks to irrigation; a constellation in the southern hemisphere near Tucana and Sculptor; a legendary Arabian bird said to periodically burn itself to death and emerge from the ashes as a new phoenix; according to most versions only one phoenix lived at a time and it renewed itself every 500 years; a large monocotyledonous genus of pinnate-leaved palms found in Asia and Africa
 
 
 
* '''[[phragmites]]''' - noun reeds of marshes and riversides in tropical or temperate regions
 
 
 
* '''[[physalis]]''' - noun ground cherries
 
 
 
* '''[[physalis peruviana]]''' - noun annual of tropical South America having edible purple fruits
 
 
 
* '''[[physalis philadelphica]]''' - noun Mexican annual naturalized in eastern North America having yellow to purple edible fruit resembling small tomatoes
 
 
 
* '''[[phytolacca]]''' - noun type genus of Phytolaccaceae: pokeweed
 
 
 
* '''[[phytolacca americana]]''' - noun tall coarse perennial American herb having small white flowers followed by blackish-red berries on long drooping racemes; young fleshy stems are edible; berries and root are poisonous
 
 
 
* '''[[phytophthora infestans]]''' - noun fungus causing late blight in solanaceous plants especially tomatoes and potatoes
 
 
 
* '''[[piccalilli]]''' - noun relish of chopped pickled cucumbers and green peppers and onion
 
 
 
* '''[[pimiento]]''' - noun fully ripened sweet red pepper; usually cooked; plant bearing large mild thick-walled usually bell-shaped fruits; the principal salad peppers
 
 
 
* '''[[pine nut]]''' - noun edible seed of any of several nut pines especially some pinons of southwestern North America
 
 
 
* '''[[pineapple]]''' - noun large sweet fleshy tropical fruit with a terminal tuft of stiff leaves; widely cultivated; a tropical American plant bearing a large fleshy edible fruit with a terminal tuft of stiff leaves; widely cultivated in the tropics
 
 
 
* '''[[pineapple juice]]''' - noun the juice of pineapples (usually bottled or canned)
 
 
 
* '''[[pink lady]]''' - noun a cocktail made of gin and brandy with lemon juice and grenadine shaken with an egg white and ice
 
 
 
* '''[[pinole]]''' - noun meal made of finely ground corn mixed with sugar and spices
 
 
 
* '''[[pinot]]''' - noun any of several purple or white wine grapes used especially for burgundies and champagnes
 
 
 
* '''[[pinot blanc]]''' - noun dry white California table wine made from white Pinot grapes; white wine grape; grown especially in California for making wines resembling those from Chablis, France
 
 
 
* '''[[pinot noir]]''' - noun dry red California table wine made from purple Pinot grapes; red wine grape; grown especially in California for making wines resembling those from Burgundy, France
 
 
 
* '''[[pinto bean]]''' - noun mottled or spotted bean of southwestern United States; usually dried
 
 
 
* '''[[pinus cembra]]''' - noun large five-needled European pine; yields cembra nuts and a resinous exudate
 
 
 
* '''[[pinus cembroides]]''' - noun a small two-needled or three-needled pinon of Mexico and southern Texas
 
 
 
* '''[[pinus edulis]]''' - noun small compact two-needled pinon of southwestern United States; important as a nut pine
 
 
 
* '''[[pinus monophylla]]''' - noun pinon of southwestern United States having solitary needles and often many stems; important as a nut pine
 
 
 
* '''[[pinus mugo]]''' - noun low shrubby pine of central Europe with short bright green needles in bunches of two
 
 
 
* '''[[pinus quadrifolia]]''' - noun five-needled pinon of southern California and northern Baja California having (sometimes three-needled or four-needled showing hybridization from Pinus californiarum)
 
 
 
* '''[[pinus strobiformis]]''' - noun medium-size pine of northwestern Mexico; bark is dark brown and furrowed when mature
 
 
 
* '''[[pinus strobus]]''' - noun tall-growing pine of eastern North America; bark is brown with longitudinal fissures when mature; valued as a timber tree
 
 
 
* '''[[pioneer]]''' - noun one the first colonists or settler in a new territory; someone who helps to open up a new line of research or technology or art; verb open up and explore a new area; open up an area or prepare a way; take the lead or initiative in; participate in the development of
 
 
 
* '''[[piper]]''' - noun someone who plays the bagpipe; type genus of the Piperaceae: large genus of chiefly climbing tropical shrubs
 
 
 
* '''[[piper cubeba]]''' - noun tropical southeast Asian shrubby vine bearing spicy berrylike fruits
 
 
 
* '''[[piper longum]]''' - noun slender tropical climber of the eastern Himalayas
 
 
 
* '''[[piper nigrum]]''' - noun climber having dark red berries (peppercorns) when fully ripe; southern India and Sri Lanka; naturalized in northern Burma and Assam
 
 
 
* '''[[pipturus albidus]]''' - noun Hawaiian tree of genus Pipturus having a bark (tapa) from which tapa cloth is made
 
 
 
* '''[[pistachio]]''' - noun nut of Mediterranean trees having an edible green kernel; small tree of southern Europe and Asia Minor bearing small hard-shelled nuts
 
 
 
* '''[[pistacia]]''' - noun a dicotyledonous genus of trees of the family Anacardiaceae having drupaceous fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[pistacia lentiscus]]''' - noun an evergreen shrub of the Mediterranean region that is cultivated for its resin
 
 
 
* '''[[pisum]]''' - noun small genus of variable annual Eurasian vines: peas
 
 
 
* '''[[pithecellobium dulce]]''' - noun common thorny tropical American tree having terminal racemes of yellow flowers followed by sickle-shaped or circinate edible pods and yielding good timber and a yellow dye and mucilaginous gum
 
 
 
* '''[[plant]]''' - noun a living organism lacking the power of locomotion; buildings for carrying on industrial labor; something planted secretly for discovery by another; an actor situated in the audience whose acting is rehearsed but seems spontaneous to the audience; verb put firmly in the mind; place something or someone in a certain position in order to secretly observe or deceive; put or set (seeds, seedlings, or plants) into the ground; place into a river; fix or set securely or deeply; set up or lay the groundwork for
 
 
 
* '''[[plant disease]]''' - noun a disease that affects plants
 
 
 
* '''[[plantago]]''' - noun type genus of the family Plantaginaceae; large cosmopolitan genus of mostly small herbs
 
 
 
* '''[[plantago major]]''' - noun common European perennial naturalized worldwide; a troublesome weed
 
 
 
* '''[[plantain]]''' - noun starchy banana-like fruit; eaten (always cooked) as a staple vegetable throughout the tropics; a banana tree bearing hanging clusters of edible angular greenish starchy fruits; tropics and subtropics; any of numerous plants of the genus Plantago; mostly small roadside or dooryard weeds with elliptic leaves and small spikes of very small flowers; seeds of some used medicinally
 
 
 
* '''[[plectranthus]]''' - noun any of various ornamental plants of the genus Plectranthus
 
 
 
* '''[[plenty]]''' - adv. as much as necessary; noun a full supply; (often followed by `of') a large number or amount or extent
 
 
 
* '''[[plonk]]''' - noun the noise of something dropping (as into liquid); a cheap wine of inferior quality; verb set (something or oneself) down with or as if with a noise
 
 
 
* '''[[plum]]''' - adv. completely; used as intensifiers; exactly; noun a highly desirable position or assignment; any of numerous varieties of small to medium-sized round or oval fruit having a smooth skin and a single pit; any of several trees producing edible oval fruit having a smooth skin and a single hard stone
 
 
 
* '''[[plum sauce]]''' - noun for Chinese dishes: plum preserves and chutney
 
 
 
* '''[[plum tomato]]''' - noun oblong cherry tomato; a kind of cherry tomato that has an oblong shape
 
 
 
* '''[[poet]]''' - noun a writer of poems (the term is usually reserved for writers of good poetry)
 
 
 
* '''[[polenta]]''' - noun a thick mush made of cornmeal boiled in stock or water
 
 
 
* '''[[politician]]''' - noun a person active in party politics; a leader engaged in civil administration; a schemer who tries to gain advantage in an organization in sly or underhanded ways
 
 
 
* '''[[polygonatum]]''' - noun sometimes placed in subfamily Convallariaceae
 
 
 
* '''[[polygonatum biflorum]]''' - noun North American perennial herb with smooth foliage and drooping tubular greenish flowers
 
 
 
* '''[[pomegranate]]''' - noun large globular fruit having many seeds with juicy red pulp in a tough brownish-red rind; shrub or small tree native to southwestern Asia having large red many-seeded fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[pomelo]]''' - noun large pear-shaped fruit similar to grapefruit but with coarse dry pulp; southeastern Asian tree producing large fruits resembling grapefruits
 
 
 
* '''[[popcorn]]''' - noun small kernels of corn exploded by heat; corn having small ears and kernels that burst when exposed to dry heat
 
 
 
* '''[[poppy seed]]''' - noun small grey seed of a poppy flower; used whole or ground in baked items
 
 
 
* '''[[poppycock]]''' - noun senseless talk
 
 
 
* '''[[pork and beans]]''' - noun dried beans cooked with pork and tomato sauce
 
 
 
* '''[[porphyra]]''' - noun a genus of protoctist
 
 
 
* '''[[porridge]]''' - noun soft food made by boiling oatmeal or other meal or legumes in water or milk until thick
 
 
 
* '''[[portulaca oleracea]]''' - noun weedy trailing mat-forming herb with bright yellow flowers cultivated for its edible mildly acid leaves eaten raw or cooked especially in Indian and Greek and Middle Eastern cuisine; cosmopolitan
 
 
 
* '''[[pot liquor]]''' - noun the liquid in which vegetables or meat have be cooked
 
 
 
* '''[[potato]]''' - noun an edible tuber native to South America; a staple food of Ireland; annual native to South America having underground stolons bearing edible starchy tubers; widely cultivated as a garden vegetable; vines are poisonous
 
 
 
* '''[[potato chip]]''' - noun a thin crisp slice of potato fried in deep fat
 
 
 
* '''[[potato pancake]]''' - noun made of grated potato and egg with a little flour
 
 
 
* '''[[potato salad]]''' - noun any of various salads having chopped potatoes as the base
 
 
 
* '''[[powder]]''' - noun any of various cosmetic or medical preparations dispensed in the form of a pulverized powder; a solid substance in the form of tiny loose particles; a solid that has been pulverized; a mixture of potassium nitrate, charcoal, and sulfur in a 75:15:10 ratio which is used in gunnery, time fuses, and fireworks; verb apply powder to; make into a powder by breaking up or cause to become dust
 
 
 
* '''[[powdery mildew]]''' - noun any of various fungi of the genus Erysiphe producing powdery conidia on the host surface
 
 
 
* '''[[praline]]''' - noun cookie-sized candy made of brown sugar and butter and pecans
 
 
 
* '''[[pressing]]''' - adj. compelling immediate action; noun a metal or plastic part that is made by a mechanical press; the act of pressing; the exertion of pressure
 
 
 
* '''[[pro]]''' - adj. in favor of (an action or proposal etc.); adv. favoring a proposition, opinion, etc.; noun an argument in favor of a proposal; an athlete who plays for pay
 
 
 
* '''[[produce]]''' - noun fresh fruits and vegetable grown for the market; verb create or manufacture a man-made product; bring forth or yield; cause to happen, occur or exist; bring out for display; bring onto the market or release; come to have or undergo a change of (physical features and attributes); cultivate by growing, often involving improvements by means of agricultural techniques
 
 
 
* '''[[prosopis]]''' - noun genus of tropical or subtropical branching shrubs or trees: mesquite
 
 
 
* '''[[prosopis glandulosa]]''' - noun thorny deep-rooted drought-resistant shrub native to southwestern United States and Mexico bearing pods rich in sugar and important as livestock feed; tends to form extensive thickets
 
 
 
* '''[[prosopis juliflora]]''' - noun mesquite of Gulf Coast and Caribbean islands from Mexico to Venezuela
 
 
 
* '''[[prosopis pubescens]]''' - noun shrub or small tree of southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico having spirally twisted pods
 
 
 
* '''[[provenance]]''' - noun where something originated or was nurtured in its early existence
 
 
 
* '''[[prune]]''' - noun dried plum; verb weed out unwanted or unnecessary things; cultivate, tend, and cut back the growth of
 
 
 
* '''[[prunella vulgaris]]''' - noun decumbent blue-flowered European perennial thought to possess healing properties; naturalized throughout North America
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus]]''' - noun a genus of shrubs and trees of the family Rosaceae that is widely distributed in temperate regions
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus alleghaniensis]]''' - noun wild plum of northeastern United States having dark purple fruits with yellow flesh
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus americana]]''' - noun wild plum trees of eastern and central North America having red-orange fruit with yellow flesh
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus angustifolia]]''' - noun small native American shrubby tree bearing small edible yellow to reddish fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus armeniaca]]''' - noun temperate zone tree bearing downy yellow to rosy fruits
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus avium]]''' - noun large Eurasian tree producing small dark bitter fruit in the wild but edible sweet fruit under cultivation
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus caroliniana]]''' - noun small flowering evergreen tree of southern United States
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus cerasifera]]''' - noun small Asiatic tree bearing edible red or yellow fruit; used in Europe as budding stock
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus cerasus]]''' - noun rather small Eurasian tree producing red to black acid edible fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus domestica]]''' - noun any of various widely distributed plums grown in the cooler temperate areas
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus dulcis]]''' - noun small bushy deciduous tree native to Asia and North Africa having pretty pink blossoms and highly prized edible nuts enclosed in a hard green hull; cultivated in southern Australia and California
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus glandulosa]]''' - noun small Chinese shrub with smooth unfurrowed dark red fruit grown especially for its red or pink or white flowers
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus ilicifolia]]''' - noun California evergreen wild plum with spiny leathery leaves and white flowers
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus incisa]]''' - noun shrubby Japanese cherry tree having pale pink blossoms
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus japonica]]''' - noun woody oriental plant with smooth unfurrowed red fruit grown especially for its white or pale pink blossoms
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus laurocerasus]]''' - noun frequently cultivated Eurasian evergreen shrub or small tree having showy clusters of white flowers and glossy foliage and yielding oil similar to bitter almond oil
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus maritima]]''' - noun seacoast shrub of northeastern North America having showy white blossoms and edible purple fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus mexicana]]''' - noun small tree of southwestern United States having purplish-red fruit sometimes cultivated as an ornamental for its large leaves
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus mume]]''' - noun Japanese ornamental tree with fragrant white or pink blossoms and small yellow fruits
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus nigra]]''' - noun small tree native to northeastern North America having oblong orange-red fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus padus]]''' - noun small European cherry tree closely resembling the American chokecherry
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus pensylvanica]]''' - noun small shrubby North American wild cherry with small bright red acid fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus persica]]''' - noun cultivated in temperate regions
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus pumila]]''' - noun small straggling American cherry growing on sandy soil and having minute scarcely edible purplish-black fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus salicina]]''' - noun small tree of China and Japan bearing large yellow to red plums usually somewhat inferior to European plums in flavor
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus serotina]]''' - noun large North American wild cherry with round black sour edible fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus serrulata]]''' - noun ornamental tree with inedible fruits widely cultivated in many varieties for its white blossoms
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus spinosa]]''' - noun a thorny Eurasian bush with plumlike fruits
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus subcordata]]''' - noun shrub of the Pacific coast of the United States bearing small red insipid fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus subhirtella]]''' - noun shrub or tree native to Japan cultivated as an ornamental for its rose-pink flowers
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus tenella]]''' - noun Asiatic shrub cultivated for its rosy red flowers
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus triloba]]''' - noun deciduous Chinese shrub or small tree with often trilobed leaves grown for its pink-white flowers
 
 
 
* '''[[prunus virginiana]]''' - noun a common wild cherry of eastern North America having small bitter black berries favored by birds
 
 
 
* '''[[psoralea esculenta]]''' - noun densely hairy perennial of central North America having edible tuberous roots
 
 
 
* '''[[pteridium aquilinum]]''' - noun large coarse fern often several feet high; essentially weed ferns; cosmopolitan
 
 
 
* '''[[pucker]]''' - noun an irregular fold in an otherwise even surface (as in cloth); verb to gather something into small wrinkles or folds; become wrinkled or drawn together; draw fabric together and sew it tightly
 
 
 
* '''[[pudding]]''' - noun any of various soft sweet desserts thickened usually with flour and baked or boiled or steamed; (British) the dessert course of a meal (`pud' is used informally); any of various soft thick unsweetened baked dishes
 
 
 
* '''[[pulasan]]''' - noun fruit of an East Indian tree similar to the rambutan but sweeter; East Indian fruit tree bearing fruit similar to but sweeter than that of the rambutan
 
 
 
* '''[[pumpkin]]''' - noun usually large pulpy deep-yellow round fruit of the squash family maturing in late summer or early autumn; a coarse vine widely cultivated for its large pulpy round orange fruit with firm orange skin and numerous seeds; subspecies of Cucurbita pepo include the summer squashes and a few autumn squashes
 
 
 
* '''[[pumpkin pie]]''' - noun pie made of mashed pumpkin and milk and eggs and sugar
 
 
 
* '''[[pumpkin seed]]''' - noun the edible seed of a pumpkin
 
 
 
* '''[[punica]]''' - noun coextensive with the family Punicaceae
 
 
 
* '''[[punica granatum]]''' - noun shrub or small tree native to southwestern Asia having large red many-seeded fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[punnet]]''' - noun a small light basket used as a measure for fruits
 
 
 
* '''[[pyrus]]''' - noun fruit trees native to the Old World: pears
 
 
 
* '''[[pyrus communis]]''' - noun Old World tree having sweet gritty-textured juicy fruit; widely cultivated in many varieties
 
 
 
* '''[[pythium debaryanum]]''' - noun fungus causing damping off disease in seedlings
 
 
 
* '''[[quercus agrifolia]]''' - noun highly variable often shrubby evergreen oak of coastal zone of western North America having small thick usually spiny-toothed dark-green leaves
 
 
 
* '''[[quercus michauxii]]''' - noun medium to large deciduous tree of moist areas of southeastern United States similar to the basket oak
 
 
 
* '''[[quince]]''' - noun aromatic acid-tasting pear-shaped fruit used in preserves; small Asian tree with pinkish flowers and pear-shaped fruit; widely cultivated
 
 
 
* '''[[racking]]''' - adj. causing great physical or mental suffering
 
 
 
* '''[[radicchio]]''' - noun prized variety of chicory having globose heads of red leaves
 
 
 
* '''[[radish]]''' - noun pungent fleshy edible root; Eurasian plant widely cultivated for its edible pungent root usually eaten raw; pungent edible root of any of various cultivated radish plants; radish of Japan with a long hard durable root eaten raw or cooked; a cruciferous plant of the genus Raphanus having a pungent edible root
 
 
 
* '''[[rag]]''' - noun a boisterous practical joke (especially by college students); a small piece of cloth or paper; a week at British universities during which side-shows and processions of floats are organized to raise money for charities; newspaper with half-size pages; music with a syncopated melody (usually for the piano); verb break into lumps before sorting; play in ragtime; censure severely or angrily; harass with persistent criticism or carping; cause annoyance in; disturb, especially by minor irritations; treat cruelly
 
 
 
* '''[[raisin]]''' - noun dried grape
 
 
 
* '''[[raisin bran]]''' - noun bran flakes with raisins
 
 
 
* '''[[raisin bread]]''' - noun bread containing raisins
 
 
 
* '''[[rambutan]]''' - noun pleasantly acid bright red oval Malayan fruit covered with soft spines; Malayan tree bearing spiny red fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[rangpur]]''' - noun hybrid between mandarin orange and lemon having very acid fruit with orange peel
 
 
 
* '''[[ranunculus acris]]''' - noun perennial European buttercup with yellow spring flowers widely naturalized especially in eastern North America
 
 
 
* '''[[rapeseed]]''' - noun seed of rape plants; source of an edible oil
 
 
 
* '''[[rapeseed oil]]''' - noun edible light yellow to brown oil from rapeseed used also as a lubricant or illuminant
 
 
 
* '''[[raspberry]]''' - noun red or black edible aggregate berries usually smaller than the related blackberries; woody brambles bearing usually red but sometimes black or yellow fruits that separate from the receptacle when ripe and are rounder and smaller than blackberries; a cry or noise made to express displeasure or contempt
 
 
 
* '''[[red cabbage]]''' - noun compact head of purplish-red leaves; cabbage plant with a compact head of reddish purple leaves
 
 
 
* '''[[red delicious]]''' - noun a sweet eating apple with bright red skin; most widely grown apple worldwide
 
 
 
* '''[[red onion]]''' - noun flat mild onion having purplish tunics; used as garnish on hamburgers and salads
 
 
 
* '''[[refried beans]]''' - noun dried beans cooked and mashed and then fried in lard with various seasonings
 
 
 
* '''[[regal]]''' - adj. belonging to or befitting a supreme ruler
 
 
 
* '''[[regent]]''' - noun someone who rules during the absence or incapacity or minority of the country's monarch; members of a governing board
 
 
 
* '''[[relish]]''' - noun the taste experience when a savoury condiment is taken into the mouth; spicy or savory condiment; vigorous and enthusiastic enjoyment; verb derive or receive pleasure from; get enjoyment from; take pleasure in
 
 
 
* '''[[resin]]''' - noun any of a class of solid or semisolid viscous substances obtained either as exudations from certain plants or prepared by polymerization of simple molecules
 
 
 
* '''[[rhubarb]]''' - noun plants having long green or reddish acidic leafstalks growing in basal clumps; stems (and only the stems) are edible when cooked; leaves are poisonous; long pinkish sour leafstalks usually eaten cooked and sweetened
 
 
 
* '''[[rhubarb pie]]''' - noun pie containing diced rhubarb and much sugar
 
 
 
* '''[[rhus trilobata]]''' - noun deciduous shrub of California with unpleasantly scented usually trifoliate leaves and edible fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[rhythm]]''' - noun recurring at regular intervals; the arrangement of spoken words alternating stressed and unstressed elements; the basic rhythmic unit in a piece of music; natural family planning in which ovulation is assumed to occur 14 days before the onset of a period (the fertile period would be assumed to extend from day 10 through day 18 of her cycle); an interval during which a recurring sequence of events occurs
 
 
 
* '''[[ribes]]''' - noun a flowering shrub bearing currants or gooseberries; native to northern hemisphere
 
 
 
* '''[[rice]]''' - noun grains used as food either unpolished or more often polished; United States playwright (1892-1967); English lyricist who frequently worked with Andrew Lloyd Webber (born in 1944); annual or perennial rhizomatous marsh grasses; seed used for food; straw used for paper; verb sieve so that it becomes the consistency of rice
 
 
 
* '''[[rice paper]]''' - noun a thin delicate material resembling paper; made from the rice-paper tree
 
 
 
* '''[[riesling]]''' - noun fragrant dry or sweet white wine from the Rhine valley or a similar wine from California; white grape grown in Europe and California
 
 
 
* '''[[rig]]''' - noun gear (including necessary machinery) for a particular enterprise; formation of masts, spars, sails, etc., on a vessel; the act of swindling by some fraudulent scheme; a vehicle with wheels drawn by one or more horses; gear used in fishing; a set of clothing (with accessories); a truck consisting of a tractor and trailer together; verb equip with sails or masts; connect or secure to; manipulate in a fraudulent manner; arrange the outcome of by means of deceit
 
 
 
* '''[[rioja]]''' - noun dry red table wine from the Rioja region of northern Spain
 
 
 
* '''[[rna]]''' - noun (biochemistry) a long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes; it transmits genetic information from DNA to the cytoplasm and controls certain chemical processes in the cell
 
 
 
* '''[[robusta coffee]]''' - noun native to West Africa but grown in Java and elsewhere; resistant to coffee rust
 
 
 
* '''[[rolled oats]]''' - noun meal made from rolled or ground oats
 
 
 
* '''[[rom]]''' - noun (computer science) memory whose contents can be accessed and read but cannot be changed
 
 
 
* '''[[romaine lettuce]]''' - noun lettuce with long dark-green leaves in a loosely packed elongated head; lettuce with long dark-green spoon-shaped leaves
 
 
 
* '''[[roman]]''' - adj. of or relating to or derived from Rome (especially ancient Rome); relating to or characteristic of people of Rome; of or relating to or supporting Romanism; characteristic of the modern type that most directly represents the type used in ancient Roman inscriptions; noun a typeface used in ancient Roman inscriptions; a resident of modern Rome; an inhabitant of the ancient Roman Empire
 
 
 
* '''[[rondo]]''' - noun a musical form that is often the last movement of a sonata
 
 
 
* '''[[rooibos]]''' - noun South African shrub having flat acuminate leaves and yellow flowers; leaves are aromatic when dried and used to make an herbal tea
 
 
 
* '''[[rosa]]''' - noun large genus of erect or climbing prickly shrubs including roses
 
 
 
* '''[[rose hip]]''' - noun the fruit of a rose plant
 
 
 
* '''[[rose oil]]''' - noun a volatile fragrant oil obtained from fresh roses by steam distillation
 
 
 
* '''[[roselle]]''' - noun East Indian sparsely prickly annual herb or perennial subshrub widely cultivated for its fleshy calyxes used in tarts and jelly and for its bast fiber
 
 
 
* '''[[rosemary]]''' - noun extremely pungent leaves used fresh or dried as seasoning for especially meats; widely cultivated for its fragrant grey-green leaves used in cooking and in perfumery
 
 
 
* '''[[rosette]]''' - noun an ornament or pattern resembling a rose that is worn as a badge of office or as recognition of having won an honor; a cluster of leaves growing in crowded circles from a common center or crown (usually at or close to the ground); circular window filled with tracery; rhizoctinia disease of potatoes
 
 
 
* '''[[rossini]]''' - noun Italian composer remembered for his operas (1792-1868)
 
 
 
* '''[[royalty]]''' - noun royal persons collectively; payment to the holder of a patent or copyright or resource for the right to use their property
 
 
 
* '''[[rubus spectabilis]]''' - noun large erect red-flowered raspberry of western North America having large pinkish-orange berries
 
 
 
* '''[[rubus ursinus]]''' - noun American blackberry with oblong black fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[ruby]]''' - adj. of a color at the end of the color spectrum (next to orange); resembling the color of blood or cherries or tomatoes or rubies; noun a transparent piece of ruby that has been cut and polished and is valued as a precious gem; a transparent deep red variety of corundum; used as a gemstone and in lasers; a deep and vivid red color
 
 
 
* '''[[rudbeckia laciniata]]''' - noun tall leafy plant with erect branches ending in large yellow flower heads with downward-arching rays; grow in Rocky Mountains south to Arizona and east to the Atlantic coast
 
 
 
* '''[[rugelach]]''' - noun pastry made with a cream cheese dough and different fillings (as raisins and walnuts and cinnamon or chocolate and walnut and apricot preserves)
 
 
 
* '''[[rum]]''' - adj. beyond or deviating from the usual or expected; noun liquor distilled from fermented molasses; a card game based on collecting sets and sequences; the winner is the first to meld all their cards
 
 
 
* '''[[rumex scutatus]]''' - noun low perennial with small silvery-green ovate to hastate leaves
 
 
 
* '''[[run-down]]''' - adj. having the spring unwound; worn and broken down by hard use
 
 
 
* '''[[ruta]]''' - noun type genus of the Rutaceae; strong-scented Eurasian herbs
 
 
 
* '''[[ruta graveolens]]''' - noun European strong-scented perennial herb with grey-green bitter-tasting leaves; an irritant similar to poison ivy
 
 
 
* '''[[rutabaga]]''' - noun the large yellow root of a rutabaga plant used as food; a cruciferous plant with a thick bulbous edible yellow root
 
 
 
* '''[[rye]]''' - noun whiskey distilled from rye or rye and malt; hardy annual cereal grass widely cultivated in northern Europe where its grain is the chief ingredient of black bread and in North America for forage and soil improvement; the seed of the cereal grass
 
 
 
* '''[[rye bread]]''' - noun any of various breads made entirely or partly with rye flour
 
 
 
* '''[[sack]]''' - noun the plundering of a place by an army or mob; usually involves destruction and slaughter; a bag made of paper or plastic for holding customer's purchases; a woman's full loose hiplength jacket; any of various light dry strong white wine from Spain and Canary Islands (including sherry); the quantity contained in a sack; the termination of someone's employment (leaving them free to depart); a loose-fitting dress hanging straight from the shoulders without a waist; a hanging bed of canvas or rope netting (usually suspended between two trees); swings easily; an enclosed space; verb put in a sack; plunder (a town) after capture; make as a net profit; terminate the employment of
 
 
 
* '''[[sacramental wine]]''' - noun used in a communion service
 
 
 
* '''[[safflower]]''' - noun thistlelike Eurasian plant widely grown for its red or orange flower heads and seeds that yield a valuable oil
 
 
 
* '''[[safflower oil]]''' - noun oil from seeds of the safflower plant; oil from safflower seeds used as food as well as in medicines and paints
 
 
 
* '''[[saffron]]''' - noun dried pungent stigmas of the Old World saffron crocus; Old World crocus having purple or white flowers with aromatic pungent orange stigmas used in flavoring food; a shade of yellow tinged with orange
 
 
 
* '''[[sagittaria]]''' - noun genus of aquatic herbs of temperate and tropical regions having sagittate or hastate leaves and white scapose flowers
 
 
 
* '''[[saguaro]]''' - noun extremely large treelike cactus of desert regions of southwestern United States having a thick columnar sparsely branched trunk bearing white flowers and edible red pulpy fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[saigon]]''' - noun a city in South Vietnam; formerly (as Saigon) it was the capital of French Indochina
 
 
 
* '''[[saigon cinnamon]]''' - noun tropical southeast Asian tree with aromatic bark; yields a bark used medicinally
 
 
 
* '''[[salad]]''' - noun food mixtures either arranged on a plate or tossed and served with a moist dressing; usually consisting of or including greens
 
 
 
* '''[[salsa]]''' - noun spicy sauce of tomatoes and onions and chili peppers to accompany Mexican foods
 
 
 
* '''[[salsola soda]]''' - noun bushy plant of Old World salt marshes and sea beaches having prickly leaves; burned to produce a crude soda ash
 
 
 
* '''[[salvador]]''' - noun a republic on the Pacific coast of Central America
 
 
 
* '''[[salvia]]''' - noun any of various plants of the genus Salvia; a cosmopolitan herb
 
 
 
* '''[[salvia officinalis]]''' - noun shrubby plant with aromatic greyish-green leaves used as a cooking herb
 
 
 
* '''[[salvia sclarea]]''' - noun aromatic herb of southern Europe; cultivated in England as a potherb and widely as an ornamental
 
 
 
* '''[[salvia verbenaca]]''' - noun Eurasian sage with blue flowers and foliage like verbena; naturalized in United States
 
 
 
* '''[[samba]]''' - noun a form of canasta using three decks of cards and six jokers; a lively ballroom dance from Brazil; music composed for dancing the samba; large west African tree having large palmately lobed leaves and axillary cymose panicles of small white flowers and one-winged seeds; yields soft white to pale yellow wood; verb dance the samba
 
 
 
* '''[[sambar]]''' - noun a deer of southern Asia with antlers that have three tines
 
 
 
* '''[[sambuca]]''' - noun an Italian liqueur made with elderberries and flavored with licorice
 
 
 
* '''[[sambucus canadensis]]''' - noun common elder of central and eastern North America bearing purple-black berries; fruit used in wines and jellies
 
 
 
* '''[[sambucus nigra]]''' - noun a common shrub with black fruit or a small tree of Europe and Asia; fruit used for wines and jellies
 
 
 
* '''[[sambucus racemosa]]''' - noun Eurasian shrub
 
 
 
* '''[[samphire]]''' - noun fleshy maritime plant having fleshy stems with rudimentary scalelike leaves and small spikes of minute flowers; formerly used in making glass
 
 
 
* '''[[san francisco]]''' - noun a port in western California near the Golden Gate that is one of the major industrial and transportation centers; it has one of the world's finest harbors; site of the Golden Gate Bridge
 
 
 
* '''[[sandwich]]''' - noun two (or more) slices of bread with a filling between them; verb insert or squeeze tightly between two people or objects; make into a sandwich
 
 
 
* '''[[sangria]]''' - noun sweetened red wine and orange or lemon juice with soda water
 
 
 
* '''[[santalum album]]''' - noun parasitic tree of Indonesia and Malaysia having fragrant close-grained yellowish heartwood with insect repelling properties and used, e.g., for making chests
 
 
 
* '''[[sapote]]''' - noun brown oval fruit flesh makes excellent sherbet; tropical American tree having wood like mahogany and sweet edible egg-shaped fruit; in some classifications placed in the genus Calocarpum
 
 
 
* '''[[sarcocephalus]]''' - noun genus of tropical African trees and shrubs
 
 
 
* '''[[satsuma]]''' - noun medium-sized largely seedless mandarin orange with thin smooth skin; a variety of mandarin orange
 
 
 
* '''[[satureja]]''' - noun savory
 
 
 
* '''[[sauce]]''' - noun flavorful relish or dressing or topping served as an accompaniment to food; verb add zest or flavor to, make more interesting; dress (food) with a relish; behave saucy or impudently towards
 
 
 
* '''[[sauerkraut]]''' - noun shredded cabbage fermented in brine
 
 
 
* '''[[saussurea costus]]''' - noun annual herb of the eastern Himalayas (Kashmir) having purple florets and a fragrant root that yields a volatile oil used in perfumery and for preserving furs
 
 
 
* '''[[sauvignon blanc]]''' - noun a California wine; white wine grape grown in California
 
 
 
* '''[[savoy cabbage]]''' - noun head of soft crinkly leaves; cabbage plant with a compact head of crinkled leaves
 
 
 
* '''[[scald]]''' - noun the act of burning with steam or hot water; a burn cause by hot liquid or steam; verb burn with a hot liquid or steam; heat to the boiling point; treat with boiling water; subject to harsh criticism
 
 
 
* '''[[scallion]]''' - noun young onion before the bulb has enlarged; plant having a large slender white bulb and flat overlapping dark green leaves; used in cooking; believed derived from the wild Allium ampeloprasum
 
 
 
* '''[[schinus molle]]''' - noun small Peruvian evergreen with broad rounded head and slender pendant branches with attractive clusters of greenish flowers followed by clusters of rose-pink fruits
 
 
 
* '''[[scientist]]''' - noun a person with advanced knowledge of one or more sciences
 
 
 
* '''[[scorzonera hispanica]]''' - noun perennial south European herb having narrow entire leaves and solitary yellow flower heads and long black edible roots shaped like carrots
 
 
 
* '''[[scuppernong]]''' - noun amber-green muscadine grape of southeastern United States
 
 
 
* '''[[sea breeze]]''' - noun a cooling breeze from the sea (during the daytime)
 
 
 
* '''[[sea lettuce]]''' - noun seaweed with edible translucent crinkly green fronds
 
 
 
* '''[[seasoning]]''' - noun the act of adding a seasoning to food; something added to food primarily for the savor it imparts
 
 
 
* '''[[seaweed]]''' - noun plant growing in the sea, especially marine algae
 
 
 
* '''[[sediment]]''' - noun matter that has been deposited by some natural process; verb settle as sediment; deposit as a sediment
 
 
 
* '''[[semolina]]''' - noun milled product of durum wheat (or other hard wheat) used in pasta
 
 
 
* '''[[senna obtusifolia]]''' - noun cosmopolitan tropical herb or subshrub with yellow flowers and slender curved pods; a weed; sometimes placed in genus Cassia
 
 
 
* '''[[sensation]]''' - noun an unelaborated elementary awareness of stimulation; a general feeling of excitement and heightened interest; a state of widespread public excitement and interest; the faculty through which the external world is apprehended; someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field
 
 
 
* '''[[sesame]]''' - noun East Indian annual erect herb; source of sesame seed or benniseed and sesame oil
 
 
 
* '''[[sesame oil]]''' - noun oil obtained from sesame seeds
 
 
 
* '''[[sesbania grandiflora]]''' - noun a softwood tree with lax racemes of usually red or pink flowers; tropical Australia and Asia; naturalized in southern Florida and West Indies
 
 
 
* '''[[setaria italica]]''' - noun coarse drought-resistant annual grass grown for grain, hay and forage in Europe and Asia and chiefly for forage and hay in United States
 
 
 
* '''[[sexton]]''' - noun an officer of the church who is in charge of sacred objects; United States poet (1928-1974)
 
 
 
* '''[[shallot]]''' - noun small mild-flavored onion-like or garlic-like clustered bulbs used for seasoning; type of onion plant producing small clustered mild-flavored bulbs used as seasoning; aggregated bulb of the multiplier onion
 
 
 
* '''[[sharp]]''' - adj. having or made by a thin edge or sharp point; suitable for cutting or piercing; keenly and painfully felt; as if caused by a sharp edge or point; quick and forceful; very sudden and in great amount or degree; raised in pitch by one chromatic semitone; harsh; marked by practical hardheaded intelligence; (of something seen or heard) clearly defined; extremely steep; having or emitting a high-pitched and sharp tone or tones; having or demonstrating ability to recognize or draw fine distinctions; ending in a sharp point; adv. changing suddenly in direction and degree; noun a long thin sewing needle with a sharp point; a musical notation indicating one half step higher than the note named
 
 
 
* '''[[shepherd's pie]]''' - noun pie of hash covered with mashed potatoes and browned in the oven
 
 
 
* '''[[sherry]]''' - noun dry to sweet amber wine from the Jerez region of southern Spain or similar wines produced elsewhere; usually drunk as an aperitif
 
 
 
* '''[[ship]]''' - noun a vessel that carries passengers or freight; verb place on board a ship; travel by ship; hire for work on a ship; transport commercially; go on board
 
 
 
* '''[[shiraz]]''' - noun a city in central southwestern Iran; ruins of ancient Persepolis are nearby
 
 
 
* '''[[shortcake]]''' - noun very short biscuit dough baked as individual biscuits or a round loaf; served with sweetened fruit and usually whipped cream
 
 
 
* '''[[sidecar]]''' - noun conveyance consisting of a small carrier attached to the side of a motorcycle; a cocktail made of orange liqueur with lemon juice and brandy
 
 
 
* '''[[sideritis]]''' - noun genus of woolly aromatic herbs or subshrubs or shrubs of Mediterranean region
 
 
 
* '''[[silphium]]''' - noun tall North American perennial herbs
 
 
 
* '''[[silybum marianum]]''' - noun tall Old World biennial thistle with large clasping white-blotched leaves and purple flower heads; naturalized in California and South America
 
 
 
* '''[[sir]]''' - noun term of address for a man; a title used before the name of knight or baronet
 
 
 
* '''[[sium sisarum]]''' - noun an Asiatic herb cultivated in Europe for its sweet edible tuberous root
 
 
 
* '''[[ski]]''' - noun narrow wood or metal or plastic runners used in pairs for gliding over snow; verb move along on skis
 
 
 
* '''[[slice]]''' - noun a golf shot that curves to the right for a right-handed golfer; a spatula for spreading paint or ink; a thin flat piece cut off of some object; a share of something; a serving that has been cut from a larger portion; a wound made by cutting; verb hit a ball so that it causes a backspin; cut into slices; hit a ball and put a spin on it so that it travels in a different direction; make a clean cut through
 
 
 
* '''[[slivovitz]]''' - noun a colorless plum brandy popular in the Balkans
 
 
 
* '''[[sloe gin]]''' - noun gin flavored with sloes (fruit of the blackthorn)
 
 
 
* '''[[sloop]]''' - noun a sailing vessel with a single mast set about one third of the boat's length aft of the bow
 
 
 
* '''[[smash]]''' - adv. with a loud crash; noun a serious collision (especially of motor vehicles); a conspicuous success; the act of colliding with something; a hard return hitting the tennis ball above your head; a vigorous blow; verb break suddenly into pieces, as from a violent blow; break into pieces, as by striking or knocking over; overthrow or destroy (something considered evil or harmful); hit hard; collide or strike violently and suddenly; hit (a tennis ball) in a powerful overhead stroke; hit violently; damage or destroy as if by violence; humiliate or depress completely; reduce to bankruptcy
 
 
 
* '''[[smilax]]''' - noun fragile twining plant of South Africa with bright green flattened stems and glossy foliage popular as a floral decoration; sometimes placed in Smilacaceae
 
 
 
* '''[[smoothie]]''' - noun a thick smooth drink consisting of fresh fruit pureed with ice cream or yoghurt or milk; someone with an assured and ingratiating manner
 
 
 
* '''[[smyrnium olusatrum]]''' - noun European herb somewhat resembling celery widely naturalized in Britain coastal regions and often cultivated as a potherb
 
 
 
* '''[[snap pea]]''' - noun variety of pea plant producing peas having crisp rounded edible pods
 
 
 
* '''[[snow pea]]''' - noun green peas with flat edible pods; variety of pea plant producing peas having thin flat edible pods
 
 
 
* '''[[so long]]''' - noun a farewell remark
 
 
 
* '''[[soft drink]]''' - noun nonalcoholic beverage (usually carbonated)
 
 
 
* '''[[solanum aviculare]]''' - noun Australian annual sometimes cultivated for its racemes of purple flowers and edible yellow egg-shaped fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[solanum melongena]]''' - noun hairy upright herb native to southeastern Asia but widely cultivated for its large glossy edible fruit commonly used as a vegetable
 
 
 
* '''[[solanum quitoense]]''' - noun small perennial shrub cultivated in uplands of South America for its edible bright orange fruits resembling tomatoes or oranges
 
 
 
* '''[[sommelier]]''' - noun a waiter who manages wine service in a hotel or restaurant
 
 
 
* '''[[sonchus]]''' - noun sow thistles
 
 
 
* '''[[sonchus oleraceus]]''' - noun annual Eurasian sow thistle with soft spiny leaves and rayed yellow flower heads
 
 
 
* '''[[song]]''' - noun the act of singing; a short musical composition with words; a distinctive or characteristic sound; a very small sum; the characteristic sound produced by a bird; the imperial dynasty of China from 960 to 1279; noted for art and literature and philosophy
 
 
 
* '''[[sorbus domestica]]''' - noun medium-sized European tree resembling the rowan but bearing edible fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[sorghum]]''' - noun made from juice of sweet sorghum; economically important Old World tropical cereal grass; annual or perennial tropical and subtropical cereal grasses: sorghum
 
 
 
* '''[[sorghum bicolor]]''' - noun important for human and animal food; growth habit and stem form similar to Indian corn but having sawtooth-edged leaves
 
 
 
* '''[[sorghum halepense]]''' - noun tall perennial grass that spreads by creeping rhizomes and is grown for fodder; naturalized in southern United States where it is a serious pest on cultivated land
 
 
 
* '''[[sorrel]]''' - adj. of a light brownish color; noun a horse of a brownish orange to light brown color; large sour-tasting arrowhead-shaped leaves used in salads and sauces; East Indian sparsely prickly annual herb or perennial subshrub widely cultivated for its fleshy calyxes used in tarts and jelly and for its bast fiber; any of certain coarse weedy plants with long taproots, sometimes used as table greens or in folk medicine; any plant or flower of the genus Oxalis
 
 
 
* '''[[soup]]''' - noun liquid food especially of meat or fish or vegetable stock often containing pieces of solid food; an unfortunate situation; any composition having a consistency suggestive of soup; verb dope (a racehorse)
 
 
 
* '''[[sour]]''' - adj. smelling of fermentation or staleness; having a sharp biting taste; one of the four basic taste sensations; like the taste of vinegar or lemons; showing a brooding ill humor; inaccurate in pitch; in an unpalatable state; noun the taste experience when vinegar or lemon juice is taken into the mouth; a cocktail made of a liquor (especially whiskey or gin) mixed with lemon or lime juice and sugar; the property of being acidic; verb go sour or spoil; make sour or more sour
 
 
 
* '''[[soursop]]''' - noun large spiny tropical fruit with tart pulp related to custard apples; small tropical American tree bearing large succulent slightly acid fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[south australia]]''' - noun a state in south central Australia
 
 
 
* '''[[soy sauce]]''' - noun thin sauce made of fermented soy beans
 
 
 
* '''[[soybean]]''' - noun most highly proteinaceous vegetable crop known; erect bushy hairy annual herb having trifoliate leaves and purple to pink flowers; extensively cultivated for food and forage and soil improvement but especially for its nutritious oil-rich seeds; native to Asia; a source of oil; used for forage and soil improvement and as food
 
 
 
* '''[[soybean oil]]''' - noun oil from soya beans
 
 
 
* '''[[spade]]''' - noun a sturdy hand shovel that can be pushed into the earth with the foot; a playing card in the major suit that has one or more black figures on it; (ethnic slur) extremely offensive name for a Black person; verb dig (up) with a spade
 
 
 
* '''[[spaghetti squash]]''' - noun medium-sized oval squash with flesh in the form of strings that resemble spaghetti; squash plant bearing oval fruit with smooth yellowish skin and tender stranded flesh resembling spaghetti
 
 
 
* '''[[spain]]''' - noun a parliamentary monarchy in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula; a former colonial power
 
 
 
* '''[[sparkling wine]]''' - noun effervescent wine
 
 
 
* '''[[spartan]]''' - adj. resolute in the face of pain or danger or adversity; of or relating to or characteristic of Sparta or its people; practicing great self-denial; unsparing and uncompromising in discipline or judgment; noun a resident of Sparta
 
 
 
* '''[[spearmint]]''' - noun common garden herb having clusters of small purplish flowers and yielding an oil used as a flavoring
 
 
 
* '''[[speer]]''' - noun German Nazi architect who worked for Hitler (1905-1981)
 
 
 
* '''[[spelt]]''' - noun hardy wheat grown mostly in Europe for livestock feed
 
 
 
* '''[[sphacelotheca reiliana]]''' - noun smut fungus attacking heads of corn or sorghum and causing a covered smut
 
 
 
* '''[[spice]]''' - noun any of a variety of pungent aromatic vegetable substances used for flavoring food; aromatic substances of vegetable origin used as a preservative; the property of being seasoned with spice and so highly flavored; verb make more interesting or flavorful; add herbs or spices to
 
 
 
* '''[[spikenard]]''' - noun an aromatic ointment used in antiquity
 
 
 
* '''[[spinach]]''' - noun dark green leaves; eaten cooked or raw in salads; southwestern Asian plant widely cultivated for its succulent edible dark green leaves
 
 
 
* '''[[spirit]]''' - noun a fundamental emotional and activating principle determining one's character; any incorporeal supernatural being that can become visible (or audible) to human beings; the vital principle or animating force within living things; the general atmosphere of a place or situation and the effect that it has on people; an inclination or tendency of a certain kind; animation and energy in action or expression; the intended meaning of a communication; the state of a person's emotions (especially with regard to pleasure or dejection); verb infuse with spirit
 
 
 
* '''[[spirits]]''' - noun an alcoholic beverage that is distilled rather than fermented
 
 
 
* '''[[splendour]]''' - noun the quality of being magnificent or splendid or grand; a quality that outshines the usual
 
 
 
* '''[[split-pea]]''' - noun dried hulled pea; used in soup
 
 
 
* '''[[spondias]]''' - noun tropical trees having one-seeded fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[spondias mombin]]''' - noun tropical American tree having edible yellow fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[spondias purpurea]]''' - noun common tropical American shrub or small tree with purplish fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[sponge cake]]''' - noun a light porous cake made with eggs and flour and sugar without shortening
 
 
 
* '''[[spotted dick]]''' - noun a suet pudding containing currants
 
 
 
* '''[[spritzer]]''' - noun a mixed drink made of wine mixed with a sparkling water
 
 
 
* '''[[sprouting]]''' - noun the process whereby seeds or spores sprout and begin to grow
 
 
 
* '''[[spunk]]''' - noun the courage to carry on; material for starting a fire
 
 
 
* '''[[squash]]''' - noun a game played in an enclosed court by two or four players who strike the ball with long-handled rackets; edible fruit of a squash plant; eaten as a vegetable; any of numerous annual trailing plants of the genus Cucurbita grown for their fleshy edible fruits; verb to compress with violence, out of natural shape or condition
 
 
 
* '''[[squirt]]''' - noun the occurrence of a sudden discharge (as of liquid); someone who is small and insignificant; verb wet with a spurt of liquid; cause to come out in a squirt
 
 
 
* '''[[sse]]''' - noun the compass point midway between south and southeast
 
 
 
* '''[[stanleya pinnata]]''' - noun perennial of southwestern United States having leathery blue-green pinnatifid leaves and thick plumelike spikes of yellow flowers; sometimes placed in genus Cleome
 
 
 
* '''[[stayman]]''' - noun apple grown chiefly in the Shenandoah Valley
 
 
 
* '''[[stellaria]]''' - noun common chickweed; stitchwort
 
 
 
* '''[[stellaria media]]''' - noun a common low-growing annual garden weed with small white flowers; cosmopolitan; so-called because it is eaten by chickens
 
 
 
* '''[[stevia]]''' - noun any plant of the genus Piqueria or the closely related genus Stevia; any plant of the genus Stevia or the closely related genus Piqueria having glutinous foliage and white or purplish flowers; Central and South America
 
 
 
* '''[[stone pine]]''' - noun medium-sized two-needled pine of southern Europe having a spreading crown; widely cultivated for its sweet seeds that resemble almonds
 
 
 
* '''[[straw wine]]''' - noun sweet wine from grapes partially sun-dried on the vine or on straw mats
 
 
 
* '''[[strawberry]]''' - noun a soft red birthmark; sweet fleshy red fruit; any of various low perennial herbs with many runners and bearing white flowers followed by edible fruits having many small achenes scattered on the surface of an enlarged red pulpy berry
 
 
 
* '''[[strawberry ice cream]]''' - noun ice cream flavored with fresh strawberries
 
 
 
* '''[[stuffed peppers]]''' - noun parboiled green peppers stuffed usually with rice and meat and baked briefly
 
 
 
* '''[[succotash]]''' - noun fresh corn and lima beans with butter or cream
 
 
 
* '''[[sugar apple]]''' - noun sweet pulpy tropical fruit with thick scaly rind and shiny black seeds
 
 
 
* '''[[sugar beet]]''' - noun white-rooted beet grown as a source of sugar; form of the common beet having a sweet white root from which sugar is obtained
 
 
 
* '''[[suite]]''' - noun apartment consisting of a series of connected rooms used as a living unit (as in a hotel); a musical composition of several movements only loosely connected; a matching set of furniture; the group following and attending to some important person
 
 
 
* '''[[sultana]]''' - noun pale yellow seedless grape used for raisins and wine; dried seedless grape
 
 
 
* '''[[sumac]]''' - noun a shrub or tree of the genus Rhus (usually limited to the non-poisonous members of the genus); wood of a sumac
 
 
 
* '''[[summer savory]]''' - noun herb with delicately flavored leaves with many uses; erect annual herb with oval leaves and pink flowers; used to flavor e.g. meats or soups or salads; southeastern Europe and naturalized elsewhere
 
 
 
* '''[[summer squash]]''' - noun any of various fruits of the gourd family that mature during the summer; eaten while immature and before seeds and rind harden; any of various usually bushy plants producing fruit that is eaten while immature and before the rind or seeds harden
 
 
 
* '''[[sunflower oil]]''' - noun oil from sunflower seeds
 
 
 
* '''[[sunflower seed]]''' - noun edible seed of sunflowers; used as food and poultry feed and as a source of oil
 
 
 
* '''[[sunset]]''' - adj. providing for termination; of a declining industry or technology; noun the daily event of the sun sinking below the horizon; atmospheric phenomena accompanying the daily disappearance of the sun; the time in the evening at which the sun begins to fall below the horizon
 
 
 
* '''[[suntan]]''' - noun a browning of the skin resulting from exposure to the rays of the sun; verb get a tan from being exposed to the sun
 
 
 
* '''[[sup]]''' - noun a small amount of liquid food; verb take solid or liquid food into the mouth a little at a time either by drinking or by eating with a spoon
 
 
 
* '''[[surge]]''' - noun a sudden or abrupt strong increase; a large sea wave; a sudden forceful flow; verb see one's performance improve; rise or heave upward under the influence of a natural force such as a wave; rise or move forward; rise rapidly; rise and move, as in waves or billows
 
 
 
* '''[[surprise]]''' - noun the act of surprising someone; a sudden unexpected event; the astonishment you feel when something totally unexpected happens to you; verb cause to be surprised; come upon or take unawares; attack by storm; attack suddenly
 
 
 
* '''[[sweet]]''' - adj. pleasing to the senses; (used of wines) having a high residual sugar content; having or denoting the characteristic taste of sugar; having a natural fragrance; not containing or composed of salt water; having a sweet nature befitting an angel or cherub; pleasing to the ear; pleasing to the mind or feeling; with sweetening added; not soured or preserved; adv. in an affectionate or loving manner (`sweet' is sometimes a poetic or informal variant of `sweetly'); noun the taste experience when sugar dissolves in the mouth; a food rich in sugar; English phonetician; one of the founders of modern phonetics (1845-1912); the property of tasting as if it contains sugar; a dish served as the last course of a meal
 
 
 
* '''[[sweet almond oil]]''' - noun pale yellow fatty oil expressed from sweet or bitter almonds
 
 
 
* '''[[sweet corn]]''' - noun corn that can be eaten as a vegetable while still young and soft; a corn plant developed in order to have young ears that are sweet and suitable for eating
 
 
 
* '''[[sweet potato]]''' - noun the edible tuberous root of the sweet potato vine which is grown widely in warm regions of the United States; pantropical vine widely cultivated in several varieties for its large sweet tuberous root with orange flesh; egg-shaped terra cotta wind instrument with a mouthpiece and finger holes
 
 
 
* '''[[sweet sorghum]]''' - noun any of several sorghums cultivated as a source of syrup
 
 
 
* '''[[symbolism]]''' - noun the practice of investing things with symbolic meaning; a system of symbols and symbolic representations; an artistic movement in the late 19th century that tried to express abstract or mystical ideas through the symbolic use of images
 
 
 
* '''[[symphytum officinale]]''' - noun European herb having small white, pink or purple flowers; naturalized as a weed in North America
 
 
 
* '''[[symposium]]''' - noun a meeting or conference for the public discussion of some topic especially one in which the participants form an audience and make presentations
 
 
 
* '''[[syrup]]''' - noun a thick sweet sticky liquid
 
 
 
* '''[[tabasco pepper]]''' - noun plant bearing very hot medium-sized oblong red peppers; grown principally in the Gulf Coast states for production of hot sauce
 
 
 
* '''[[tabbouleh]]''' - noun a finely chopped salad with tomatoes and parsley and mint and scallions and bulgur wheat
 
 
 
* '''[[table wine]]''' - noun wine containing not more than 14 percent alcohol usually served with a meal
 
 
 
* '''[[tacca leontopetaloides]]''' - noun perennial herb of East Indies to Polynesia and Australia; cultivated for its large edible root yielding Otaheite arrowroot starch
 
 
 
* '''[[tagetes erecta]]''' - noun a stout branching annual with large yellow to orange flower heads; Mexico and Central America
 
 
 
* '''[[tagetes patula]]''' - noun strong-scented bushy annual with orange or yellow flower heads marked with red; Mexico and Guatemala
 
 
 
* '''[[tahini]]''' - noun a thick Middle Eastern paste made from ground sesame seeds
 
 
 
* '''[[tall oil]]''' - noun an oil derived from wood pulp and used in making soaps or lubricants
 
 
 
* '''[[tamale]]''' - noun corn and cornmeal dough stuffed with a meat mixture then wrapped in corn husks and steamed; a city in northern Ghana
 
 
 
* '''[[tamarillo]]''' - noun South American arborescent shrub having pale pink blossoms followed by egg-shaped reddish-brown edible fruit somewhat resembling a tomato in flavor
 
 
 
* '''[[tamarind]]''' - noun large tropical seed pod with very tangy pulp that is eaten fresh or cooked with rice and fish or preserved for curries and chutneys; long-lived tropical evergreen tree with a spreading crown and feathery evergreen foliage and fragrant flowers yielding hard yellowish wood and long pods with edible chocolate-colored acidic pulp
 
 
 
* '''[[tanacetum parthenium]]''' - noun bushy aromatic European perennial herb having clusters of buttonlike white-rayed flower heads; valued traditionally for medicinal uses; sometimes placed in genus Chrysanthemum
 
 
 
* '''[[tangelo]]''' - noun large sweet juicy hybrid between tangerine and grapefruit having a thick wrinkled skin; hybrid between grapefruit and mandarin orange; cultivated especially in Florida
 
 
 
* '''[[tangerine]]''' - adj. of a strong reddish orange color; noun a reddish to vivid orange color; any of various deep orange mandarins grown in the United States and southern Africa; a variety of mandarin orange
 
 
 
* '''[[tango]]''' - noun a ballroom dance of Latin-American origin; music written in duple time for dancing the tango; verb dance a tango
 
 
 
* '''[[tangor]]''' - noun large citrus tree having large sweet deep orange fruit that is easily peeled; widely cultivated in Florida
 
 
 
* '''[[tannin]]''' - noun any of various complex phenolic substances of plant origin; used in tanning and in medicine
 
 
 
* '''[[tapioca]]''' - noun granular preparation of cassava starch used to thicken especially puddings
 
 
 
* '''[[taraxacum]]''' - noun an asterid dicot genus of the family Compositae including dandelions
 
 
 
* '''[[taraxacum officinale]]''' - noun Eurasian plant widely naturalized as a weed in North America; used as salad greens and to make wine
 
 
 
* '''[[taro]]''' - noun tropical starchy tuberous root; herb of the Pacific islands grown throughout the tropics for its edible root and in temperate areas as an ornamental for its large glossy leaves; edible starchy tuberous root of taro plants
 
 
 
* '''[[tarragon]]''' - noun fresh leaves (or leaves preserved in vinegar) used as seasoning; aromatic perennial of southeastern Russia
 
 
 
* '''[[teff]]''' - noun an African grass economically important as a cereal grass (yielding white flower of good quality) as well as for forage and hay
 
 
 
* '''[[template]]''' - noun a model or standard for making comparisons
 
 
 
* '''[[tetrazzini]]''' - noun a pasta dish with cream sauce and mushrooms
 
 
 
* '''[[teucrium scorodonia]]''' - noun European germander with one-sided racemes of yellow flowers; naturalized in North America
 
 
 
* '''[[the great hunger]]''' - noun a famine in Ireland resulting from a potato blight; between 1846 and 1851 a million people starved to death and 1.6 million emigrated (most to America)
 
 
 
* '''[[the irish famine]]''' - noun a famine in Ireland resulting from a potato blight; between 1846 and 1851 a million people starved to death and 1.6 million emigrated (most to America)
 
 
 
* '''[[theobroma]]''' - noun cacao plants
 
 
 
* '''[[theobroma cacao]]''' - noun tropical American tree producing cacao beans
 
 
 
* '''[[thyme]]''' - noun leaves can be used as seasoning for almost any meat and stews and stuffings and vegetables; any of various mints of the genus Thymus
 
 
 
* '''[[thymus]]''' - noun large genus of Old World mints: thyme; a ductless glandular organ at the base of the neck that produces lymphocytes and aids in producing immunity; atrophies with age
 
 
 
* '''[[thymus serpyllum]]''' - noun aromatic dwarf shrub common on banks and hillsides in Europe; naturalized in United States
 
 
 
* '''[[thymus vulgaris]]''' - noun common aromatic garden perennial native to the western Mediterranean; used in seasonings and formerly as medicine
 
 
 
* '''[[tiffin]]''' - noun a midday meal
 
 
 
* '''[[tilia cordata]]''' - noun large spreading European linden with small dark green leaves; often cultivated as an ornamental
 
 
 
* '''[[tilletia caries]]''' - noun fungus that destroys kernels of wheat by replacing them with greasy masses of smelly spores
 
 
 
* '''[[titus]]''' - noun Emperor of Rome; son of Vespasian (39-81); a Greek disciple and helper of Saint Paul; a new Testament book containing Saint Paul's epistle to Titus; contains advice on pastoral matters
 
 
 
* '''[[toddy]]''' - noun a mixed drink made of liquor and water with sugar and spices and served hot
 
 
 
* '''[[toddy palm]]''' - noun tall fan palm of Africa and India and Malaysia yielding a hard wood and sweet sap that is a source of palm wine and sugar; leaves used for thatching and weaving
 
 
 
* '''[[tofu]]''' - noun cheeselike food made of curdled soybean milk
 
 
 
* '''[[tom collins]]''' - noun tall iced drink of liquor (usually gin) with fruit juice
 
 
 
* '''[[tomatillo]]''' - noun small edible yellow to purple tomato-like fruit enclosed in a bladderlike husk; annual of Mexico and southern United States having edible purplish viscid fruit resembling small tomatoes; Mexican annual naturalized in eastern North America having yellow to purple edible fruit resembling small tomatoes
 
 
 
* '''[[tomato]]''' - noun mildly acid red or yellow pulpy fruit eaten as a vegetable; native to South America; widely cultivated in many varieties
 
 
 
* '''[[tomato juice]]''' - noun the juice of tomatoes (usually bottled or canned)
 
 
 
* '''[[tomato paste]]''' - noun thick concentrated tomato puree
 
 
 
* '''[[tomato sauce]]''' - noun sauce made with a puree of tomatoes (or strained tomatoes) with savory vegetables and other seasonings; can be used on pasta
 
 
 
* '''[[topaz]]''' - noun a mineral (fluosilicate of aluminum) that occurs in crystals of various colors and is used as a gemstone; a yellow quartz; a light brown the color of topaz
 
 
 
* '''[[torrey pine]]''' - noun medium-sized five-needled pine of southwestern California having long cylindrical cones
 
 
 
* '''[[torreya californica]]''' - noun California evergreen having a fruit resembling a nutmeg but with a strong turpentine flavor
 
 
 
* '''[[tortilla]]''' - noun thin unleavened pancake made from cornmeal or wheat flour
 
 
 
* '''[[tostada]]''' - noun a crisp flat tortilla; a flat tortilla with various fillings piled on it
 
 
 
* '''[[tragacanth]]''' - noun a gum used in pharmacy, adhesives, and textile printing
 
 
 
* '''[[tragopogon]]''' - noun genus of Old World herbs with linear entire leaves and yellow or purple flower heads
 
 
 
* '''[[tragopogon dubius]]''' - noun European perennial naturalized throughout United States having hollow stems with a few long narrow tapered leaves and each bearing a solitary pale yellow flower
 
 
 
* '''[[tragopogon porrifolius]]''' - noun Mediterranean biennial herb with long-stemmed heads of purple ray flowers and milky sap and long edible root; naturalized throughout United States
 
 
 
* '''[[tree onion]]''' - noun type of perennial onion grown chiefly as a curiosity or for early salad onions; having bulbils that replace the flowers
 
 
 
* '''[[trifoliate orange]]''' - noun small fast-growing spiny deciduous Chinese orange tree bearing sweetly scented flowers and decorative but inedible fruit: used as a stock in grafting and for hedges
 
 
 
* '''[[trifolium incarnatum]]''' - noun southern European annual with spiky heads of crimson flower; extensively cultivated in United States for forage
 
 
 
* '''[[trifolium repens]]''' - noun creeping European clover having white to pink flowers and bright green leaves; naturalized in United States; widely grown for forage
 
 
 
* '''[[trip]]''' - noun an unintentional but embarrassing blunder; a light or nimble tread; a journey for some purpose (usually including the return); an exciting or stimulating experience; a hallucinatory experience induced by drugs; a catch mechanism that acts as a switch; an accidental misstep threatening (or causing) a fall; verb get high, stoned, or drugged; put in motion or move to act; cause to stumble; make a trip for pleasure; miss a step and fall or nearly fall
 
 
 
* '''[[triticum]]''' - noun annual cereal grasses from Mediterranean area; widely cultivated in temperate regions
 
 
 
* '''[[triticum aestivum]]''' - noun widely cultivated in temperate regions in many varieties for its commercially important grain
 
 
 
* '''[[triticum dicoccum]]''' - noun hard red wheat grown especially in Russia and Germany; in United States as stock feed
 
 
 
* '''[[triticum durum]]''' - noun wheat with hard dark-colored kernels high in gluten and used for bread and pasta; grown especially in southern Russia, North Africa, and northern central North America
 
 
 
* '''[[triticum spelta]]''' - noun hardy wheat grown mostly in Europe for livestock feed
 
 
 
* '''[[troika]]''' - noun a Russian carriage pulled by three horses abreast; a modern Russian triumvirate
 
 
 
* '''[[tropaeolum majus]]''' - noun strong-growing annual climber having large flowers of all shades of orange from orange-red to yellowish orange and seeds that are pickled and used like capers
 
 
 
* '''[[trousseau]]''' - noun the personal outfit of a bride; clothes and accessories and linens
 
 
 
* '''[[tung oil]]''' - noun a yellow oil obtained from the seeds of the tung tree
 
 
 
* '''[[turban squash]]''' - noun large squash shaped somewhat like a turban usually with a rounded central portion protruding from the blossom end; squash plants bearing hard-shelled fruit shaped somewhat like a turban with a rounded central portion protruding from the end opposite the stem
 
 
 
* '''[[turmeric]]''' - noun ground dried rhizome of the turmeric plant used as seasoning; widely cultivated tropical plant of India having yellow flowers and a large aromatic deep yellow rhizome; source of a condiment and a yellow dye
 
 
 
* '''[[turnip]]''' - noun root of any of several members of the mustard family; widely cultivated plant having a large fleshy edible white or yellow root
 
 
 
* '''[[tussilago]]''' - noun genus of low creeping yellow-flowered perennial herbs of north temperate regions: coltsfoots; in some classifications includes species often placed in other genera especially Homogyne and Petasites
 
 
 
* '''[[tutti-frutti]]''' - noun ice cream containing chopped candied fruits
 
 
 
* '''[[typha]]''' - noun reed maces; cattails
 
 
 
* '''[[typha angustifolia]]''' - noun reed maces of America, Europe, North Africa, Asia
 
 
 
* '''[[typha latifolia]]''' - noun tall marsh plant with cylindrical seed heads that explode when mature shedding large quantities of down; its long flat leaves are used for making mats and chair seats; of North America, Europe, Asia and North Africa
 
 
 
* '''[[uda]]''' - noun the major Protestant paramilitary group in Northern Ireland; responsible for bombing the homes of Catholics and for criminal racketeering and selling drugs
 
 
 
* '''[[ulex]]''' - noun genus of Eurasian spiny shrubs: gorse
 
 
 
* '''[[ullage]]''' - noun the amount that a container (as a wine bottle or tank) lacks of being full
 
 
 
* '''[[ulmus rubra]]''' - noun North American elm having rough leaves that are red when opening; yields a hard wood
 
 
 
* '''[[umbellularia]]''' - noun aromatic evergreen trees of Pacific coast
 
 
 
* '''[[unit]]''' - noun a single undivided whole; an organization regarded as part of a larger social group; a single undivided natural thing occurring in the composition of something else; an individual or group or structure or other entity regarded as a structural or functional constituent of a whole; an assemblage of parts that is regarded as a single entity; any division of quantity accepted as a standard of measurement or exchange
 
 
 
* '''[[united states]]''' - noun North American republic containing 50 states - 48 conterminous states in North America plus Alaska in northwest North America and the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean; achieved independence in 1776; the executive and legislative and judicial branches of the federal government of the United States
 
 
 
* '''[[urtica]]''' - noun a nettle yielding fiber resembling flax
 
 
 
* '''[[urtica dioica]]''' - noun perennial Eurasian nettle established in North America having broad coarsely toothed leaves with copious stinging hairs
 
 
 
* '''[[ustilaginoidea virens]]''' - noun fungus causing green smut in rice
 
 
 
* '''[[ustilago maydis]]''' - noun a common smut attacking Indian corn causing greyish white swellings that rupture to expose a black spore mass
 
 
 
* '''[[vaccinium corymbosum]]''' - noun high-growing deciduous shrub of eastern North America bearing edible blueish to blackish berries with a distinct bloom; source of most cultivated blueberries
 
 
 
* '''[[vaccinium macrocarpon]]''' - noun trailing red-fruited plant
 
 
 
* '''[[vaccinium myrsinites]]''' - noun shrub of the eastern United States having shining evergreen leaves and bluish-black fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[vaccinium ovatum]]''' - noun stiff bushy evergreen shrub of western North America having sour black berries and glossy green foliage used in floral arrangements
 
 
 
* '''[[vaccinium pallidum]]''' - noun low deciduous shrub of the eastern United States bearing dark blue sweet berries
 
 
 
* '''[[vaccinium scoparium]]''' - noun shrub of northwestern North America bearing red berries
 
 
 
* '''[[valencia]]''' - noun a city in eastern Spain on the Mediterranean; an industrial city in northern Venezuela
 
 
 
* '''[[valencia orange]]''' - noun variety of sweet orange cultivated extensively in Florida and California
 
 
 
* '''[[valerianella locusta]]''' - noun widely cultivated as a salad crop and pot herb; often a weed
 
 
 
* '''[[vangueria infausta]]''' - noun small deciduous tree of southern Africa having edible fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[vanilla]]''' - adj. plain and without any extras or adornments; flavored with vanilla extract; noun a distinctive fragrant flavor characteristic of vanilla beans; a flavoring prepared from vanilla beans macerated in alcohol (or imitating vanilla beans); any of numerous climbing plants of the genus Vanilla having fleshy leaves and clusters of large waxy highly fragrant white or green or topaz flowers
 
 
 
* '''[[varietal]]''' - noun a wine made principally from one grape and carrying the name of that grape
 
 
 
* '''[[vault]]''' - noun the act of jumping over an obstacle; an arched brick or stone ceiling or roof; a burial chamber (usually underground); a strongroom or compartment (often made of steel) for safekeeping of valuables; verb bound vigorously; jump across or leap over (an obstacle)
 
 
 
* '''[[vega]]''' - noun the brightest star in the constellation Lyra; prolific Spanish playwright (1562-1635)
 
 
 
* '''[[vegetable]]''' - adj. of the nature of or characteristic of or derived from plants; noun edible seeds or roots or stems or leaves or bulbs or tubers or nonsweet fruits of any of numerous herbaceous plant; any of various herbaceous plants cultivated for an edible part such as the fruit or the root of the beet or the leaf of spinach or the seeds of bean plants or the flower buds of broccoli or cauliflower
 
 
 
* '''[[vegetable oil]]''' - noun any of a group of liquid edible fats that are obtained from plants
 
 
 
* '''[[verbascum thapsus]]''' - noun tall-stalked very woolly mullein with densely packed yellow flowers; ancient Greeks and Romans dipped the stalks in tallow for funeral torches
 
 
 
* '''[[verdicchio]]''' - noun a dry white Italian wine made from Verdicchio grapes; a variety of white wine grape grown in Italy
 
 
 
* '''[[veronica americana]]''' - noun plant of western North America and northeastern Asia having prostrate stems with dense racemes of pale violet to lilac flowers
 
 
 
* '''[[viburnum prunifolium]]''' - noun upright deciduous shrub having frosted dark-blue fruit; east and east central North America
 
 
 
* '''[[viburnum trilobum]]''' - noun deciduous North American shrub or small tree having three-lobed leaves and red berries
 
 
 
* '''[[vichyssoise]]''' - noun a creamy potato soup flavored with leeks and onions; usually served cold
 
 
 
* '''[[vicia cracca]]''' - noun common perennial climber of temperate regions of Eurasia and North America having dense elongate clusters of flowers
 
 
 
* '''[[vicia faba]]''' - noun Old World upright plant grown especially for its large flat edible seeds but also as fodder
 
 
 
* '''[[victoria plum]]''' - noun a large red plum served as dessert
 
 
 
* '''[[vidalia onion]]''' - noun sweet-flavored onion grown in Georgia
 
 
 
* '''[[vigna aconitifolia]]''' - noun East Indian legume having hairy foliage and small yellow flowers followed by cylindrical pods; used especially in India for food and forage and as a soil conditioner; sometimes placed in genus Phaseolus
 
 
 
* '''[[vineyard]]''' - noun a farm of grapevines where wine grapes are produced
 
 
 
* '''[[vintage]]''' - noun the oldness of wines; a season's yield of wine from a vineyard
 
 
 
* '''[[vintner]]''' - noun someone who makes wine; someone who sells wine
 
 
 
* '''[[viola]]''' - noun a bowed stringed instrument slightly larger than a violin, tuned a fifth lower; large genus of flowering herbs of temperate regions; any of the numerous plants of the genus Viola
 
 
 
* '''[[vital]]''' - adj. manifesting or characteristic of life; performing an essential function in the living body; full of spirit; urgently needed; absolutely necessary
 
 
 
* '''[[viticulture]]''' - noun the cultivation of grapes and grape vines; grape growing
 
 
 
* '''[[viticulturist]]''' - noun a cultivator of grape vine
 
 
 
* '''[[vitis]]''' - noun the type genus of the family Vitaceae; woody vines with simple leaves and small flowers; includes a wide variety of grapes
 
 
 
* '''[[vitis labrusca]]''' - noun native grape of northeastern United States; origin of many cultivated varieties e.g. Concord grapes
 
 
 
* '''[[vitis rotundifolia]]''' - noun native grape of southeastern United States; origin of many cultivated varieties
 
 
 
* '''[[vitis vinifera]]''' - noun common European grape cultivated in many varieties; chief source of Old World wine and table grapes
 
 
 
* '''[[wafer]]''' - noun thin disk of unleavened bread used in a religious service (especially in the celebration of the Eucharist); a small thin crisp cake or cookie; a small adhesive disk of paste; used to seal letters
 
 
 
* '''[[waldorf salad]]''' - noun typically made of apples and celery with nuts or raisins and dressed with mayonnaise
 
 
 
* '''[[walnut]]''' - noun nut of any of various walnut trees having a wrinkled two-lobed seed with a hard shell; any of various trees of the genus Juglans; hard dark-brown wood of any of various walnut trees; used especially for furniture and paneling
 
 
 
* '''[[walnut oil]]''' - noun oil from walnuts
 
 
 
* '''[[wasabi]]''' - noun the thick green root of the wasabi plant that the Japanese use in cooking and that tastes like strong horseradish; in powder or paste form it is often eaten with raw fish; a Japanese plant of the family Cruciferae with a thick green root
 
 
 
* '''[[wassail]]''' - noun a punch made of sweetened ale or wine heated with spices and roasted apples; especially at Christmas; verb propose a toast to; celebrate noisily, often indulging in drinking; engage in uproarious festivities
 
 
 
* '''[[water caltrop]]''' - noun a variety of water chestnut
 
 
 
* '''[[watercress]]''' - adj. of a moderate yellow-green color that is greener and deeper than moss green and yellower and darker than pea green; noun cresses that grow in clear ponds and streams; any of several water-loving cresses
 
 
 
* '''[[watermelon]]''' - noun large oblong or roundish melon with a hard green rind and sweet watery red or occasionally yellowish pulp; an African melon
 
 
 
* '''[[wealthy]]''' - adj. having an abundant supply of money or possessions of value
 
 
 
* '''[[wheat]]''' - noun grains of common wheat; sometimes cooked whole or cracked as cereal; usually ground into flour; annual or biennial grass having erect flower spikes and light brown grains
 
 
 
* '''[[wheat berry]]''' - noun a grain of wheat; grains of common wheat; sometimes cooked whole or cracked as cereal; usually ground into flour
 
 
 
* '''[[wheat flour]]''' - noun flour prepared from wheat
 
 
 
* '''[[wheat germ]]''' - noun embryo of the wheat kernel; removed before milling and eaten as a source of vitamins
 
 
 
* '''[[wheat gluten]]''' - noun gluten prepared from wheat
 
 
 
* '''[[wheatgrass]]''' - noun a grass of the genus Agropyron
 
 
 
* '''[[whiskey sour]]''' - noun a sour made with whiskey
 
 
 
* '''[[white chocolate]]''' - noun a blend of cocoa butter and milk solids and sugar and vanilla; used in candy bars and backing and coatings; not technically chocolate because it contains no chocolate liquor
 
 
 
* '''[[white mustard]]''' - noun Eurasian mustard cultivated for its pungent seeds; a source of table mustard and mustard oil
 
 
 
* '''[[white rice]]''' - noun having husk or outer brown layers removed
 
 
 
* '''[[white wine]]''' - noun pale yellowish wine made from white grapes or red grapes with skins removed before fermentation
 
 
 
* '''[[wild apple]]''' - noun any of numerous wild apple trees usually with small acid fruit
 
 
 
* '''[[wild rice]]''' - noun grains of aquatic grass of North America; perennial aquatic grass of North America bearing grain used for food
 
 
 
* '''[[wine]]''' - noun a red as dark as red wine; fermented juice (of grapes especially); verb treat to wine; drink wine
 
 
 
* '''[[wine bar]]''' - noun a bar that serves only wine
 
 
 
* '''[[wine bottle]]''' - noun a bottle for holding wine
 
 
 
* '''[[wine cellar]]''' - noun storage space where wines are stored
 
 
 
* '''[[wine sauce]]''' - noun white or veloute sauce with wine and stock variously seasoned with onions and herbs; for fish or meat
 
 
 
* '''[[winemaker]]''' - noun someone who makes wine
 
 
 
* '''[[winemaking]]''' - noun the craft and science of growing grapes and making wine
 
 
 
* '''[[winepress]]''' - noun a press that is used to extract the juice from grapes
 
 
 
* '''[[winery]]''' - noun distillery where wine is made
 
 
 
* '''[[winesap]]''' - noun crisp apple with dark red skin
 
 
 
* '''[[wineskin]]''' - noun an animal skin (usually a goatskin) that forms a bag and is used to hold and dispense wine
 
 
 
* '''[[winged bean]]''' - noun a tuberous twining annual vine bearing clusters of purplish flowers and pods with four jagged wings; Old World tropics
 
 
 
* '''[[winter savory]]''' - noun resinous leaves used in stews and stuffings and meat loaf; erect perennial subshrub having pink or white flowers and leathery leaves with a flavor of thyme; southern Europe
 
 
 
* '''[[winter squash]]''' - noun any of various fruits of the gourd family with thick rinds and edible yellow to orange flesh that mature in the fall and can be stored for several months; any of various plants of the species Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita moschata producing squashes that have hard rinds and mature in the fall
 
 
 
* '''[[wintergreen]]''' - noun spicy red berrylike fruit; source of wintergreen oil; any of several evergreen perennials of the genus Pyrola; creeping shrub of eastern North America having white bell-shaped flowers followed by spicy red berrylike fruit and shiny aromatic leaves that yield wintergreen oil
 
 
 
* '''[[wrack]]''' - noun dried seaweed especially that cast ashore; the destruction or collapse of something; growth of marine vegetation especially of the large forms such as rockweeds and kelp; verb smash or break forcefully
 
 
 
* '''[[xanthosoma]]''' - noun tropical American tuberous perennials
 
 
 
* '''[[xerophyllum tenax]]''' - noun plant of western North America having woody rhizomes and tufts of stiff grasslike basal leaves and spikes of creamy white flowers
 
 
 
* '''[[xylaria mali]]''' - noun fungus causing black root rot in apples
 
 
 
* '''[[xylopia aethiopica]]''' - noun tropical west African evergreen tree bearing pungent aromatic seeds used as a condiment and in folk medicine
 
 
 
* '''[[yam]]''' - noun edible tuberous root of various yam plants of the genus Dioscorea grown in the tropics world-wide for food; sweet potato with deep orange flesh that remains moist when baked; any of a number of tropical vines of the genus Dioscorea many having edible tuberous roots; edible tuber of any of several yams
 
 
 
* '''[[yerba buena]]''' - noun trailing perennial evergreen herb of northwestern United States with small white flowers; used medicinally
 
 
 
* '''[[yield]]''' - noun an amount of a product; production of a certain amount; the income or profit arising from such transactions as the sale of land or other property; the quantity of something (as a commodity) that is created (usually within a given period of time); verb consent reluctantly; cease opposition; stop fighting; bring in; be the cause or source of; give in, as to influence or pressure; end resistance, as under pressure or force; be willing to concede; be flexible under stress of physical force; give or supply; cause to happen or be responsible for; move in order to make room for someone for something; give over; surrender or relinquish to the physical control of another; be fatally overwhelmed
 
 
 
* '''[[young]]''' - adj. being in its early stage; (used of living things especially persons) in an early period of life or development or growth; (of crops) harvested at an early stage of development; before complete maturity; not tried or tested by experience; suggestive of youth; vigorous and fresh; noun any immature animal; young people collectively; United States religious leader of the Mormon Church after the assassination of Joseph Smith; he led the Mormon exodus from Illinois to Salt Lake City, Utah (1801-1877); United States baseball player and famous pitcher (1867-1955); English poet (1683-1765); United States jazz tenor saxophonist (1909-1959); British physicist and Egyptologist; he revived the wave theory of light and proposed a three-component theory of color vision; he also played an important role in deciphering the hieroglyphics on the Rosetta Stone (1773-1829); United States civil rights leader (1921-1971); United States film and television actress (1913-2000)
 
 
 
* '''[[yucca baccata]]''' - noun tall yucca of the southwestern United States and Mexico having a woody stem and stiff swordlike pointed leaves and a large cluster of white flowers
 
 
 
* '''[[yucca glauca]]''' - noun yucca of west central United States having a clump of basal grasslike leaves and a central stalk with a terminal raceme of small whitish flowers
 
 
 
* '''[[yule log]]''' - noun large log traditionally burned at Christmas
 
 
 
* '''[[zanthoxylum]]''' - noun deciduous or evergreen trees or shrubs: prickly ash
 
 
 
* '''[[zea]]''' - noun corn
 
 
 
* '''[[zea mays]]''' - noun tall annual cereal grass bearing kernels on large ears: widely cultivated in America in many varieties; the principal cereal in Mexico and Central and South America since pre-Columbian times
 
 
 
* '''[[zest]]''' - noun a tart spicy quality; vigorous and enthusiastic enjoyment; verb add herbs or spices to
 
 
 
* '''[[zill]]''' - noun one of a pair of small metallic cymbals worn on the thumb and middle finger; used in belly dancing in rhythm with the dance
 
 
 
* '''[[zinfandel]]''' - noun dry fruity red wine from California; small black grape grown chiefly in California; transplanted from Europe
 
 
 
* '''[[zingiber]]''' - noun tropical Asiatic and Polynesian perennial plants: ginger
 
 
 
* '''[[zizania]]''' - noun wild rice
 
 
 
* '''[[zizania aquatica]]''' - noun perennial aquatic grass of North America bearing grain used for food
 
 
 
* '''[[zucchini]]''' - noun small cucumber-shaped vegetable marrow; typically dark green; marrow squash plant whose fruit are eaten when small
 

Revision as of 04:10, 1 August 2020


  • Abreaction - Abreaction is an emotional release or discharge following recall of a painful experience. Used sometimes by police, forensics after administering amobarbital.
  • Abulia -Aboulia or Abulia, in neurology, refers to a lack of will or initiative. The patient is unable to act or make decisions independently. It may range from subtle to overwhelming in severity.
  • Achromatopsia - Acquired agnosia for color. This term includes color blindness.
  • Affect illusion - Illusions (Misperceptions) associated with and/or based on changes with mood for example at midnight a person may take a shadow as a ghost, but in the early part of night this may not be the case.
  • Akathisia - Is a feeling of 'inner restlessness' often brought on as a side effect of anti-psychotic medication. People with akathisia have a desire to keep moving and are unable to keep still even though their movements are voluntary (as opposed to other movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia which is involuntary). It most often affects the legs. When mild it is usually worse at night.
  • Alexithymia - The term was coined by Dr Peter Sifneos to describe a condition where the person is unable to put into words the emotions he feels.
  • Alice in Wonderland Experience - In Alice in Wonderland Experience Subjects perceive objects (including animals and other humans, or parts of humans, animals, or objects) as appearing substantially smaller than in reality. Generally, the object appears far away or extremely close at the same time. Alternate term for this is * somaesthetic aura. Also see #Lilliputian hallucinations
  • Alliteration -Alliteration refers to the repetition of initial consonant sounds in neighbouring words. For example, "When I struck and slapped my humble horse, he began to run rapidly."
  • Alogia - Literally , this term means "not having words". This refers to poverty of speech generally seen in chronic psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. This may be seen in advanced dementia too.
  • Amok -Amok, or mata galap: The term comes from Malaysia in its origin. The phrase "running amok" also comes from this syndrome. This is a rare culture bound syndrome in which the subject (known as a pengamok) suddenly withdraws from his peers and family and gets violent towards people around him and may also use whatever weapon available to him. He is very difficult to be stopped at that stage. Ultimately he falls into a sleep or stupor and when wakes up having little knowledge of his violent behaviour.
  • Anhedonia -Anhedonia refers to a state of mind in which the subject finds no pleasure in anything. This is seen in severe depressive states and schizoid personality disorder.
  • Anosognosia -Anosognosia is a phenomenon in which a patient usually suffering from stroke is unaware and indifferent towards his disability. #Hemiasomatognosia is a subtype of anosognosia in which the person suffering from hemiplegia neglects one half of his body.
  • Anton's syndrome -Anton syndrome, occasionally known as Anton-Babinski syndrome, is a form of cortical blindness in which the patient denies the visual impairment. The patient may attempt to walk, bumping into objects and injuring himself. Anton syndrome is caused by damage to the occipital lobe which extends from the primary visual cortex into the visual association cortex.
  • Anwesenheit - Anwesenheit refers to the feeling of presence of something or some person. It can be seen in normal grief reaction, schizophrenia and some emotionally arousing situations.
  • Apophanous perception - This is an alternate term for delusional perception. It is one of the Schneiderian first rank symptoms and is defined as a true perception, to which a patient attributes a false meaning. For example, a person may see written "No Trespassing" on a board and may infer from this that intelligence agencies are spying on him.
  • Aphemia - Aphemia is the alternate term for mutism. Mutism is absence of speech with apparently normal level of consciousness. Mutism can be dissociative (hysterical) in which an individual (commonly a child or adolescent) stops speaking at once without involvement of any neurological or physical contributing factor; or it can be elective (selective) in which a child does not speak at all in certain situations (such as in school) but speaks well in other conditions (like at home or at play). A rare cause of mutism is akinetic mutism which results due to a lesion around 3rd ventricle of brain.
  • Apperception - Apperception is a normal phenomenon and refers to the ability to undestand sensory inputs in their context, to interpret them and to incorporate them into experience. Failure of apperception is seen in delirious states.
  • Astasia-abasia -Astasia abasia is a form of dissociative disorder in which gait becomes impaired in absence of any neurological or physical pathology. The person usually walks in a bizarre manner. He staggers and appears as if going to fall but always manages to catch hold of something in time. Sometimes these people cannot even stand but on the other hand they are well able to move their legs while lying down or sitting.
  • Asyndesis - Alternate term for Loosening of association. A milder form of derailment of thought, in which a person goes on jumping from one topic to another and there is little connection among the topics. This is in contrast to flight of ideas where a person jumps from one topic to another and there is a connection among the topics. See also #Entgleisen term introduced by (Cameron).
  • Autochthonous delusion -Jaspers defined this as a delusion arising without apparent cause. For example, suddendly, without apparent cause, having the delusional belief that you are an alien.
  • Autokabalesis - An uncommonly used term used for suicide committed by jumping from a very high place.
  • Automatic obedience - Automatic obedience is an exaggerated co-operation with an examiner's request, as if the patient were an 'automaton' robotically obeying a command. It is usually a sign of catatonia.
  • Automatism -Automatisms are sequences of activity that occur without conscious control. They may be simple and repetitive (tic-like) or complex, and are usually natural-looking but purposeless; for example, repeatedly going through the motions of buttering a piece of bread when there is no bread there. Automatic behaviour is not usually recalled afterwards.
  • Bouffée délirante -Bouffée délirante is a French term used in past for acute and transient psychotic disorders (F23 in ICD-10). In DSM-IV, it is described as "Brief Psychotic Disorder" (298.8). The symptoms usually have an acute onset and reach their peak within two weeks. The symptoms start resolving in a few weeks and complete recovery usually occurs within 2-3 months.
  • Capgras' syndrome or Illusion des sosies - In Capgras syndrome, the patient feels that a person familiar to him , usually a family member has been replaced by a double i.e. an identical looking imposter. Capgras Syndrome and Fregoli syndrome along with some other conditions are classified as delusional misidentification syndrome. It is named after Joseph Capgras (1873-1950), a French psychiatrist who first described the disorder in a paper by Capgras and Reboul-Lachaux1,2 in 1923. They used the term l'illusion des sosies (the illusion of doubles) to describe the case of a French woman who complained that various doubles had taken the place of people she knew. However, the term illusion has a subtly different meaning from delusion in psychiatry so Capgras delusion is used as a more suitable name.
  • Catalepsy -Catalepsy is the term for catatonic rigidity of the limbs which often results in abnormal posturing for long intervals.
  • Cataplexy -Cataplexy is an attack of muscular flaccidity.
  • Cerea flexibilitas -Cerea flexibilitas, meaning "waxy flexibility," is characterized by a patient's movements having the feeling of a plastic resistance, as if the person were made of wax. This occurs in catatonic schizophrenia, and a person suffering from this condition can have his limbs placed in fixed positions as if the person were in fact made from wax.
  • Chorea -Chorea is manifest by abnormal voluntary movements. The term comes from Greek word khoreia, since large groups of muscles are usually involved which leads to writhing dancing movement.
  • Circumstantiality - Refers to a thought disorder wherein thinking takes a roundabout manner to get to an answer. Differentiable from tangentiality by the speaker eventually getting back to the point. For example: "My mother's job? She used to sit around the house doing nothing but drinking, she'd just sit there and stew, making noises, chugging her drinks. She threw my dad out of the house. I'll never forget that, the way she did it. Anyways, my mom was a waitress."
  • Clang association - Thought disorder wherein words are chosen or repeated based on similar sounds, instead of semantic meaning. "The train rain brained me. He ate the skate, inflated yesterdays gate toward the cheese grater."
  • Claparede's paradox - This refers to retention of non-verbal and implicit memory in sufferers of Korsakov's syndrome. 11
  • Clouding of consciousness - Clouding of consciousness is a global impairment in higher central nervous functioning. All aspects of cognitive funtioning are affected. On mental status examination it is manifest by disorientation in time, place and person, memory difficulties caused by failure to register and recall, aphasia, dyspraxia, and agnosia. Impaired perception functioning leads to illusions and hallucinations often in the visual sensory modality. This then causes agitation and distress and secondary delusions. The term 'confusion state' is sometimes used to mean clouding of consciousness, but should be avoided if at all possible because it is ambiguous.
  • Coenestopathic state - A patient in a coenestopathic state has a localized distortion of body awareness.
  • Confabulation -Confabulation is the confusion of imagination with memory, and/or the confusion of true memories with false memories.
  • Conversion -Conversion is the hysterical production of neurological symptoms.
  • Coprolalia -Coprolalia is the involuntary utterance of socially inappropriate phrases. It is a phonic tic associated with Tourette syndrome, although less than 15% of persons with Tourette's have coprolalia.
  • Cotard's syndrome -Cotard's syndrome is a nihilistic delusional syndrome in which, for example, patient believes that he denies his own existence or existence of his body parts and belongings etc. and has a firm conviction about that. This can be seen usually in schizophrenia and severe depressive states especially in context of a bipolar disorder.
  • Defenestration - Literally jumping out of window. Usually used in context of attempted or completed suicide. Also see #autokabalesis. 11
  • Déjà vu - In Déjà vu, a person feels undue familiarity to an event or a person. For example, he feels that the same thing has happened before or he has met this person before, etc.
  • Déjà pensé - In Déjà pensé, a completely new thought sounds familiar to the person and he feels as he has thought the same thing before at some time.
  • Dementia praecox - Psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin was the first to draw a distinction between what he termed dementia praecox ("premature dementia") and other psychotic illnesses. In 1911, dementia praecox was renamed schizophrenia by psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler, who found Kraepelin's term to be misleading, as the disorder is not a form of dementia, premature or otherwise.
  • Dementia pugilistica -Dementia pugilistica, also called "chronic traumatic encephalopathy", "pugilistic Parkinson's syndrome", "boxer's syndrome", and "punch-drunk syndrome", is a neurological disorder which affects career boxers and others who receive multiple dazing blows to the head. The condition develops over a period of years, with the average time of onset being about 16 years after the start of a career in boxing.
  • Dhat - In Dhat syndrome there is a complaint of premature ejaculation or impotence and a belief that semen is being passed in the urine.
  • Doppelgänger - The Doppelgänger is a phenomenon in which the person feels that his exact “double” is present alongside him every time and goes with him wherever he goes.
  • Écho de la pensée - In écho de la pensée, meaning "thought echo" in French, thoughts seem to be spoken aloud just * after being produced. The patient hears the 'echo' of his thoughts in the form of a voice after he has made the thought. See also #Gedankenlautwerden and #Thought Sonorization.
  • Entgleisen - Literally means jumping off the rails. Alternate term used for derailment of thought (a morbid form of loosening of association or #asyndesis). A Schneiderian term by origin. In this form of thought the patient jumps from one topic to another during conversation and both topics have literally no connection with each other. This is in contrast with flight of ideas where connection is present between one topic and another.
  • Extracampine - Extracampine hallucinations are hallucinations beyond the possible sensory field, e.g., 'seeing' somebody standing behind you is a visual extracampine hallucination experience.
  • Fantasy -Fantasy is imagining that expresses desires and aims.
  • Fatuous affect - The moods of a patient with fatuous affect resemble the moods of a child. This condition is seen in hebephrenic schizophrenia.
  • Folie à deux - Also called induced psychosis, folie à deux is a delusional disorder shared by two or more people who are closely related emotionally. One has real psychosis while the symptoms of psychosis are induced in the other or others due to close attachment to the one with psychosis. Separation usually results in symptomatic improvement in the one who is not psychotic.

Folie communiquée, folie imposée, folie induite, and folie simultanée are the four subtypes of folie à deux.

  • Folie communiquée -Folie communiquée, or subtype C of folie à deux, occurs when a normal person suffers a contagion of his ideas after resisting them for a long time. Once he acquires these beliefs he maintains them despite separation.
  • Folie imposée -Folie imposée, or subtype A of folie a deux, is the most common form in which the dominant person imposes a delusion into a person who was not previously mentally ill. Separation of the two results in improvement of the non-dominant person.
  • Folie induite - In folie induite, or subtype D of folie a deux, a person who is already psychotic adds the delusions of a closely associated person to his own.
  • Folie simultanée - In folie simultanée, or subtype B of folie a deux, a delusional system emerges simultaneously and independently in two closely related persons, and the separation of the two would not be beneficial in the resolution of psychopathology.
  • Fregoli's syndrome - In Fregoli syndrome, the person feels that a person not known to him previously gets changed to a familiar person or one of his close family members. This is in contrast to Capgras syndrome in which he feels that his family member has changed into an unknown person or an impostor.
  • Gedankenlautwerden - In * Gedankenlautwerden , a patient hears thoughts spoken aloud. Thoughts are heard in the form of a voice at the same time as they are thought, not afterwards. See also Écho de la pensée and Thought Sonorization
  • Gegenhalten - Gegenhalten is a catatonic phenomenon in which the subject opposes all passive movements with the same degree of force as applied by the examiner. It is slightly different to negativism in which the subject does exactly the opposite to what is asked in addition to showing resistance.
  • Autoscopy - Autoscopy is the reduplicative hallucination of "seeing one's own body at a distance"
  • Hemiasomatognosia - Hemiasomatognosia is a subtype of #anosognosia in which the person suffering from hemiplegia neglects one half of his body.
  • Hyposchemazia; Aschemazia - Hyposchemazia is characterized by the reduced awareness of a patient's body image and Aschemazia by the absence of it. These disorders can have many varied causes such as physical injuries, mental disorders, or mental or physical states. These include transection of the spinal cord, parietal lobe lesions (e.g. right middle cerebral artery thrombosis), anxiety, depersonalization, epileptic auras, migraines, sensory deprivation, and vertigo (i.e. "floating on air").
  • Idée fixe -Idée fixe is an alternate term for an overvalued idea. In this condition, a belief that might seem reasonable both to the patient and to other people comes to dominate completely the patient's thinking and life.
  • Ideas of reference - Delusional ideas wherein seemingly random stimuli is thought to be referring to the individual. For example, if a car beeps outside, the individual feels it was directed toward him or herself.
  • Illusion - An illusion is a false perception.
  • Jargon aphasia -Jargon aphasia,is characterized by incoherent, meaningless, speech with a neologisms (newly invented words). These are unconscious thoughts that find expression when one is off one's guard and must be consciously repressed.
  • Klüver Bucy syndrome - In Kluver-Bucy syndrome, a patient will display placidity, hyperorality, hypersexuality, and hyperphagia. This condition results from bilateral destruction of the amygdaloid bodies of the limbic system.
  • Knight's Move thinking -Knight's Move thinking a phenomenon similar to derailment of thought or loosening of associations, is characterized by odd, tangential associations between ideas that lead to disruptions in the smooth continuity of speech. The name for this disorder likely derives from the odd movement pattern of knights in the game of Chess.
  • Koro -Koro is a culture-specific syndrome usually seen in Chinese people. It involves a morbid fear of retraction of the penis into the abdomen with the belief that this will lead to death.
  • Kuru -Kuru (also known as laughing sickness due to the outbursts of laughter that mark its second phase) was first noted in New Guinea in the early 1900s. Kuru is now known to be a prion disease, one of several known transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.
  • La belle indifférence -La belle indifférence is characterized by a lack of concern and an indifference about a disability and is seen in hysteria or dissociative disorders.
  • Latah -Latah is a culture-specific syndrome usually seen in Southeast Asia and involves startle-induced disorganization, hypersuggestibility, automatic obedience, and echopraxia (a tendency to mimic examiner’s or other person’s actions). It is usually associated with women. There is controversy over whether Latah is a real psychiatric condition, or merely a display of exhibitionism that would otherwise not be socially acceptable.
  • L'homme qui rit - In l'homme qui rit, meaning "The man who laughs" in French, a patient displays inappropriate laughter accompanied by release phenomena of the frontal subdominant lobe.
  • Lilliputian hallucinations -Lilliputian hallucinations are characterized by abnormal perception of objects as being shrunken in size but normal in detail. Usually seen in Delirium Tremens.
  • Logoclonia - In logoclonia, the patient often repeats the last syllable of a word.
  • Logorrhoea -Logorrhoea, also known as "volubility," is characterized by a patient's fluent and rambling speech using numerous words.
  • Mania a potu -Mania a potu is an alcohol intoxication state with violent and markedly disinhibited behavior. This condition is different from violent behavior in otherwise normal individuals who are intoxicated.
  • Mitgehen -Mitgehen is an extreme form of mitmachen in which very slight pressure leads to movement in any direction, also called the "anglepoise" effect. This is done despite instructions that the patient resist the pressure, as the patient often views the slight pressure as forcibly grasping and moving the patient.
  • Mitmachen - In mitmachen, the patient's body can be put into any posture, despite instructions given that the patient resist.
  • Moria -Moria is the condition characterized by euphoric behavior, such as fivolity and the inability to act seriously. In addition there is a lack of foresight and a general indifference. It is found in frontal lobe lesions, often along with #Witzelsücht particularly when the orbital surface is damaged. Recent research has shown its presence in frontotemporal dementia.
  • Negativism - Negativism is found if, on examination, a patient resists attempts to move him and does opposite to what is asked. It is usually a sign of catatonia. It may progress to (catatonic) rigidity. It is slightly different to gegenhalten in which the patient resists movement but does not perform the opposite movement.
  • Omega sign - The omega sign is the occurrence of a fold (like the Greek letter omega, Ω ) in the forehead above the root of the nose produced by the excessive action of the corrugator muscle. It is sometimes seen in depression.
  • Oneiroid state - From Greek oneiros, meaning dream. In the Oneiroid state one feels and behaves as though in a dream.
  • Palilalia -Palilalia is characterized by the repetition of a word or phrase ie the subject continues to repeat a word or phrase after once having said. It is a perseveratory phenomenon.
  • Palinacousis - Palinacousis refers to a phenomenon in which the subject continues to listen to a word, a syllable or any sound, even after the withdrawal of stimulus. It is a type of #perseveration.
  • Palinopsia - In palinopsia a visual image persists after the stimulus has gone (similar to an afterimage seen after looking into a bright light).
  • Paraschemazia -Paraschemazia is characterized by a distortion of a patient's body image. It can be caused by hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD and mescalin, epileptic auras, and sometimes migraines.
  • Pareidolia - In pareidolia a vague or random stimulus is mistakenly perceived as recognizable. A common example is perceiving the image of a face in clouds. Pareidolia is a type of illusion and hence called pareidolic illusion.
  • Perseveration - This term refers to uncontrollable repetition of a particular response, such as a word, phrase, or gesture, despite the absence or cessation of the original stimulus. Usually it is seen in organic disorders of brain , head injury, delirium or dementia, however can be seen in schizophrenia as well.
  • Pseudologia fantastica -Pseudologia fantastica is a condition in which a person grossly exaggerates his symptoms or even tells a lie about his symptoms in order to get medical attention . Seen in malingering and Munchausen syndrome.
  • Psychological pillow - Where the individual holds his/her head a few centimetres above the bed. No explanation is offered for this. It is a symptom of catatonia and can last for many hours.
  • Psychopathology -Psychopathology is a term which refers to either the study of mental illness or mental distress or to the manifestation of behaviours and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment.
  • Rabbit syndrome - This syndrome is characterized by rapid rhythmic movements of lips so that it resembles a rabbit chewing. 11
  • Reduplicative hallucination - In reduplicative hallucinations there is the preception of seeing a double. Particular kinds of reduplicative hallucination include autoscopy, heautoscopy and out-of-body experiences.
  • Reduplicative paramnesia - A misidentification in which the patient’s surroundings are believed to exist in more than one physical location.
  • Reflex hallucination - Is when a veridical perception in one modality produces a hallucination in another, e.g. seeing a doctor writing (visual) and then feeling him writing across one’s stomach (tactile).
  • Restlessness - Restlessness has two components: akathisia (subjective "inner" restlessness) and Psychomotor agitation (an excess of motor activity).
  • Retardation - Mental retardation is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as communicating, taking care of him or herself, and social skills.
  • In Children: These limitations will cause a child to learn and develop more slowly than a typical child. Children with mental retardation may take longer to learn to speak, walk, and take care of their personal needs such as dressing or eating. They are likely to have trouble learning in school. They will learn, but it will take them longer. There may be some things they cannot learn.
  • Scanning speech - Scanning speech is an ataxic dysarthria in which syllable durations are equalized. It is characteristic of the dysarthria of multiple sclerosis. Together with nystagmus and intention tremor it forms Charcot's triad.
  • Schizophasia -Schizophasia, or colloquially "word salad", is characterized by a patient's speech being an incoherent and incomprehensible mix of words and phrases. This occurs in schizophrenic patients.
  • Schnauzkrampf - A schnauzkrampf is a grimace resembling pouting sometimes observed in catatonic patients.
  • Sensitiver beziehungswahn -Sensitiver beziehungswahn, is an alternate term for ideas of reference. In this the person thinks as people are talking about him or observing him or a talk is going on about him on television or radio. Seen in social phobia, depression and in schizophrenia where they are often present up to a delusional extent.
  • Stockholm syndrome - The Stockholm syndrome is a psychological response sometimes seen in a hostage, in which the hostage exhibits loyalty to the hostage-taker, in spite of the danger (or at least risk) in which the hostage has been placed. Stockholm syndrome is also sometimes discussed in reference to other situations with similar tensions, such as battered person syndrome, child abuse cases, and bride kidnapping.
  • Synaesthesiae -(also spelled synæsthesia, synaesthesia, or synesthesia -- plural synesthesiae) -- from the Greek syn- meaning union and aesthesis meaning sensation -- is a neurological condition in which two or more bodily senses are coupled.
  • Torpor -Torpor in psychopathology is usually taken to mean profound inactivity not caused by reduction in consciousness.
  • Verstimmung - It refers to an ill humoured mood state often accompanied by low mood and depressive symptoms. The people surrounding the patient often feel upset by this.
  • Vorbeigehen; Vorbeireden - In vorbeigehen or vorbeireden, a patient will answer a question in such a way that one can tell the patient understood the question, although the answer itself may be very obviously wrong. For example "how many legs does a dog have?" - "six". This condition occurs in Ganser syndrome and has been observed in prisoners awaiting trial. Vorbeigehen (giving approximate answers) was the original term used by Ganser but Vorbeireden (talking past the point) is the term generally in use (Goldin 1955). This behaviour is also seen in people trying to feign psychiatric disorders (hence association with prisioners)
  • Wahneinfall - Wahneinfall is alternate term for autochthonous delusions. This is one of the types of primary delusions in which a firm belief comes into the patient's mind 'out of the blue' or as an intution , hence called delusional intuition. Other types of primary delusions include delusional mood (or atmosphere), delusional (apophanous perception) and delusional memories.
  • Word-salad -(from the German Wortsalat) is characterized by confused, and often repetitious, language with no apparent meaning or relationship attached to them. It is often symptomatic of various mental illnesses, such as psychoses, including schizophrenia.
  • Wurgstimme - Wurgstimme refers to speaking in an odd muffled or strangled voice. It is mainly seen in schizophrenia. Click hereto listen to an example.
  • Witzelsücht - Witzelsücht is a tendency to tell inappropriate joke and creating excessive facetiousness and inappropriate or pointless humor. It is seen in Frontal lobe disorders usually along with #moria. Recent research has shown that it may also be seen in frontotemporal dementia.

A

Abreaction is a process of vividly reliving repressed memories and emotions related to a past event. Sigmund Freud used hypnosis to rid his patients of pathological memories through abreaction.

Aboulia or Abulia, in neurology, refers to a lack of will or initiative. The individual is unable to act or make decisions independently. The condition may range from subtle to overwhelming in severity.

Achromatopsia is a term referring to or acquired agnosia for color. This term includes color blindness. Achromatopsia is a condition characterized by a partial or total absence of color vision. People with complete achromatopsia cannot perceive any colors; they see only black, white, and shades of gray. Incomplete achromatopsia is a milder form of the condition that allows some color discrimination.

Achromatopsia also involves other problems with vision, including an increased sensitivity to light and glare (photophobia), involuntary back-and-forth eye movements (nystagmus), and significantly reduced sharpness of vision (low visual acuity). Affected individuals can also have farsightedness (hyperopia) or, less commonly, nearsightedness (myopia). These vision problems develop in the first few months of life.

Achromatopsia is different from the more common forms of color vision deficiency (also called color blindness), in which people can perceive color but have difficulty distinguishing between certain colors, such as red and green.

Illusions, or misperceptions associated with or based on changes with mood; for example, at midnight a person may take a shadow as a ghost, but in the early part of night this may not be the case.

Akataphasia (Kraepelin 1896) refers to a syntactic disturbance of speech resulting from dissolution of logical ordering of thoughts. It manifests as rambling speech. Compare Derailment.

Main article: Akathisia

Akathisia refers to a subjective feeling of restlessness in the lower limbs that is related to abnormal activity in the extrapyramidal system in the brain, often due to antipsychotic medication. It tends to manifest as an inability to sit still.

Main article: Alexithymia

Alexithymia refers to an inability to identify and describe emotions in the self.

Main article: Alice in Wonderland syndrome

In Alice in Wonderland experience, individuals perceive objects (including animals and other humans, or parts of humans, animals, or objects) as appearing substantially smaller than in reality. Generally, the object appears far away or extremely close at the same time. Alternate term for this is * somaesthetic aura. Also see Lilliputian hallucinations

Main article: Alliteration

Alliteration is the repetition of initial consonant sounds in neighbouring words. For example, "When I struck and slapped my humble horse, he began to run rapidly."

Main article: Alogia

Literally, this term means "not having words". The term may refer to either "poverty of speech" or "poverty of thought". In the former, speech, though adequate in verbiage, conveys very little information and may consist of stock phrases or vague references. In poverty of thought, by contrast, there is a far-reaching impoverishment of the entire thinking of the individual, who, as a result, says very little. It is typically a negative symptom of schizophrenia, although it may also be seen in advanced dementia.

Main article: Running amok

The phrase "running amok" describes the behavior of an individual, who is very agitated and can become a danger to others and himself. The syndrome of "Amok" is found in the DSM-IV TR.

Main article: Anhedonia

Anhedonia refers to an inability to experience pleasure, and may be described as a feeling of emotional emptiness. It can be a negative symptom of schizophrenia. It also may be seen in severe depressive states and schizoid personality disorder.

Main article: Anosognosia

Anosognosia is a condition in which a person who suffers certain disability seems unaware of the existence of his or her disability. Hemiasomatognosia is a subtype of anosognosia in which the person suffering from hemiplegia neglects one half of his body.

Main article: Anton-Babinski syndrome

Anton syndrome, occasionally known as Anton-Babinski syndrome, is a form of cortical blindness in which the individual denies the visual impairment. The individual may attempt to walk, bumping into objects and injuring himself. Anton syndrome is caused by damaging the occipital lobes bilaterally or from disrupting the pathway from the primary visual cortex into the visual association cortex.

Anwesenheit refers to the feeling of presence of something or some person. It can be seen in normal grief reaction, schizophrenia and some emotionally arousing situations.

This is an alternate term for delusional perception. It is one of the Schneiderian first rank symptoms and is defined as a true perception, to which an individual attributes a false meaning. For example, a person may see written "No Trespassing" on a board and may infer from this that intelligence agencies are spying on him.

Aphemia is the alternate term for mutism. Mutism is absence of speech with apparently normal level of consciousness. Mutism can be dissociative (hysterical) in which an individual (commonly a child or adolescent) stops speaking at once without involvement of any neurological or physical contributing factor; or it can be elective (selective) in which a child does not speak at all in certain situations (such as in school) but speaks well in other conditions (like at home or at play). A rare cause of mutism is akinetic mutism which results due to a lesion around the 3rd ventricle of the brain.

Apperception is a normal phenomenon and refers to the ability to understand sensory inputs in their context, to interpret them and to incorporate them into experience. Failure of apperception is seen in delirious states.

Main article: Astasia-abasia

Astasia-abasia is a form of psychogenic gait disturbance in which gait becomes impaired in the absence of any neurological or physical pathology. The person usually walks in a bizarre manner. They stagger and appear as if going to fall, but always manage to catch hold of something in time. Sometimes these people cannot even stand, but on the other hand they are well able to move their legs while lying down or sitting. Often associated with conversion disorder or somatization disorder.

Alternate term for loosening of association. A milder form of derailment of thought, it is marked by the individual leaping from topic to topic which have only the most tenuous, if any, connection with each other. This is in contrast with flight of ideas, whereby the individual's successive ideas may be linked and "understandable" to the listener. See also Akataphasia and Entgleisen term introduced by (Cameron).

From aut ="self" and -ism = state or orientation. Originally, Eugen Bleuler used this term to describe schizophrenia. In general, it refers to any (pathological) tendency to be self-absorbed to such a degree that the feelings, thoughts and desires of a person are governed by his internal apprehension of the world and not by an external reality shared with others.

Today the term is used most often to refer to a specific developmental syndrome (see autism spectrum).:p. 76

Autistic thinking is a term used to refer to thinking not in accordance with consensus reality that emphasizes preoccupation with inner experience. See also #Dereistic thinking. More generally, it means thinking that is guided by internal wishes and desires regardless of external real-world factors.:p. 76

Main article: Delusional intuition

Jaspers defined this as a delusion arising without apparent cause. For example, suddenly, without apparent cause, having the delusional belief that you are an alien.

Main article: Autokabalesis

Autokabalesis is a term for committing suicide by jumping from a very high place.

Automatic obedience is an exaggerated co-operation with an examiner's request, as if the individual were an 'automaton' robotically obeying a command. It is often a sign of catatonia.

Automatisms are sequences of activity that occur without conscious control. They may be simple and repetitive (tic-like) or complex, and are usually natural-looking but purposeless; for example, repeatedly going through the motions of buttering a piece of bread when there is no bread there. Automatic behaviour is not usually recalled afterwards.

Autoscopy is the reduplicative hallucination of "seeing one's own body at a distance" and the person sees it from the place where he or she is located. Autoscopy is sometimes used synonymously with out-of-body experience.

Main article: Avolition

Avolition is an inability to initiate and complete goal-directed behaviour. It can sometimes be misinterpreted as laziness, but it is actually a negative symptom of schizophrenia.

Belle indifference or la belle indifférence is characterized by a lack of concern and/or feeling of indifference about a disability or symptom. It can be seen in conversion disorder.

Bouffée délirante is a French term used in the past for acute and transient psychotic disorders (F23 in ICD-10). In DSM-IV, it is described as Brief Psychotic Disorder (298.8). The symptoms usually have an acute onset and reach their peak within two weeks. The symptoms start resolving in a few weeks and complete recovery usually occurs within 2–3 months.

Brain fag syndrome is an example of a culture-bound syndrome. "Brain fag" was once a common term for mental exhaustion. Today, the syndrome describes students (predominantly males, particularly in West Africa) experiencing symptoms including somatic, sleep-related and cognitive complaints, head and neck pains, difficulty in concentrating and retaining information, and eye pain.

Brain fog is another term for clouding of consciousness.

Bruxism refers to teeth grinding behaviour that is usually seen in children.

In Capgras syndrome, the individual feels that a person familiar to him, usually a family member has been replaced by an imposter. This is a type of delusion that can be experienced as part of schizophrenia. Capgras Syndrome and several other related disorders are referred to as delusional misidentification syndrome.

Main article: Catalepsy

Catalepsy is the term for catatonic rigidity of the limbs which often results in abnormal posturing for long intervals.

Cataplexy involves a sudden loss of muscle tone, and is generally precipitated by a sudden emotional response.

Catatonia involves a significant psychomotor disturbance, which can occur as catalepsy, stupor, excessive purposeless motor activity, extreme negativism (seemingly motiveless resistance to movement), mutism, echolalia (imitating speech), or echopraxia (imitating movements). There is a catatonic subtype of schizophrenia.

Cerea flexibilitas, meaning "waxy flexibility", refers to people allowing themselves to be placed in postures by others, and then maintaining those postures for long periods even if they are obviously uncomfortable. It is characterized by an individual's movements having the feeling of a plastic resistance, as if the person were made of wax. This occurs in catatonic schizophrenia, and a person suffering from this condition can have his limbs placed in fixed positions as if the person were in fact made from wax.

Main article: Chorea (disease)

Chorea is manifest by abnormal involuntary movements. The term comes from Greek word "choreia" as meaning dance, since large groups of muscles are usually involved, which leads to writhing dance-like movements.

Circumstantial thinking, or circumstantial speech, refers to a person being unable to answer a question without giving excessive, unnecessary detail. This differs from tangential thinking, in that the person does eventually return to the original point, circling back on-topic.

Clang associations are ideas that are related only by similar or rhyming sounds rather than actual meaning. Example: "He ate the skate, inflated yesterdays gate toward the cheese grater."

Claparede's paradox refers to retention of non-verbal and implicit memory in sufferers of Korsakoff's syndrome.

Clouding of consciousness, also known as brain fog or mental fog, is a global impairment in higher central nervous functioning. All aspects of cognitive functioning are affected. On mental status examination it is manifest by disorientation in time, place and person, memory difficulties caused by failure to register and recall, aphasia, and agnosia. Impaired perception functioning leads to illusions and hallucinations often in the visual sensory modality. This then causes agitation and distress and secondary delusions. The term 'confusion state' is sometimes used to mean clouding of consciousness, but should be avoided if at all possible because it is ambiguous.

An individual in a coenestopathic state has a localized distortion of body awareness.

Confabulation is the confusion of imagination with memory, and/or the confusion of true memories with false memories.

Conversion disorder involves the unintentional production of symptoms or deficits affecting motor or sensory function that are not fully explained by a neurological or medical condition. This can manifest as paralysis, for example. It generally involves psychological factors, and symptoms may worsen in the context of situational conflict.

Coprolalia is the involuntary utterance of socially inappropriate phrases. It is a phonic tic associated with Tourette syndrome, although less than 15% of persons with Tourette's have coprolalia.

Cotard delusion involves the belief that one of the person's own bodily organs has changed in a bizarre way, has ceased functioning, or has disappeared. It is a type of delusion that can be experienced in schizophrenia.

Literally jumping out of window. Usually used in context of attempted or completed suicide. Also see Autokabalesis. |

In Déjà vu, a person feels undue familiarity to an event or a person. For example, he feels that the same thing has happened before or he or she has met this person before, etc.

In Déjà pensé, a completely new thought sounds familiar to the person and he feels as he has thought the same thing before at some time.This feeling can be caused by seizures which occur in certain parts of the temporal lobe and possibly other areas of the brain as well.

Main article: Dementia praecox

Dementia praecox refers to a chronic, deteriorating psychotic disorder characterized by rapid cognitive disintegration, usually beginning in the late teens or early adulthood.

Main article: Dementia pugilistica

Dementia pugilistica, also called "chronic traumatic encephalopathy", "pugilistic Parkinson's syndrome", "boxer's syndrome", and "punch-drunk syndrome", is a neurological disorder which affects career boxers and others who receive multiple dazing blows to the head. The condition develops over a period of years, with the average time of onset being about 16 years after the start of a career in boxing.

Main article: Derailment (thought disorder)

Derailment, also known as loosening of associations, refers to disorganized thinking that jumps between ideas that seem entirely unrelated. Compare Akataphasia, Asyndesis, Entgleisen, Flight of ideas, Knight's Move thinking, and Logorrhoea. It can be seen in individuals with schizophrenia, as well as those experiencing mania.

Dereistic means: Away from reality, undirected fantasy thinking. Jung wrote “This is the basic activity of psychic life, this fantasy making", and he used the term “image” not from afterimage, something you've experienced or seen, but he says he takes it from poetic usage. Dereistic Thinking: An old descriptive term used to refer to thinking not in accordance with the facts of reality and experience and following illogical, idiosyncratic reasoning. This term is also used interchangeably with autistic thinking though they are not exact synonyms: * dereistic emphasizes disconnection from reality and * autistic emphasizes preoccupation with inner experience.

Alternate term for organic hallucinosis and delusional parasitosis, the continuous belief that one's skin or body has been infested by parasites or insects. This state cannot be diagnosed if the hallucinatory state is produced while the individual is under the influence of drugs or alcohol, or if the individual fulfills the criterion for delirium. In general, if an individual is under the influence of a drug, or experiencing the symptoms of withdrawal from that drug, this condition is not psychiatric but medical, and termed formication.

Main article: Dhat syndrome

In Dhat syndrome there is a complaint of premature ejaculation or impotence and a belief that semen is being passed in the urine.

Main article: Doppelgänger

The Doppelgänger is a phenomenon in which the person feels that his exact “double” is present alongside him every time and goes with him wherever he goes.

E

In écho de la pensée, meaning "thought echo" in French, thoughts seem to be spoken aloud just * after being produced. The individual hears the 'echo' of his thoughts in the form of a voice after he has made the thought. See also Gedankenlautwerden and Thought sonorization.

Literally means jumping off the rails. Alternate term used for derailment of thought (a morbid form of loosening of association or asyndesis). A Schneiderian term by origin. In this form of thought the individual jumps from one topic to another during conversation and both topics have literally no connection with each other. This is in contrast with flight of ideas where connection is present between one topic and another. Compare #Akataphasia, #Asyndesis, and #Derailment.

Extracampine hallucinations are hallucinations beyond the possible sensory field, e.g., 'seeing' somebody standing behind you is a visual extracampine hallucination experience.

F

Main article: Fantasy (psychology)

Fantasy is imagining that expresses desires and aims.

The moods of an individual with fatuous affect resemble the moods of a child. This condition is seen in hebephrenic schizophrenia.

Flight of ideas describes excessive speech at a rapid rate that involves causal association between ideas. Links between ideas may involve usage of puns or rhymes. It is typical of mania, classically seen in bipolar disorder. Compare Derailment.

Main article: Folie à deux

Also called induced psychosis, folie à deux is a delusional disorder shared by two or more people who are closely related emotionally. One has real psychosis while the symptoms of psychosis are induced in the other or others due to close attachment to the one with psychosis. Separation usually results in symptomatic improvement in the one who is not psychotic.

Folie communiquée, folie imposée, folie induite, and folie simultanée are the four subtypes of folie à deux.

Folie communiquée, or subtype C of folie à deux, occurs when a normal person suffers a contagion of his ideas after resisting them for a long time. Once he acquires these beliefs he maintains them despite separation.

Folie imposée, or subtype A of folie a deux, is the most common form in which the dominant person imposes a delusion into a person who was not previously mentally ill. Separation of the two results in improvement of the non-dominant person.

In folie induite, or subtype D of folie a deux, a person who is already psychotic adds the delusions of a closely associated person to his own.

In folie simultanée, or subtype B of folie a deux, a delusional system emerges simultaneously and independently in two closely related persons, and the separation of the two would not be beneficial in the resolution of psychopathology.

Main article: Fregoli delusion

In Fregoli delusion, the person has a delusional belief that various different people are in fact a certain other person, even if there is no physical resemblance.

Fregoli syndrome is considered a form of delusional misidentification "in which the false identification of familiar people occurs in strangers".

In * Gedankenlautwerden, an individual hears thoughts spoken aloud. Thoughts are heard in the form of a voice at the same time as they are thought, not afterwards. See also Écho de la pensée and Thought sonorization

Gegenhalten is a catatonic phenomenon in which the subject opposes all passive movements with the same degree of force as applied by the examiner. It is slightly different from negativism in which the subject does exactly the opposite to what is asked in addition to showing resistance.

Hemiasomatognosia is a subtype of anosognosia in which the person suffering from hemiplegia neglects one half of his body.

Hyposchemazia is characterized by the reduced awareness of one's body image and Aschemazia by the absence of it. These disorders can have many varied causes such as physical injuries, mental disorders, or mental or physical states. These include transection of the spinal cord, parietal lobe lesions (e.g. right middle cerebral artery thrombosis), anxiety, depersonalization, epileptic auras, migraines, sensory deprivation, and vertigo (i.e. "floating on air").

Idée fixe is an alternate term for an overvalued idea. In this condition, a belief that might seem reasonable both to the individual and to other people comes to dominate completely the individual's thinking and life.

Thoughts that one's own body part or action is not of one's own.

Thoughts that one's own action is caused by someone else's will or some other external cause.

Main article: Ideas of reference and delusions of reference

Ideas of reference are a delusional belief that general events are personally directed at oneself. For example, someone might believe that he or she is receiving messages from the TV that are directed especially at him or her.

An illusion is a false perception of a detectable stimulus.

Jargon aphasia is characterized by incoherent, meaningless speech with neologisms (newly invented words). These are unconscious thoughts that find expression when one is off one's guard and must be consciously repressed.

Main article: Klüver–Bucy syndrome

In Klüver–Bucy syndrome, an individual will display placidity, hyperorality, hypersexuality, and hyperphagia. This condition results from bilateral destruction of the amygdaloid bodies of the limbic system.

Knight's move thinking is a complete loosening of associations where there is no logical link between one idea and the next. Imagine a knight on a chessboard where the movement can be any L shaped direction, making it difficult to track. Compare Derailment.

Main article: Koro (medicine)

Koro is a culture-specific syndrome, generally seen only among Chinese people. It involves a panicked feeling that one's genitals are retracting into the abdomen, and that this will result in death.

Main article: Kuru (disease)

Kuru (also known as laughing sickness due to the outbursts of laughter that mark its second phase) was first noted in New Guinea in the early 1900s. Kuru is now known to be a prion disease, one of several known transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.

Latah is a culture-specific syndrome usually seen in Southeast Asia and involves startle-induced disorganization, hypersuggestibility, automatic obedience, and echopraxia (a tendency to mimic examiner's or other person's actions). It is usually associated with women. There is controversy over whether Latah is a real psychiatric condition, or merely a display of exhibitionism that would otherwise not be socially acceptable.

In l'homme qui rit (from the French, meaning "The man who laughs"), an individual displays inappropriate laughter accompanied by release phenomena of the frontal subdominant lobe.

Main article: Alice in Wonderland syndrome

Lilliputian hallucinations are characterized by abnormal perception of objects as being shrunken in size but normal in detail. Usually seen in delirium tremens.

In logoclonia, the individual often repeats the last syllable of a word. Compare Echolalia. Often a symptom of Alzheimers or Parkinson's Disease.

Logorrhoea, also known as "volubility", is characterized by fluent and rambling speech using numerous words. Compare Derailment.

It's often mirrored as a minor image of depression. Mania is a state abnormally elevated arousal, affected, and energy level. As mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in anxiety or violence. Mania symptoms are elevated mood, flights of ideas, pressure of speech, increased energy, decreased need, desire sleep, and hyperactivity.

Mania a potu is an alcohol intoxication state with violent and markedly disinhibited behavior. This condition is different from violent behavior in otherwise normal individuals who are intoxicated.

Speech disturbance in which patients, commonly schizophrenia, use inappropriate words or expressions that are related to the proper ones. Examples include: consume a menu, instead of a meal; lose the piece of string of the conversation, not the thread of the conversation. See also word approximation.

Mitgehen is an extreme form of mitmachen in which very slight pressure leads to movement in any direction, also called the "anglepoise" effect or "anglepoise lamp sign". This movement occurs despite instructions to resist the pressure, as individuals with this condition often experience even slight pressure as forcible grasping and pushing.

In mitmachen, one's body can be put into any posture, despite instructions given to resist. Compare Mitgehen.

Moria is the condition characterized by euphoric behavior, such as frivolity and the inability to act seriously. In addition, there is a lack of foresight and a general indifference. It is found in frontal lobe lesions, often along with Witzelsucht, particularly when the orbital surface is damaged. Recent research has shown its presence in frontotemporal dementia.

Resistance to attempts to move the subject, who then does the opposite of what is asked. Negativism is usually a sign of catatonia, and may progress to (catatonic) rigidity. It is slightly different from gegenhalten, in which the individual resists movement but does not perform the opposite movement. Also see: Oppositional Defiance Disorder (ODD).

In a neurological or psychopathological context, * neologisms are nonsensical words or phrases whose origins are unrecognizable (e.g., klipno for watch), and are associated with aphasia or schizophrenia. Incorrectly constructed words whose origins are understandable (e.g., headshoe for hat) may also be called neologisms, but are more properly referred as word approximations.

The omega sign is the occurrence of a fold (like the Greek letter omega, Ω ) in the forehead, above the nose, produced by the excessive action of the corrugator muscle. It is sometimes seen in depression.

From Greek "oneiros" as meaning 'dream'. In the Oneiroid state one feels and behaves as though in a dream. Also known as oneirophrenia as described by Ladislas J. Meduna.

See Oneiroid state or article on Oneirophrenia.

Overvalued ideas are exaggerated beliefs that a person sustains beyond reasons, but are not as unbelievable and are not as persistently held as delusions. Preoccupation with spouse's possible infidelity can be an overvalued idea if no evidence exists to arouse suspicion. Body dysmorphic disorder's obsessive preoccupation that some aspect of one's own appearance is severely flawed is another example of an overvalued idea.

Main article: Palilalia

Palilalia is characterized by the repetition of a word or phrase; i.e., the subject continues to repeat a word or phrase after once having said. It is a perseveratory phenomenon.

Palinacousis refers to a phenomenon in which the subject continues to listen to a word, a syllable or any sound, even after the withdrawal of stimulus. It is a type of Perseveration.

Main article: Palinopsia

In palinopsia a visual image persists after the stimulus has gone (similar to an afterimage seen after looking into a bright light).

Main article: Freudian slip

A Freudian slip, or parapraxis, is an error in speech, memory or physical action that is believed to be caused by the unconscious mind.

A delusion in which a person believes he or she has seen a face transform into a grotesque form – often described as a 'monster', 'vampire', 'werewolf' or similar. This is very rare and most likely to be described by people suffering from schizophrenia.

Paraschemazia is characterized by a distortion of body image. It can be caused by hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD and mescalin, epileptic auras, and sometimes migraines.

Main article: Pareidolia

In pareidolia a vague or random stimulus is mistakenly perceived as recognizable. A common example is perceiving the image of a face in clouds. Pareidolia is a type of illusion and hence called pareidolic illusion.

Main article: Perseveration

This term refers to uncontrollable repetition of a particular response, such as a word, phrase, or gesture, despite the absence or cessation of the original stimulus. Usually it is seen in organic disorders of brain, head injury, delirium or dementia, however can be seen in schizophrenia as well.

This refers to schizophrenia in people with mild learning disability.

Main article: Piblokto

Piblokto, Pibloktoq, or Arctic hysteria is a condition exclusively appearing in Inuit societies living within the Arctic Circle. Appearing most prevalently in winter, it is considered to be a form of a culture-specific disorder.

Symptoms can include intense "hysteria" (including screaming and uncontrolled wild behavior), depression, coprophagia, and insensitivity to extreme cold. This condition is most often seen in Inuit women.

Often associated with schizophrenia, dementia, and severe depression, * poverty of ideas is a thought disturbance in which thought spontaneity and productivity are reduced, and are seen in speech that is vague, has many simple or meaningless repetitions, or full of stereotyped phrases.

Pseudologia fantastica is a condition in which a person grossly exaggerates his symptoms or even tells a lie about his symptoms in order to get medical attention . Seen in malingering and Munchausen syndrome.

Where the individual holds his/her head a few centimetres above the bed. No explanation is offered for this. It is a symptom of catatonia and can last for many hours.

Main article: Psychopathology

Psychopathology is a term which refers to either the study of mental illness or mental distress or to the manifestation of behaviours and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment.

This syndrome is characterized by rapid rhythmic movements of lips so that it resembles a rabbit chewing. It is a type of dystonic reaction.

In reduplicative hallucinations there is the perception of seeing a double. Particular kinds of reduplicative hallucination include autoscopy, heautoscopy and out-of-body experiences.

Reduplicative paramnesia is a delusional misidentification syndrome in which one's surroundings are believed to exist in more than one physical location.

Reflex hallucinations occur when true sensory input in one sense leads to production of a hallucination in another sense, e.g. seeing a doctor writing (visual) and then feeling him writing across one's stomach (tactile).

Restlessness has two components: akathisia (subjective "inner" restlessness) and psychomotor agitation (an excess of motor activity).

Mental retardation is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as communicating, taking care of him or herself, and social skills.

  • In Children: These limitations will cause a child to learn and develop more slowly than a typical child. Children with mental retardation may take longer to learn to speak, walk, and take care of their personal needs such as dressing or eating. They are likely to have trouble learning in school. They will learn, but it will take them longer. There may be some things they cannot learn.

Left–right disorientation is one of the four cardinal signs of Gerstmann's syndrome.

Scanning speech is an ataxic dysarthria in which syllable durations are equalized. It is characteristic of the dysarthria of multiple sclerosis. Together with nystagmus and intention tremor it forms Charcot's triad 1.

Main article: Schizophasia

Schizophasia, commonly referred to as word salad, is confused, and often repetitious, language that is symptomatic of various mental illnesses.

A schnauzkrampf is a grimace resembling pouting sometimes observed in catatonic individuals.

Sensitiver beziehungswahn, is an alternate term for ideas of reference. In this the person thinks as people are talking about him or observing him or a talk is going on about him on television or radio. Seen in social phobia, depression, delusional disorder and in schizophrenia where they are often present up to a delusional extent.

Main article: Stockholm syndrome

The Stockholm syndrome is a psychological response sometimes seen in a hostage, in which the hostage exhibits loyalty to the hostage-taker, in spite of the danger (or at least risk) in which the hostage has been placed. Stockholm syndrome is also sometimes discussed in reference to other situations with similar tensions, such as battered person syndrome, child abuse cases, and bride kidnapping.

(also spelled synæsthesia, synaesthesia, or synesthesia—plural synesthesiae), from the Greek "syn-" meaning union and "aesthesis" meaning sensation, is a neurological phenomenon in which two or more bodily senses are coupled. For instance, a person may hear colors.

Main article: Telegraphic speech

In telegraphic speech conjunctions and articles are missed out; meaning is retained and few words are used.

Main article: Thought blocking

Thought blocking, also referred to as thought withdrawal, refers to an abrupt stop in the middle of a train of thought; the individual might or might not be unable to continue the idea. This is type of formal thought disorder that can be seen in schizophrenia.

A combined term for Gedankenlautwerden and Écho de la pensée ("thought echo")

Torpor in psychopathology is usually taken to mean profound inactivity not caused by reduction in consciousness.

Tourette syndrome (abbreviated as TS or Tourette's) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that begins in childhood or adolescence. It is characterized by multiple movement (motor) tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic. Common tics are blinking, coughing, throat clearing, sniffing, and facial movements. These are typically preceded by an unwanted urge or sensation in the affected muscles, can sometimes be suppressed temporarily, and characteristically change in location, strength, and frequency. Tourette's is at the more severe end of a spectrum of tic disorders. The tics often go unnoticed by casual observers.

Traumatic bonding occurs as the result of ongoing cycles of abuse in which the intermittent reinforcement of reward and punishment creates powerful emotional bonds that are resistant to change.

Trichotillomania also known as hair pulling disorder, is an impulse control disorder characterised by a long term urge that results in the pulling out of one's hair. This occurs to such a degree that hair loss can be seen. Efforts to stop pulling hair typically fail. Hair removal may occur anywhere; however, the head and around the eyes are most common. The hair pulling is to such a degree that it results in distress

Verbigeration is a verbal stereotypy in which usually one or several sentences or strings of fragmented words are repeated continuously. Sometimes individuals will produce incomprehensible jargon in which stereotypies are embedded. The tone of voice is usually monotonous. This can be produced spontaneously or precipitated by questioning. The term verbigeration was first used in psychiatry by Karl Kahlbaum in 1874, and it referred to a manner of talking which was very fast and incomprehensible. At the time verbigeration was seen as a ‘disorder of language’ and represented a central feature of catatonia. The word is derived from the Latin word ‘verbum’ (also the source of ‘verbiage’), plus the verb ‘gerĕre’, to carry on or conduct, from which the Latin verb ‘verbigerāre’, to talk or chat, is derived. However, clinically the term verbigeration never achieved popularity and as such has virtually disappeared from psychiatric terminology. Compare Echolalia.

It refers to an ill-humoured mood state often accompanied by low mood and depressive symptoms. The people surrounding the individual often feel upset by this condition.

In vorbeigehen or vorbeireden, an individual will answer a question in such a way that it is clear the question was understood, though the answer itself is very obviously wrong. For example: "How many legs does a dog have?" – "Six". This condition occurs in Ganser syndrome and has been observed in prisoners awaiting trial. Vorbeigehen (giving approximate answers) was the original term used by Ganser but Vorbeireden (talking past the point) is the term generally in use (Goldin 1955). This behaviour is also seen in people trying to feign psychiatric disorders (hence its association with prisoners).


Wahneinfall is alternate term for autochthonous delusions or delusional intuition. This is one of the types of primary delusions in which a firm belief comes into the individual's mind 'out of the blue' or as an intuition, hence called delusional intuition. Other types of primary delusions include delusional mood (or atmosphere), delusional (apophanous) perception and delusional memories. Care must be taken not to impugn an otherwise-rational individual's instinctive aversion or inexpressible sense of or belief about a thing by dismissing it as Wahneinfall.

Waxy flexibility, also known as cerea flexibilitas, meaning is characterized by an individual's movements having the feeling of a plastic resistance, as if the person were made of wax. This occurs in catatonic schizophrenia, and a person suffering from this condition can have his limbs placed in fixed positions as if the person were in fact made from wax.

Compare Mitmachen and Waxy flexibility.

Main article: Wendigo

Windigo (also Wendigo, Windago, Windiga, Witiko, and numerous other variants) psychosis is a culture-bound disorder which involves an intense craving for human flesh and the fear that one will turn into a cannibal. This was alleged to have occurred among Algonquian Indian cultures.

Witzelsucht is a tendency to tell inappropriate jokes and creating excessive facetiousness and inappropriate or pointless humor. It is seen in Frontal lobe disorders usually along with moria. Recent research has shown that it may also be seen in frontotemporal dementia.

Usage of words in an unconventional or inappropriate way (as in metonymy), or usage of new but understandable words that are conventionally constructed (e.g., handshoes for gloves, time measure for clock, and easify for simplify), contrasting with neologisms which are new words whose origins cannot be understood.

Word Salad (derived from the German Wortsalat) is characterized by confused, and often repetitious, language with no apparent meaning or relationship attached to them. It is often symptomatic of various mental illnesses, such as psychoses, including schizophrenia. Compare Derailment.

Würgstimme refers to speaking in an odd muffled or strangled voice. It is mainly seen in schizophrenia.

Main article: Zoophilia

One of the paraphilias, characterized by marked distress over, or acting on, urges to indulge in sexual activity that involves animals.