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Difference between revisions of "Sandybox"

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(T07-T88)
+
List of [[medications]] and their effect on [[breast feeding]]
Injuries involving multiple body regions (T07)
 
''Excludes1''
 
burns and corrosions (T20-T32)
 
frostbite (T33-T34)
 
insect bite or sting, venomous (T63.4)
 
sunburn (L55.-)
 
  
*'''[[T07]]''' Unspecified multiple injuries
+
* '''[[(1-14C)-Triolein and breast feeding]]''' Information in this record refers to the use of (1-14C)-triolein as a diagnostic agent. Breastfeeding does not need to be suspended after administration of (1-14C)-triolein.
  
The appropriate 7th character is to be added to code T07
+
* '''[[(14C)-Glycocholic Acid and breast feeding]]''' Information in this record refers to the use of (14C)-glycocholic acid as a diagnostic agent. Breastfeeding does not need to be suspended after administration of (14C)-glycocholic acid.
A - initial encounter
 
D - subsequent encounter
 
S - sequela
 
''Excludes1''
 
injury NOS (T14.90)
 
Injury of unspecified body region (T14)
 
  
*'''[[T14]]''' Injury of unspecified body region
+
* '''[[Abacavir and breast feeding]]''' In the United States and other developed countries, HIV-infected mothers should generally not breastfeed their infants. Published experience with abacavir during breastfeeding is limited. In countries in which no acceptable, feasible, sustainable and safe replacement feeding is available, World Health Organization guidelines recommend that all women with an HIV infection who are pregnant or breastfeeding should be maintained on antiretroviral therapy for at least the duration of risk for mother-to-child transmission. Mothers should exclusively breastfeed their infants for the first 6 months of life; breastfeeding with complementary feeding should continue through at least 12 months of life up to 24 months of life. The first choice regimen for nursing mothers is tenofovir, efavirenz and either lamivudine or emtricitabine. If these drugs are unavailable, alternative regimens include: 1) zidovudine, lamivudine and efavirenz; 2) zidovudine, lamivudine and nevirapine; or 3) tenofovir, nevirapine and either lamivudine or emtricitabine. Exclusively breastfed infants should also receive 6 weeks of prophylaxis with nevirapine.
  
The appropriate 7th character is to be added to each code from category T14
+
* '''[[Abatacept and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of abatacept during breastfeeding. Abatacept is a large genetically engineered fusion protein that interferes with T-cell activation. It has a molecular weight of 92,000. Only small amounts would be expected to enter breastmilk. If abatacept is required by the mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding. However, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
A - initial encounter
 
D - subsequent encounter
 
S - sequela
 
''Excludes1''  
 
multiple unspecified injuries (T07)
 
  
*'''[[T14.8]]''' Other injury of unspecified body region
+
* '''[[Abciximab and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of abciximab during breastfeeding. Because abciximab is a large protein molecule with a molecular weight of 47,615, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. Until more data become available, abciximab should be used with caution during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. If it is used by a nursing mother, monitor the infant for bruising and bleeding.
  
Abrasion NOS
+
* '''[[Abemaciclib and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of abemaciclib during breastfeeding. Because abemaciclib and its metabolites are over 90% bound to plasma proteins, the amount in milk is likely to be low. However, the manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during abemaciclib therapy and for 3 weeks after the final dose.
Contusion NOS
 
Crush injury NOS
 
Fracture NOS
 
Skin injury NOS
 
Vascular injury NOS
 
Wound NOS
 
  
*'''[[T14.9]]''' Unspecified injury
+
* '''[[Acalabrutinib and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of acalabrutinib during breastfeeding. Because acalabrutinib is over 97% bound to plasma proteins, and the half-life of the drug and metabolite are less than 7 hours, the amount in milk is likely to be low. However, the protein binding of the active metabolite is not known and the manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during acalabrutinib therapy and for at least 2 weeks after the final dose.
*'''[[T14.90]]''' Injury, unspecified
 
  
Injury NOS
+
* '''[[Acarbose and breast feeding]]''' Because less than 2% of a dose of acarbose is absorbed from the mother's gastrointestinal tract, it is unlikely that any drug reaches the infant through breastmilk.
  
*'''[[T14.91]]''' Suicide attempt
+
* '''[[Acebutolol and breast feeding]]''' Because of the relatively extensive excretion of acebutolol and its active metabolite diacetolol into breastmilk and their extensive renal excretion, other agents may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
  
Attempted suicide NOS
+
* '''[[Acenocoumarol and breast feeding]]''' Acenocoumarol is not approved for marketing in the United States by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, but is available in Canada and other countries. Because of the low levels of acenocoumarol in breastmilk, amounts ingested by the infant are small. No changes in coagulation measurements or adverse reactions in breastfed infants have been reported from maternal acenocoumarol use during lactation. There is a consensus that maternal acenocoumarol therapy during breastfeeding poses little risk to the breastfed infant. No special precautions are necessary.
Effects of foreign body entering through natural orifice (T15-T19)
 
''Excludes2''  
 
foreign body accidentally left in operation wound (T81.5-)
 
foreign body in penetrating wound - See open wound by body region
 
residual foreign body in soft tissue (M79.5)
 
splinter, without open wound - See superficial injury by body region
 
  
*'''[[T15]]''' Foreign body on external eye
+
* '''[[Acesulfame and breast feeding]]''' No well-controlled data are available on the extent of passage of acesulfame into breastmilk. However, acesulfame has been found in variable concentrations in the breastmilk of nursing mothers who report consuming artificially sweetened beverages and sweetener packets in the past 24 hours. Even some mothers who reported not consuming artificial sweeteners have small amounts of acesulfame in their breastmilk. Some authors suggest that women may wish to limit the consumption of nonnutritive sweeteners while breastfeeding because their effect on the nursing infants are unknown.
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Acetaminophen and breast feeding]]''' Acetaminophen is a good choice for analgesia, and fever reduction in nursing mothers. Amounts in milk are much less than doses usually given to infants. Adverse effects in breastfed infants appear to be rare.
foreign body in penetrating wound of orbit and eye ball (S05.4-, S05.5-)
 
open wound of eyelid and periocular area (S01.1-)
 
retained foreign body in eyelid (H02.8-)
 
retained (old) foreign body in penetrating wound of orbit and eye ball (H05.5-, H44.6-, H44.7-)
 
superficial foreign body of eyelid and periocular area (S00.25-)
 
The appropriate 7th character is to be added to each code from category T15
 
A - initial encounter
 
D - subsequent encounter
 
S - sequela
 
  
*'''[[T15.0]]''' Foreign body in cornea
+
* '''[[Acetazolamide and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that maternal doses of acetazolamide up to 1000 mg daily produce low levels in milk and would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants.
*'''[[T15.00]]''' Foreign body in cornea, unspecified eye
 
*'''[[T15.01]]''' Foreign body in cornea, right eye
 
*'''[[T15.02]]''' Foreign body in cornea, left eye
 
*'''[[T15.1]]''' Foreign body in conjunctival sac
 
*'''[[T15.10]]''' Foreign body in conjunctival sac, unspecified eye
 
*'''[[T15.11]]''' Foreign body in conjunctival sac, right eye
 
*'''[[T15.12]]''' Foreign body in conjunctival sac, left eye
 
*'''[[T15.8]]''' Foreign body in other and multiple parts of external eye
 
  
Foreign body in lacrimal punctum
+
* '''[[Acetohexamide and breast feeding]]''' Because no information is available on the use of acetohexamide during breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. Monitor breastfed infants for signs of hypoglycemia such as jitteriness, excessive sleepiness, poor feeding, seizures cyanosis, apnea, or hypothermia. If there is concern, monitoring of the breastfed infant's blood glucose is advisable during maternal therapy with hypoglycemic agents.
  
*'''[[T15.80]]''' Foreign body in other and multiple parts of external eye, unspecified eye
+
* '''[[Acetylcholine and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of acetylcholine ophthalmic drops during breastfeeding. Because of its short half-life, it is not likely to reach the bloodstream of the infant or cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants.
*'''[[T15.81]]''' Foreign body in other and multiple parts of external eye, right eye
 
*'''[[T15.82]]''' Foreign body in other and multiple parts of external eye, left eye
 
*'''[[T15.9]]''' Foreign body on external eye, part unspecified
 
*'''[[T15.90]]''' Foreign body on external eye, part unspecified, unspecified eye
 
*'''[[T15.91]]''' Foreign body on external eye, part unspecified, right eye
 
*'''[[T15.92]]''' Foreign body on external eye, part unspecified, left eye
 
*'''[[T16]]''' Foreign body in ear
 
  
''Includes''  
+
* '''[[Acetylcysteine and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of acetylcysteine during breastfeeding. To avoid infant exposure, nursing mothers may consider pumping and discarding their milk for 30 hours after administration. Acetylcysteine is very minimally absorbed after inhalation, so breastfeeding can be continued and no special precautions are required.
foreign body in auditory canal
 
The appropriate 7th character is to be added to each code from category T16
 
A - initial encounter
 
D - subsequent encounter
 
S - sequela
 
  
*'''[[T16.1]]''' Foreign body in right ear
+
* '''[[Acitretin and breast feeding]]''' A maternal acitretin dose of 0.65 mg/kg daily produced low levels in milk in one woman. Because there is no published experience with use of acitretin during breastfeeding, opinions vary on the advisability of breastfeeding during acitretin therapy. Various topical agents that are less likely to be absorbed by the mother may be preferred during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. Only water-miscible cream or gel products should be applied to the breast because ointments may expose the infant to high levels of mineral paraffins via licking.
*'''[[T16.2]]''' Foreign body in left ear
 
*'''[[T16.9]]''' Foreign body in ear, unspecified ear
 
*'''[[T17]]''' Foreign body in respiratory tract
 
  
The appropriate 7th character is to be added to each code from category T17
+
* '''[[Aclidinium and breast feeding]]''' Although no published data exist on the use of aclidinium during breastfeeding, it produces low maternal serum levels because of rapid hydrolysis to inactive metabolites. The risk to the breastfed infant of maternal aclidinium inhalation is small.
A - initial encounter
 
D - subsequent encounter
 
S - sequela
 
  
*'''[[T17.0]]''' Foreign body in nasal sinus
+
* '''[[Acrivastine and breast feeding]]''' Small occasional doses of acrivastine would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. Larger doses or more prolonged use may cause drowsiness and other effects in the infant or decrease the milk supply, particularly in combination with a sympathomimetic such as pseudoephedrine or before lactation is well established. The nonsedating antihistamines are preferred alternatives.
*'''[[T17.1]]''' Foreign body in nostril
 
  
Foreign body in nose NOS
+
* '''[[Acupuncture and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T17.2]]''' Foreign body in pharynx
+
* '''[[Acyclovir and breast feeding]]''' Even with the highest maternal dosages, the dosage of acyclovir in milk is only about 1% of a typical infant dosage and would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. Topical acyclovir applied to small areas of the mother's body away from the breast should pose no risk to the infant. Only water-miscible cream or gel products should be applied to the breast because ointments may expose the infant to high levels of mineral paraffins via licking.
  
Foreign body in nasopharynx
+
* '''[[Adalimumab and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that maternal adalimumab injections produce low levels in breastmilk and do not adversely affect the nursing infant. Because adalimumab is a large protein molecule with a molecular weight of about 148,000, absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. Most experts feel that the drug is acceptable to use during nursing. However, until more data become available, adalimumab should be used with caution while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
Foreign body in throat NOS
 
  
*'''[[T17.20]]''' Unspecified foreign body in pharynx
+
* '''[[Adapalene and breast feeding]]''' Topical adapalene has not been studied during breastfeeding. Because it is poorly absorbed after topical application, and blood levels are less than 0.25 mcg/L with long-term use, it is probably a low risk to the nursing infant. Do not apply to the nipple area and ensure that the infant's skin does not come into direct contact with the areas of skin that have been treated. Only water-miscible cream or gel products should be applied to the breast because ointments may expose the infant to high levels of mineral paraffins via licking.
*'''[[T17.200]]''' Unspecified foreign body in pharynx causing asphyxiation
 
*'''[[T17.208]]''' Unspecified foreign body in pharynx causing other injury
 
*'''[[T17.21]]''' Gastric contents in pharynx
 
  
Aspiration of gastric contents into pharynx
+
* '''[[Adefovir and breast feeding]]'''
Vomitus in pharynx
 
  
*'''[[T17.210]]''' Gastric contents in pharynx causing asphyxiation
+
* '''[[Adenovirus Type 4 and Type 7 Vaccine and breast feeding]]''' The adenovirus type 4 and type 7 vaccine is indicated only for military personnel between 17 and 50 years of age. No information is available on the use of adenovirus type 4 and type 7 vaccine during breastfeeding or its excretion in human milk. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and American Academy of Pediatrics state that in general, vaccines given to a nursing mother do not affect the safety of breastfeeding for mothers or infants. However, the product labeling recommends using caution in nursing mothers, because live virus is shed for 28 days following vaccination.
*'''[[T17.218]]''' Gastric contents in pharynx causing other injury
 
*'''[[T17.22]]''' Food in pharynx
 
  
Bones in pharynx
+
* '''[[Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of ado-trastuzumab during breastfeeding. Because trastuzumab is a large protein molecule with a molecular weight of 145,531, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. However, ado-trastuzumab emtansine also contains the small molecule cytotoxin, DM1, the manufacturer recommends avoiding breastfeeding during and for 7 months following ado-trastuzumab emtansine therapy.
Seeds in pharynx
 
  
*'''[[T17.220]]''' Food in pharynx causing asphyxiation
+
* '''[[Afatinib and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of afatinib during breastfeeding. Because afatinib is about 95% bound to plasma proteins, the amount in milk is likely to be low. However, its half-life is about 37 hours and it might accumulate in the infant. the manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during afatinib therapy and for 2 weeks after the last dose.
*'''[[T17.228]]''' Food in pharynx causing other injury
 
*'''[[T17.29]]''' Other foreign object in pharynx
 
*'''[[T17.290]]''' Other foreign object in pharynx causing asphyxiation
 
*'''[[T17.298]]''' Other foreign object in pharynx causing other injury
 
*'''[[T17.3]]''' Foreign body in larynx
 
*'''[[T17.30]]''' Unspecified foreign body in larynx
 
*'''[[T17.300]]''' Unspecified foreign body in larynx causing asphyxiation
 
*'''[[T17.308]]''' Unspecified foreign body in larynx causing other injury
 
*'''[[T17.31]]''' Gastric contents in larynx
 
  
Aspiration of gastric contents into larynx
+
* '''[[Aflibercept and breast feeding]]''' This record refers to the use of intravitreal aflibercept for macular degeneration. No information is available on the use of aflibercept during breastfeeding. The manufacturer estimates that after intravitreal administration of 2 mg, the mean maximum plasma concentration of free aflibercept is more than 100-fold lower than the concentration of aflibercept required to half-maximally bind systemic vascular endothelial growth factor. Additionally, aflibercept is a large protein molecule with a molecular weight of 115,000, Therefore, the amount in breastmilk is likely to be clinically unimportant after intravitreal injection. However, the manufacturer recommends avoiding the drug during breastfeeding.
Vomitus in larynx
 
  
*'''[[T17.310]]''' Gastric contents in larynx causing asphyxiation
+
* '''[[Agalsidase Alfa and breast feeding]]''' Agalsidase alfa is not approved for marketing in the United States by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, but is available in other countries. Because it is a large protein molecule with a molecular weight of about 100,000, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. Six infants who were breastfed for periods up to 12 months by mothers taking agalsidase alfa experienced no adverse effects associated with the drug.
*'''[[T17.318]]''' Gastric contents in larynx causing other injury
 
*'''[[T17.32]]''' Food in larynx
 
  
Bones in larynx
+
* '''[[Agalsidase Beta and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of agalsidase beta during breastfeeding. Because it is a large protein molecule with a molecular weight of about 100,000, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. Six infants who were breastfed for periods up to 12 months by mothers taking the closely related drug agalsidase alfa experienced no adverse effects associated with the drug.
Seeds in larynx
 
  
*'''[[T17.320]]''' Food in larynx causing asphyxiation
+
* '''[[Alatrofloxacin and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of alatrofloxacin during breastfeeding. Fluoroquinolones have traditionally not been used in infants because of concern about adverse effects on the infants' developing joints. However, recent studies indicate little risk. The calcium in milk might prevent absorption of the small amounts of fluoroquinolones in milk, but insufficient data exist to prove or disprove this assertion. Use of alatrofloxacin is acceptable in nursing mothers with monitoring of the infant for possible effects on the gastrointestinal flora, such as diarrhea or candidiasis (thrush, diaper rash). However, it is preferable to use an alternate drug for which safety information is available.
*'''[[T17.328]]''' Food in larynx causing other injury
 
*'''[[T17.39]]''' Other foreign object in larynx
 
*'''[[T17.390]]''' Other foreign object in larynx causing asphyxiation
 
*'''[[T17.398]]''' Other foreign object in larynx causing other injury
 
*'''[[T17.4]]''' Foreign body in trachea
 
*'''[[T17.40]]''' Unspecified foreign body in trachea
 
*'''[[T17.400]]''' Unspecified foreign body in trachea causing asphyxiation
 
*'''[[T17.408]]''' Unspecified foreign body in trachea causing other injury
 
*'''[[T17.41]]''' Gastric contents in trachea
 
  
Aspiration of gastric contents into trachea
+
* '''[[Albendazole and breast feeding]]''' Albendazole and its active metabolite are minimally excreted into breastmilk. An informal consultation group to the World Health Organization concluded that a single oral dose of albendazole can be given to lactating women.
Vomitus in trachea
 
  
*'''[[T17.410]]''' Gastric contents in trachea causing asphyxiation
+
* '''[[Albumin, Iodinated I 125 Serum and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T17.418]]''' Gastric contents in trachea causing other injury
 
*'''[[T17.42]]''' Food in trachea
 
  
Bones in trachea
+
* '''[[Albuterol and breast feeding]]''' Although no published data exist on the use of albuterol by mouth or inhaler during lactation, data from the related drug, terbutaline, indicate that very little is expected to be excreted into breastmilk. The authors of several reviews and an expert panel agree that use of inhaled bronchodilators is acceptable during breastfeeding because of the low bioavailability and maternal serum levels after use.
Seeds in trachea
 
  
*'''[[T17.420]]''' Food in trachea causing asphyxiation
+
* '''[[Alclometasone and breast feeding]]''' Alclometasone has not been studied during breastfeeding. Since only extensive application of the most potent of these drugs cause systemic effects in the mother, it is unlikely that short-term application of topical corticosteroids would pose a risk to the breastfed infant by passage into breastmilk. However, it would be prudent to use the least potent drug on the smallest area of skin possible. It is particularly important to ensure that the infant's skin does not come into direct contact with the areas of skin that have been treated. Only the lower potency corticosteroids (e.g., hydrocortisone, triamcinolone) should be used on the nipple or areola where the infant could directly ingest the drugs from the skin. Only water-miscible cream or gel products should be applied to the breast because ointments may expose the infant to high levels of mineral paraffins via licking. Any topical corticosteroid should be wiped off thoroughly prior to nursing if it is being applied to the breast or nipple area.
*'''[[T17.428]]''' Food in trachea causing other injury
 
*'''[[T17.49]]''' Other foreign object in trachea
 
*'''[[T17.490]]''' Other foreign object in trachea causing asphyxiation
 
*'''[[T17.498]]''' Other foreign object in trachea causing other injury
 
*'''[[T17.5]]''' Foreign body in bronchus
 
*'''[[T17.50]]''' Unspecified foreign body in bronchus
 
*'''[[T17.500]]''' Unspecified foreign body in bronchus causing asphyxiation
 
*'''[[T17.508]]''' Unspecified foreign body in bronchus causing other injury
 
*'''[[T17.51]]''' Gastric contents in bronchus
 
  
Aspiration of gastric contents into bronchus
+
* '''[[Alcohol and breast feeding]]'''
Vomitus in bronchus
 
  
*'''[[T17.510]]''' Gastric contents in bronchus causing asphyxiation
+
* '''[[Alectinib and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of alectinib during breastfeeding. Because alectinib is more than 99% bound to plasma proteins, the amount in milk is likely to be low. However, its half-life is about 33 hours and it might accumulate in the infant. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during alectinib therapy and for 1 week after the last dose.
*'''[[T17.518]]''' Gastric contents in bronchus causing other injury
 
*'''[[T17.52]]''' Food in bronchus
 
  
Bones in bronchus
+
* '''[[Alemtuzumab and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of alemtuzumab during breastfeeding. Because alemtuzumab is a large protein molecule with a molecular weight of 145,454, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. Until more data become available, alemtuzumab should be used with caution or avoided during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
Seeds in bronchus
 
  
*'''[[T17.520]]''' Food in bronchus causing asphyxiation
+
* '''[[Alendronate and breast feeding]]''' Limited evidence indicates that breastfeeding after cessation of long-term bisphosphonate treatment appears to have no adverse effects on the infant. Because no information is available on the use of alendronate during breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. However, absorption of alendronate by a breastfed infant is unlikely. If the mother receives a bisphosphonate during pregnancy or nursing, some experts recommend monitoring the infant's serum calcium during the first 2 months postpartum.
*'''[[T17.528]]''' Food in bronchus causing other injury
 
*'''[[T17.59]]''' Other foreign object in bronchus
 
*'''[[T17.590]]''' Other foreign object in bronchus causing asphyxiation
 
*'''[[T17.598]]''' Other foreign object in bronchus causing other injury
 
*'''[[T17.8]]''' Foreign body in other parts of respiratory tract
 
  
Foreign body in bronchioles
+
* '''[[Alfalfa and breast feeding]]'''
Foreign body in lung
 
  
*'''[[T17.80]]''' Unspecified foreign body in other parts of respiratory tract
+
* '''[[Alfentanil and breast feeding]]''' When used epidurally or intravenously during labor or for a short time immediately postpartum, amounts of alfentanil ingested by the neonate are small and would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. Alfentanil is highly protein bound which should result in less transfer to breastmilk than other opiates; however, because there is no published experience with repeated doses of intravenous alfentanil during established lactation, other agents may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. Once the mother's milk comes in, it is best to provide pain control with a nonnarcotic analgesic and limit maternal intake of alfentanil to a few days with careful monitoring. If the baby shows signs of increased sleepiness (more than usual), difficulty breastfeeding, breathing difficulties, or limpness, a physician should be contacted immediately. Labor pain medication may delay the onset of lactation.
*'''[[T17.800]]''' Unspecified foreign body in other parts of respiratory tract causing asphyxiation
 
*'''[[T17.808]]''' Unspecified foreign body in other parts of respiratory tract causing other injury
 
*'''[[T17.81]]''' Gastric contents in other parts of respiratory tract
 
  
Aspiration of gastric contents into other parts of respiratory tract
+
* '''[[Alglucerase and breast feeding]]''' Alglucerase is the placenta-derived form of the enzyme, beta-glucocerebrosidase which is a normal component of human milk. Studies with alclucerase and synthetic forms of the enzyme have found very low levels of the enzyme in breastmilk. Absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. A limited amount of data support the safety of breastfeeding with alglucerase. An international panel of clinicians from 9 centers that treat Gaucher's disease reported that, breastfeeding complications were less frequent in mothers who were treated with alglucerase or imiglucerase (the biosynthetic form of the enzyme) postpartum than in untreated mothers with Gaucher's disease. Consider limiting the duration of breastfeeding to about 6 months to avoid excessive bone loss in the nursing mother.
Vomitus in other parts of respiratory tract
 
  
*'''[[T17.810]]''' Gastric contents in other parts of respiratory tract causing asphyxiation
+
* '''[[Alglucosidase Alfa and breast feeding]]''' Because alglucosidase is a large protein molecule with a molecular weight of about 110,000, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract Alglucosidase alfa activity was detectable in breastmilk for only 24 hours after a dose in one woman. The investigators recommended withholding breastfeeding for 24 hours after each dose as a precaution until more data are obtained.
*'''[[T17.818]]''' Gastric contents in other parts of respiratory tract causing other injury
 
*'''[[T17.82]]''' Food in other parts of respiratory tract
 
  
Bones in other parts of respiratory tract
+
* '''[[Alirocumab and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of alirocumab during breastfeeding. Because alirocumab is a large protein molecule with a molecular weight of 146,000, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. Until more data become available, alirocumab should be used with caution during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
Seeds in other parts of respiratory tract
 
  
*'''[[T17.820]]''' Food in other parts of respiratory tract causing asphyxiation
+
* '''[[Allopurinol and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that a maternal doses of allopurinol of 300 mg daily provides near-therapeutic dose and plasma levels in an exclusively breastfed infant. If allopurinol is required by the mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding, but exclusively breastfed infants should be monitored if this drug is used, including observation for allergic reactions (such as rash) and periodic CBC and differential blood counts. Lesinurad, which is available in the combination product Duzallo, has not been studied in nursing mothers.
*'''[[T17.828]]''' Food in other parts of respiratory tract causing other injury
 
*'''[[T17.89]]''' Other foreign object in other parts of respiratory tract
 
*'''[[T17.890]]''' Other foreign object in other parts of respiratory tract causing asphyxiation
 
*'''[[T17.898]]''' Other foreign object in other parts of respiratory tract causing other injury
 
*'''[[T17.9]]''' Foreign body in respiratory tract, part unspecified
 
*'''[[T17.90]]''' Unspecified foreign body in respiratory tract, part unspecified
 
*'''[[T17.900]]''' Unspecified foreign body in respiratory tract, part unspecified causing asphyxiation
 
*'''[[T17.908]]''' Unspecified foreign body in respiratory tract, part unspecified causing other injury
 
*'''[[T17.91]]''' Gastric contents in respiratory tract, part unspecified
 
  
Aspiration of gastric contents into respiratory tract, part unspecified
+
* '''[[Almotriptan and breast feeding]]''' Because there is no published experience with almotriptan during breastfeeding, other agents may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
Vomitus in trachea respiratory tract, part unspecified
 
  
*'''[[T17.910]]''' Gastric contents in respiratory tract, part unspecified causing asphyxiation
+
* '''[[Aloe and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T17.918]]''' Gastric contents in respiratory tract, part unspecified causing other injury
 
*'''[[T17.92]]''' Food in respiratory tract, part unspecified
 
  
Bones in respiratory tract, part unspecified
+
* '''[[Alogliptin and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of alogliptin during breastfeeding. An alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. Monitoring of the breastfed infant's blood glucose is advisable during maternal therapy with alogliptin.
Seeds in respiratory tract, part unspecified
 
  
*'''[[T17.920]]''' Food in respiratory tract, part unspecified causing asphyxiation
+
* '''[[Alosetron and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of alosetron during breastfeeding. Because of relatively high protein binding and only moderate bioavailability, exposure of the breastfed infant is likely to be low. Until more data are available, alosetron should only be used with careful infant monitoring during breastfeeding.
*'''[[T17.928]]''' Food in respiratory tract, part unspecified causing other injury
 
*'''[[T17.99]]''' Other foreign object in respiratory tract, part unspecified
 
*'''[[T17.990]]''' Other foreign object in respiratory tract, part unspecified in causing asphyxiation
 
*'''[[T17.998]]''' Other foreign object in respiratory tract, part unspecified causing other injury
 
*'''[[T18]]''' Foreign body in alimentary tract
 
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Alprazolam and breast feeding]]''' Because of reports of effects in infants, including sedation, alprazolam is probably not the best benzodiazepine for repeated use during nursing, especially with a neonate or premature infant. A shorter-acting benzodiazepine without active metabolites is preferred. After a single dose of alprazolam, there is usually no need to wait to resume breastfeeding.
foreign body in pharynx (T17.2-)
 
The appropriate 7th character is to be added to each code from category T18
 
A - initial encounter
 
D - subsequent encounter
 
S - sequela
 
  
*'''[[T18.0]]''' Foreign body in mouth
+
* '''[[Alteplase and breast feeding]]''' Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), which is identical to alteplase, is a normal component of human colostrum and breastmilk. Levels in milk are highest in colostrum and decrease rapidly during the first week, followed by a sower decrease over time. Because alteplase is a large protein molecule with a molecular weight of about 59,000, absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. No information is available on the clinical use of alteplase during breastfeeding. Until more data become available, alteplase should be used with caution during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
*'''[[T18.1]]''' Foreign body in esophagus
 
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Amanita Mushroom Poisoning and breast feeding]]'''  
foreign body in respiratory tract (T17.-)
 
  
*'''[[T18.10]]''' Unspecified foreign body in esophagus
+
* '''[[Amantadine and breast feeding]]''' It is probably best to avoid amantadine during breastfeeding because of its potential negative effect on lactation.
*'''[[T18.100]]''' Unspecified foreign body in esophagus causing compression of trachea
 
  
Unspecified foreign body in esophagus causing obstruction of respiration
+
* '''[[Amcinonide and breast feeding]]''' Amcinonide has not been studied during breastfeeding. Since only extensive application of the most potent corticosteroids may cause systemic effects in the mother, it is unlikely that short-term application of topical corticosteroids would pose a risk to the breastfed infant by passage into breastmilk. However, it would be prudent to use the least potent drug on the smallest area of skin possible. It is particularly important to ensure that the infant's skin does not come into direct contact with the areas of skin that have been treated. Only the lower potency corticosteroids should be used on the nipple or areola where the infant could directly ingest the drugs from the skin. Only water-miscible cream or gel products should be applied to the breast because ointments may expose the infant to high levels of mineral paraffins via licking. Any topical corticosteroid should be wiped off thoroughly prior to nursing if it is being applied to the breast or nipple area.
  
*'''[[T18.108]]''' Unspecified foreign body in esophagus causing other injury
+
* '''[[Amifampridine and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of amifampridine during breastfeeding on the presence of amifampridine or the 3-N-acetyl-amifampridine metabolite in breastmilk. If amifampridine is required by the mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding, but the infant should be carefully monitored for excessive crying or fussiness, adequate weight gain, and developmental milestones.
*'''[[T18.11]]''' Gastric contents in esophagus
 
  
Vomitus in esophagus
+
* '''[[Amikacin and breast feeding]]''' Amikacin is poorly excreted into breastmilk. Newborn infants apparently absorb small amounts of other aminoglycosides, but serum levels with typical three times daily dosages are far below those attained when treating newborn infections and systemic effects of amikacin are unlikely. Older infants would be expected to absorb even less amikacin. Because there is little variability in the milk amikacin levels during multiple daily dose regimens, timing breastfeeding with respect to the dose is of little or no benefit in reducing infant exposure. Data are not available with single daily dose regimens. Monitor the infant for possible effects on the gastrointestinal flora, such as diarrhea, candidiasis (e.g., thrush, diaper rash) or rarely, blood in the stool indicating possible antibiotic-associated colitis.
  
*'''[[T18.110]]''' Gastric contents in esophagus causing compression of trachea
+
* '''[[Amiloride and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of amiloride during breastfeeding, so an alternate drug may be preferred.
  
Gastric contents in esophagus causing obstruction of respiration
+
* '''[[Aminophylline and breast feeding]]''' An expert panel considers use of aminophylline to be acceptable during breastfeeding. Maternal aminophylline use may occasionally cause stimulation and irritability and fretful sleep in infants. Newborn and especially preterm infants are most likely to be affected because of their slow elimination and low serum protein binding of theophylline. There is no need to avoid aminophylline products; however, keep maternal serum theophylline concentrations in the lower part of the therapeutic range and monitor the infant for signs of theophylline side effects. Infant serum theophylline concentrations can help to determine if signs of agitation are due to theophylline. Avoiding breastfeeding for 2 hours after intravenous or 4 hours after an immediate-release oral aminophylline product can decrease the dose received by the breastfed infant.
  
*'''[[T18.118]]''' Gastric contents in esophagus causing other injury
+
* '''[[Aminosalicylic Acid and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that maternal aminosalicylic acid therapy produces low levels in milk and would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants, especially if the infant is older than 2 months. Exclusively breastfed infants should be monitored for rare instances of jaundice, gastrointestinal disturbances, hypokalemia, thrombocytopenia, hemolysis and hypokalemia if this drug is used during lactation.
*'''[[T18.12]]''' Food in esophagus
 
  
Bones in esophagus
+
* '''[[Amiodarone and breast feeding]]'''
Seeds in esophagus
 
  
*'''[[T18.120]]''' Food in esophagus causing compression of trachea
+
* '''[[Amisulpride and breast feeding]]''' Amisulpride is not approved for marketing in the United States by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, but is available in other countries. Because there is little published experience with amisulpride during breastfeeding and excretion into breastmilk is higher than with other pharmacologically similar drugs, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. Some reviewers consider amisulpride to be contraindicated during breastfeeding.
  
Food in esophagus causing obstruction of respiration
+
* '''[[Amitriptyline and breast feeding]]''' Milk levels of amitriptyline and its metabolites are low. Immediate side effects have not been reported and a limited amount of follow-up has found no adverse effects on infant growth and development. Amitriptyline use during breastfeeding would usually not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants, especially if the infant is older than 2 months. However, rare sedation has been reported in a neonate. Other agents with fewer active metabolites may be preferred when large doses are required or while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
  
*'''[[T18.128]]''' Food in esophagus causing other injury
+
* '''[[Amlodipine and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that milk levels of amlodipine are usually low and plasma levels in breastfed infants are undetectable. Maternal use of amlodipine during breastfeeding has not caused any adverse effects in breastfed infants. If amlodipine is required by the mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding.
*'''[[T18.19]]''' Other foreign object in esophagus
 
*'''[[T18.190]]''' Other foreign object in esophagus causing compression of trachea
 
  
Other foreign body in esophagus causing obstruction of respiration
+
* '''[[Ammonia N 13 and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T18.198]]''' Other foreign object in esophagus causing other injury
+
* '''[[Amoxapine and breast feeding]]''' Because there is no published experience with amoxapine during breastfeeding, other agents may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
*'''[[T18.2]]''' Foreign body in stomach
 
*'''[[T18.3]]''' Foreign body in small intestine
 
*'''[[T18.4]]''' Foreign body in colon
 
*'''[[T18.5]]''' Foreign body in anus and rectum
 
  
Foreign body in rectosigmoid (junction)
+
* '''[[Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that adverse reactions in infants are uncommon during the use of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid during nursing, with restlessness, diarrhea and rash occurring occasionally. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid is acceptable in nursing mothers.
  
*'''[[T18.8]]''' Foreign body in other parts of alimentary tract
+
* '''[[Amoxicillin and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that amoxicillin produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally, rash and disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush, have been reported, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Amoxicillin is acceptable in nursing mothers. Amoxicillin powder for suspension reconstituted with breastmilk is absorbed as well as the powder reconstituted with water.
*'''[[T18.9]]''' Foreign body of alimentary tract, part unspecified
 
  
Foreign body in digestive system NOS
+
* '''[[Amphetamine and breast feeding]]''' In dosages prescribed for medical indications, some evidence indicates that amphetamine does not affect nursing infants adversely. The effect of amphetamine in milk on the neurological development of the infant has not been well studied. Large dosages of amphetamine might interfere with milk production, especially in women whose lactation is not well established. Breastfeeding is generally discouraged in mothers who are actively abusing amphetamines. One expert recommends that amphetamine not be used therapeutically in nursing mothers.
Swallowed foreign body NOS
 
  
*'''[[T19]]''' Foreign body in genitourinary tract
+
* '''[[Amphotericin B and breast feeding]]''' Although no information exists on the milk excretion of amphotericin B, it is highly protein bound, has a large molecular weight, is virtually unabsorbed orally and has been use directly in the mouths of infants; therefore, most reviewers consider it acceptable to use in nursing mothers.
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Ampicillin and Sulbactam and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that ampicillin-sulbactam produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally, disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush, have been reported with penicillins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Ampicillin-sulbactam is acceptable in nursing mothers.
complications due to implanted mesh (T83.7-)
 
mechanical complications of contraceptive device (intrauterine) (vaginal) (T83.3-)
 
presence of contraceptive device (intrauterine) (vaginal) (Z97.5)
 
The appropriate 7th character is to be added to each code from category T19
 
A - initial encounter
 
D - subsequent encounter
 
S - sequela
 
  
*'''[[T19.0]]''' Foreign body in urethra
+
* '''[[Ampicillin and breast feeding]]''' Substantial information indicates that ampicillin produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with penicillins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Ampicillin is acceptable in nursing mothers.
*'''[[T19.1]]''' Foreign body in bladder
 
*'''[[T19.2]]''' Foreign body in vulva and vagina
 
*'''[[T19.3]]''' Foreign body in uterus
 
*'''[[T19.4]]''' Foreign body in penis
 
*'''[[T19.8]]''' Foreign body in other parts of genitourinary tract
 
*'''[[T19.9]]''' Foreign body in genitourinary tract, part unspecified
 
  
Burns and corrosions (T20-T32)
+
* '''[[Anakinra and breast feeding]]''' Anainra is the pharmaceutical name for recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). IL-1Ra is a normal component of human milk where it may play a role as an anti-inflammatory agent. No data exist on the excretion of anakinra into breastmilk after exogenous administration. Several infants have been breastfed during maternal anakinra therapy with no obvious adverse effects. If anakinra is required by the mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding.
''Includes''  
 
burns (thermal) from electrical heating appliances
 
burns (thermal) from electricity
 
burns (thermal) from flame
 
burns (thermal) from friction
 
burns (thermal) from hot air and hot gases
 
burns (thermal) from hot objects
 
burns (thermal) from lightning
 
burns (thermal) from radiation
 
chemical burn (corrosion) (external) (internal)
 
scalds
 
''Excludes2''
 
erythema (dermatitis) ab igne (L59.0)
 
radiation-related disorders of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (L55-L59)
 
sunburn (L55.-)
 
Burns and corrosions of external body surface, specified by site (T20-T25)
 
''Includes''
 
burns and corrosions of first degree (erythema)
 
burns and corrosions of second degree (blisters)(epidermal loss)
 
burns and corrosions of third degree (deep necrosis of underlying tissue) (full- thickness skin loss) ''Use additional''
 
code from category T31 or T32 to identify extent of body surface involved
 
  
*'''[[T20]]''' Burn and corrosion of head, face, and neck
+
* '''[[Anise and breast feeding]]'''  
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Antacids and breast feeding]]''' Although no published information on the aluminum, calcium or magnesium content of milk during maternal antacid therapy could be found, additional intake of these minerals by a nursing mother is unlikely to surpass that found in other infant foods. In addition, oral absorption of aluminum and magnesium is poor. Because of these factors, reviewers generally consider antacid use during breastfeeding to be acceptable. No special precautions are required.
burn and corrosion of ear drum (T28.41, T28.91)
 
burn and corrosion of eye and adnexa (T26.-)
 
burn and corrosion of mouth and pharynx (T28.0)
 
The appropriate 7th character is to be added to each code from category T20
 
A - initial encounter
 
D - subsequent encounter
 
S - sequela
 
  
*'''[[T20.0]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of head, face, and neck ''Use additional''
+
* '''[[Anthrax Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human) and breast feeding]]'''  
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Anthrax Vaccine and breast feeding]]''' The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and several health professional organizations state that vaccines given to a nursing mother do not affect the safety of breastfeeding for mothers or infants and that breastfeeding is not a contraindication to the anthrax vaccine. Breastfed infants should be vaccinated according to the routine recommended schedules.
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T20.00]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of head, face, and neck, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Antihemophilic Factor and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of antihemophilic factor (coagulation factor VIII) during breastfeeding. Because it is a large protein molecule, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. Until more data become available, antihemophilic factor should be used with caution during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
*'''[[T20.01]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of ear (any part, except ear drum)
 
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Antipyrine and breast feeding]]''' Antipyrine is considered unlikely to harm the infant. Because antipyrine is available only in ear drops, it is unlikely to be absorbed by the mother and reach the breastmilk. No special precautions are required during maternal use of antipyrine-containing ear drops.
burn of ear drum (T28.41-)
 
  
*'''[[T20.011]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of right ear (any part, except ear drum)
+
* '''[[Antivenin Latrodectus Mactans and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of antivenin latrodectus mactans during breastfeeding. Because it is a large protein molecule, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract.
*'''[[T20.012]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of left ear (any part, except ear drum)
 
*'''[[T20.019]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of unspecified ear (any part, except ear drum)
 
*'''[[T20.02]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of lip(s)
 
*'''[[T20.03]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of chin
 
*'''[[T20.04]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of nose (septum)
 
*'''[[T20.05]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of scalp (any part)
 
*'''[[T20.06]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of forehead and cheek
 
*'''[[T20.07]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of neck
 
*'''[[T20.09]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of multiple sites of head, face, and neck
 
*'''[[T20.1]]''' Burn of first degree of head, face, and neck ''Use additional''
 
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Antivenin Micrurus Fulvius and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of antivenin micrurus fulvius during breastfeeding. Because it is a large protein molecule, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract.
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T20.10]]''' Burn of first degree of head, face, and neck, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Apazone and breast feeding]]''' Apazone (azapropazone) is not approved for marketing in the United States by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Relatively small amounts of the drug are excreted into breastmilk; however, the toxicity of the drug limits its usefulness in nursing mothers. An alternate drug is preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
*'''[[T20.11]]''' Burn of first degree of ear (any part, except ear drum)
 
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Apixaban and breast feeding]]''' Because no information is available on the use of apixaban during breastfeeding and the drug is orally absorbable, an alternate drug is preferred while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
burn of ear drum (T28.41-)
 
  
*'''[[T20.111]]''' Burn of first degree of right ear (any part, except ear drum)
+
* '''[[Apomorphine and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of apomorphine during breastfeeding. Apomorphine inhibits prolactin release in animals and might interfere with establishment of lactation. The prolactin level in a mother with established lactation may not affect her ability to breastfeed. An alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
*'''[[T20.112]]''' Burn of first degree of left ear (any part, except ear drum)
 
*'''[[T20.119]]''' Burn of first degree of unspecified ear (any part, except ear drum)
 
*'''[[T20.12]]''' Burn of first degree of lip(s)
 
*'''[[T20.13]]''' Burn of first degree of chin
 
*'''[[T20.14]]''' Burn of first degree of nose (septum)
 
*'''[[T20.15]]''' Burn of first degree of scalp (any part)
 
*'''[[T20.16]]''' Burn of first degree of forehead and cheek
 
*'''[[T20.17]]''' Burn of first degree of neck
 
*'''[[T20.19]]''' Burn of first degree of multiple sites of head, face, and neck
 
*'''[[T20.2]]''' Burn of second degree of head, face, and neck ''Use additional''
 
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Apraclonidine and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of apraclonidine during breastfeeding. To substantially diminish the amount of drug that reaches the breastmilk after using eye drops, place pressure over the tear duct by the corner of the eye for 1 minute or more, then remove the excess solution with an absorbent tissue.
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T20.20]]''' Burn of second degree of head, face, and neck, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Apremilast and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of apremilast during breastfeeding. An alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
*'''[[T20.21]]''' Burn of second degree of ear (any part, except ear drum)
 
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Arfomoterol and breast feeding]]'''  
burn of ear drum (T28.41-)
 
  
*'''[[T20.211]]''' Burn of second degree of right ear (any part, except ear drum)
+
* '''[[Argatroban and breast feeding]]''' Because no information is available on the use of argatroban during breastfeeding, an alternate drug is preferred.
*'''[[T20.212]]''' Burn of second degree of left ear (any part, except ear drum)
 
*'''[[T20.219]]''' Burn of second degree of unspecified ear (any part, except ear drum)
 
*'''[[T20.22]]''' Burn of second degree of lip(s)
 
*'''[[T20.23]]''' Burn of second degree of chin
 
*'''[[T20.24]]''' Burn of second degree of nose (septum)
 
*'''[[T20.25]]''' Burn of second degree of scalp (any part)
 
*'''[[T20.26]]''' Burn of second degree of forehead and cheek
 
*'''[[T20.27]]''' Burn of second degree of neck
 
*'''[[T20.29]]''' Burn of second degree of multiple sites of head, face, and neck
 
*'''[[T20.3]]''' Burn of third degree of head, face, and neck ''Use additional''
 
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Aripiprazole and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that maternal doses of aripiprazole up to 15 mg daily produce low levels in milk, but until more data become available, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. Aripiprazole can lower serum prolactin in a dose-related manner. Cases of lactation cessation have occurred, but cases of gynecomastia and galactorrhea have also been reported.
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T20.30]]''' Burn of third degree of head, face, and neck, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Armodafinil and breast feeding]]''' Armodafinil is the R-enantiomer of modafinil. The amount of armodafinil in one nursing mother was very low. Minimal information from women who breastfed their infant's while using racemic modafinil found no adverse effects in their infants. Until more safety data are available, armodafinil should be used with careful infant monitoring during breastfeeding, or an alternate drug may be preferred.
*'''[[T20.31]]''' Burn of third degree of ear (any part, except ear drum)
 
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Arnica and breast feeding]]'''  
burn of ear drum (T28.41-)
 
  
*'''[[T20.311]]''' Burn of third degree of right ear (any part, except ear drum)
+
* '''[[Arsenic Trioxide and breast feeding]]''' Most sources consider breastfeeding to be contraindicated during maternal antineoplastic drug therapy. It might be possible to breastfeed safely during intermittent therapy with an appropriate period of breastfeeding abstinence; the manufacturer recommends an abstinence period of 1 week after the last dose. Chemotherapy may adversely affect the normal microbiome and chemical makeup of breastmilk. Women who receive chemotherapy during pregnancy are more likely to have difficulty nursing their infant.
*'''[[T20.312]]''' Burn of third degree of left ear (any part, except ear drum)
 
*'''[[T20.319]]''' Burn of third degree of unspecified ear (any part, except ear drum)
 
*'''[[T20.32]]''' Burn of third degree of lip(s)
 
*'''[[T20.33]]''' Burn of third degree of chin
 
*'''[[T20.34]]''' Burn of third degree of nose (septum)
 
*'''[[T20.35]]''' Burn of third degree of scalp (any part)
 
*'''[[T20.36]]''' Burn of third degree of forehead and cheek
 
*'''[[T20.37]]''' Burn of third degree of neck
 
*'''[[T20.39]]''' Burn of third degree of multiple sites of head, face, and neck
 
*'''[[T20.4]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of head, face, and neck ''Code first''
 
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''
+
* '''[[Artemether and Lumefantrine and breast feeding]]''' Artemether and lumefantrine have not been studied in nursing mothers. Estimates of its excretion into breastmilk indicate that amounts in milk are very low. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention consider the drug combination acceptable for use in mothers nursing an infant weighing at least 5 kg (11 pounds) and it can be given directly to infants weighing 5 kg or more. The safety of the combination in breastfed infants under 5 kg is not known.
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T20.40]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of head, face, and neck, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Artesunate and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T20.41]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of ear (any part, except ear drum)
 
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Articaine and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of articaine during breastfeeding. Based on the low excretion of other local anesthetics into breastmilk, a single dose of articaine injected during breastfeeding is unlikely to adversely affect the breastfed infant. However, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
corrosion of ear drum (T28.91-)
 
  
*'''[[T20.411]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of right ear (any part, except ear drum)
+
* '''[[Asenapine and breast feeding]]''' Because no information is available on the use of asenapine during breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
*'''[[T20.412]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of left ear (any part, except ear drum)
 
*'''[[T20.419]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of unspecified ear (any part, except ear drum)
 
*'''[[T20.42]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of lip(s)
 
*'''[[T20.43]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of chin
 
*'''[[T20.44]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of nose (septum)
 
*'''[[T20.45]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of scalp (any part)
 
*'''[[T20.46]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of forehead and cheek
 
*'''[[T20.47]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of neck
 
*'''[[T20.49]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of multiple sites of head, face, and neck
 
*'''[[T20.5]]''' Corrosion of first degree of head, face, and neck ''Code first''
 
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''  
+
* '''[[Aspartame and breast feeding]]''' Aspartame is not detectable in breastmilk after maternal ingestion because it is rapidly broken down in the mother's body. An extremely large intake of aspartame (equivalent to 17 cans of soda or 100 packets of Equal Sweetener) can slightly increase the amount of phenylalanine in breastmilk. Phenylalanine concentrations in milk return to baseline by 12 hours after a large single dose of aspartame. Although it is prudent to avoid the use of aspartame in women who are nursing an infant with phenylketonuria, amounts that are typically ingested in aspartame-sweetened foods and beverages do not result in any additional risk to breastfed infants with phenylketonuria.
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T20.50]]''' Corrosion of first degree of head, face, and neck, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Aspirin and breast feeding]]''' After aspirin ingestion, salicylic acid is excreted into breastmilk, with higher doses resulting in disproportionately higher milk levels. Long-term, high-dose maternal aspirin ingestion probably caused metabolic acidosis in one breastfed infant. Reye's syndrome is associated with aspirin administration to infants with viral infections, but the risk of Reye's syndrome from salicylate in breastmilk is unknown. An alternate drug is preferred over continuous high-dose, aspirin therapy. After daily low-dose aspiring (75 to 325 mg daily), no aspirin is excreted into breastmilk and salicylate levels are low. Daily low-dose aspirin therapy may be considered as an antiplatelet drug for use in breastfeeding women.. If it is used by a nursing mother, monitor the infant for bruising and bleeding.
*'''[[T20.51]]''' Corrosion of first degree of ear (any part, except ear drum)
 
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Astragalus and breast feeding]]'''  
corrosion of ear drum (T28.91-)
 
  
*'''[[T20.511]]''' Corrosion of first degree of right ear (any part, except ear drum)
+
* '''[[Atazanavir and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T20.512]]''' Corrosion of first degree of left ear (any part, except ear drum)
 
*'''[[T20.519]]''' Corrosion of first degree of unspecified ear (any part, except ear drum)
 
*'''[[T20.52]]''' Corrosion of first degree of lip(s)
 
*'''[[T20.53]]''' Corrosion of first degree of chin
 
*'''[[T20.54]]''' Corrosion of first degree of nose (septum)
 
*'''[[T20.55]]''' Corrosion of first degree of scalp (any part)
 
*'''[[T20.56]]''' Corrosion of first degree of forehead and cheek
 
*'''[[T20.57]]''' Corrosion of first degree of neck
 
*'''[[T20.59]]''' Corrosion of first degree of multiple sites of head, face, and neck
 
*'''[[T20.6]]''' Corrosion of second degree of head, face, and neck ''Code first''
 
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''  
+
* '''[[Atenolol and breast feeding]]''' Because of atenolol's relatively extensive excretion into breastmilk and its extensive renal excretion, other agents may be preferred while nursing a newborn or preterm infant or with high maternal dosages. Infants older than 3 months of age appear to be at little risk of adverse effects from atenolol in breastmilk. Timing breastfeeding with respect to the time of the atenolol dose appears to be of little benefit in reducing infant atenolol exposure because the time of the peak is unpredictable.
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T20.60]]''' Corrosion of second degree of head, face, and neck, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Atezolizumab and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T20.61]]''' Corrosion of second degree of ear (any part, except ear drum)
 
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Atomoxetine and breast feeding]]''' There is no published experience with atomoxetine during breastfeeding, although reports from the manufacturer found no serious advese effects in two breastfed infants. An alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
corrosion of ear drum (T28.91-)
 
  
*'''[[T20.611]]''' Corrosion of second degree of right ear (any part, except ear drum)
+
* '''[[Atorvastatin and breast feeding]]''' The consensus opinion is that women taking a statin should not breastfeed because of a concern with disruption of infant lipid metabolism. However, others have argued that children homozygous for familial hypercholesterolemia are treated with statins beginning at 1 year of age, that statins have low oral bioavailability, and risks to the breastfed infant are low, especially with rosuvastatin and pravastatin. Some evidence indicates that atorvastatin can be taken by nursing mothers with no obvious developmental problems in their infants. Until more data become available, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
*'''[[T20.612]]''' Corrosion of second degree of left ear (any part, except ear drum)
 
*'''[[T20.619]]''' Corrosion of second degree of unspecified ear (any part, except ear drum)
 
*'''[[T20.62]]''' Corrosion of second degree of lip(s)
 
*'''[[T20.63]]''' Corrosion of second degree of chin
 
*'''[[T20.64]]''' Corrosion of second degree of nose (septum)
 
*'''[[T20.65]]''' Corrosion of second degree of scalp (any part)
 
*'''[[T20.66]]''' Corrosion of second degree of forehead and cheek
 
*'''[[T20.67]]''' Corrosion of second degree of neck
 
*'''[[T20.69]]''' Corrosion of second degree of multiple sites of head, face, and neck
 
*'''[[T20.7]]''' Corrosion of third degree of head, face, and neck ''Code first''
 
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''  
+
* '''[[Atovaquone and Proquanil and breast feeding]]'''  
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T20.70]]''' Corrosion of third degree of head, face, and neck, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Atovaquone and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of atovaquone during breastfeeding. However, the quantity of drug in breast milk is assumed too low to provide adequate protection against malaria for the breastfed infant. A dosage has been established for infants weighing as little as 5 kg, so it is unlikely to adversely affect breastfed infants weighing 5 kg or more.
*'''[[T20.71]]''' Corrosion of third degree of ear (any part, except ear drum)
 
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Atracurium and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of atracurium during breastfeeding. Because it is short acting, highly polar and poorly absorbed orally, it is not likely to reach the breastmilk in high concentration or to reach the bloodstream of the infant. When a combination of anesthetic agents is used for a procedure, follow the recommendations for the most problematic medication used during the procedure.
corrosion of ear drum (T28.91-)
 
  
*'''[[T20.711]]''' Corrosion of third degree of right ear (any part, except ear drum)
+
* '''[[Atropine and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of atropine during breastfeeding. Long-term use of atropine might reduce milk production or milk letdown, but a single systemic or ophthalmic dose is not likely to interfere with breastfeeding. During long-term use, observe for signs of decreased lactation (e.g., insatiety, poor weight gain).
*'''[[T20.712]]''' Corrosion of third degree of left ear (any part, except ear drum)
 
*'''[[T20.719]]''' Corrosion of third degree of unspecified ear (any part, except ear drum)
 
*'''[[T20.72]]''' Corrosion of third degree of lip(s)
 
*'''[[T20.73]]''' Corrosion of third degree of chin
 
*'''[[T20.74]]''' Corrosion of third degree of nose (septum)
 
*'''[[T20.75]]''' Corrosion of third degree of scalp (any part)
 
*'''[[T20.76]]''' Corrosion of third degree of forehead and cheek
 
*'''[[T20.77]]''' Corrosion of third degree of neck
 
*'''[[T20.79]]''' Corrosion of third degree of multiple sites of head, face, and neck
 
*'''[[T21]]''' Burn and corrosion of trunk
 
  
''Includes''
+
* '''[[Auranofin and breast feeding]]''' Excretion of gold into milk after auranofen has not been studied. Case reports with other gold salts indicate that gold appears in milk in small quantities and at least a little of it is absorbed because it is detectable in the infant's urine. No convincing cases of toxicity have been reported. Opinions of authors of review articles vary from recommending avoidance to allowing use. Monitoring for possible adverse effects in the breastfed infant would seem prudent.
burns and corrosion of hip region
 
''Excludes2''
 
burns and corrosion of axilla (T22.- with fifth character 4)
 
burns and corrosion of scapular region (T22.- with fifth character 6)
 
burns and corrosion of shoulder (T22.- with fifth character 5)
 
The appropriate 7th character is to be added to each code from category T21
 
A - initial encounter
 
D - subsequent encounter
 
S - sequela
 
  
*'''[[T21.0]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of trunk ''Use additional''
+
* '''[[Avelumab and breast feeding]]'''  
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Axitinib and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of axitinib during breastfeeding. Because axitinib is more than 99% bound to plasma proteins, the amount in milk is likely to be low. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during axitinib therapy and for 2 weeks after the final dose of therapy.
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T21.00]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of trunk, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Azacitidine and breast feeding]]''' Most sources consider breastfeeding to be contraindicated during maternal antineoplastic drug therapy. It might be possible to breastfeed safely during intermittent azacitidine therapy with an appropriate period of breastfeeding abstinence; the manufacturer recommends an abstinence period of 1 week after the last dose. Chemotherapy may adversely affect the normal microbiome and chemical makeup of breastmilk. Women who receive chemotherapy during pregnancy are more likely to have difficulty nursing their infant.
*'''[[T21.01]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of chest wall
 
  
Burn of unspecified degree of breast
+
* '''[[Azatadine and breast feeding]]''' Small occasional doses of azatadine are probably acceptable during breastfeeding. Larger doses or more prolonged use may cause drowsiness and other effects in the infant or decrease the milk supply, particularly in combination with a sympathomimetic such as pseudoephedrine or before lactation is well established. The nonsedating antihistamines are preferred alternatives.
  
*'''[[T21.02]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of abdominal wall
+
* '''[[Azathioprine and breast feeding]]''' Most experts consider breastfeeding during azathioprine to be acceptable. Studies in women with inflammatory bowel disease, systemic lupus erythematosus or transplantation taking doses of azathioprine up to 200 mg daily for immunosuppression have found either low or unmeasurable levels of the active metabolites in milk and infant serum. Some evidence indicates a lack of adverse effects on the health and development of infants exposed to azathioprine during breastfeeding up to 3.5 years of age, but long-term follow-up for effects such as carcinogenesis have not been performed. Mothers with decreased activity of the enzyme that detoxifies azathioprine metabolites may transmit higher levels of drug to their infants in breastmilk. Cases of mild, asymptomatic neutropenia have been reported, so it might be desirable to monitor exclusively breastfed infants with a complete blood count with differential, and liver function tests if azathioprine is used during lactation, although some authors feel that monitoring is unnecessary. Avoiding breastfeeding for 4 hours after a dose should markedly decrease the dose received by the infant in breastmilk.
  
Burn of unspecified degree of flank
+
* '''[[Azelaic Acid and breast feeding]]''' Topical azelaic acid has not been studied during breastfeeding. Because only 4% of a dose is absorbed after topical application and it is a chemical that appears in foods and the bloodstream normally, azelaic acid is considered a low risk to the nursing infant. Ensure that the infant's skin does not come into direct contact with the areas of skin that have been treated. Only water-miscible cream or gel products should be applied to the breast because ointments may expose the infant to high levels of mineral paraffins via licking.
Burn of unspecified degree of groin
 
  
*'''[[T21.03]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of upper back
+
* '''[[Azelastine and breast feeding]]'''  
  
Burn of unspecified degree of interscapular region
+
* '''[[Azficel-T and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of azficel-t during breastfeeding. However, azficel-t is a cellular material made from the patient's own cells, so it would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants.
  
*'''[[T21.04]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of lower back
+
* '''[[Azilsartan and breast feeding]]''' Because no information is available on the use of azilsartan during breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
*'''[[T21.05]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of buttock
 
  
Burn of unspecified degree of anus
+
* '''[[Azithromycin and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T21.06]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of male genital region
+
* '''[[Aztreonam and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that aztreonam produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with beta-lactams, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Aztreonam is acceptable in nursing mothers.
  
Burn of unspecified degree of penis
 
Burn of unspecified degree of scrotum
 
Burn of unspecified degree of testis
 
  
*'''[[T21.07]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of female genital region
+
* '''[[BCG Vaccine and breast feeding]]''' The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and several health professional organizations state that vaccines given to a nursing mother do not affect the safety of breastfeeding for mothers or infants and that breastfeeding is not a contraindication to the BCG vaccine. Breastfed infants should be vaccinated according to the routine recommended schedules.
  
Burn of unspecified degree of labium (majus) (minus)
+
* '''[[Bacampicillin and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that bacampicillin produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with penicillins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Bacampicillin is acceptable in nursing mothers.
Burn of unspecified degree of perineum
 
Burn of unspecified degree of vulva
 
''Excludes2''  
 
burn of vagina (T28.3)
 
  
*'''[[T21.09]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of other site of trunk
+
* '''[[Bacitracin and breast feeding]]''' Because it is poorly absorbed after topical application and oral ingestion, bacitracin is considered a low risk to the nursing infant. Only water-miscible cream or gel products should be applied to the breast because ointments may expose the infant to high levels of mineral paraffins via licking. Therefore, an alternate cream product is preferred for application to the breast.
*'''[[T21.1]]''' Burn of first degree of trunk ''Use additional''
 
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Baclofen and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that orally administered baclofen appears in low levels in milk and would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants, especially if the infant is older than 2 months. Monitor newborn infants for signs of sedation. Low intrathecal doses and topical application produce even lower milk levels and are unlikely to affect the nursing infant.
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T21.10]]''' Burn of first degree of trunk, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Baloxavir and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of baloxavir marboxil during breastfeeding. Because baloxavir is 93% bound to plasma proteins, the amount in milk is likely to be low. However, because no information is available on the use of baloxavir breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
*'''[[T21.11]]''' Burn of first degree of chest wall
 
  
Burn of first degree of breast
+
* '''[[Balsalazide and breast feeding]]''' Although no information exists on the excretion of balsalazide into breastmilk, it is metabolized to the active drug mesalamine. A few cases of diarrhea have been reported in infants exposed to mesalamine, although the rate is not high. Most experts consider mesalamine derivatives to be safe during breastfeeding. If balsalazide is required by the mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding, but observe breastfed infants for diarrhea.
  
*'''[[T21.12]]''' Burn of first degree of abdominal wall
+
* '''[[Baricitinib and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of baricitinib during breastfeeding. Until more data become available, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during baricitinib therapy.
  
Burn of first degree of flank
+
* '''[[Barium Sulfate and breast feeding]]''' Because barium sulfate is not absorbed after oral or rectal administration, it will not enter the milk, reach the bloodstream of the infant or cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. No special precautions are required.
Burn of first degree of groin
 
  
*'''[[T21.13]]''' Burn of first degree of upper back
+
* '''[[Barley and breast feeding]]'''  
  
Burn of first degree of interscapular region
+
* '''[[Basil and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T21.14]]''' Burn of first degree of lower back
+
* '''[[Basiliximab and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of basiliximab during breastfeeding. Because basiliximab is a large protein molecule with a molecular weight of about 144,000, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. Until more data become available, basiliximab should be used with caution during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during basiliximab therapy.
*'''[[T21.15]]''' Burn of first degree of buttock
 
  
Burn of first degree of anus
+
* '''[[Beclomethasone and breast feeding]]''' Although not measured, the amounts of inhaled corticosteroids absorbed into the maternal bloodstream and excreted into breastmilk are probably too small to affect a breastfed infant. Reviewers and an expert panel consider inhaled and oral corticosteroids acceptable to use during breastfeeding.
  
*'''[[T21.16]]''' Burn of first degree of male genital region
+
* '''[[Bedaquiline and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of bedaquiline during breastfeeding. Because bedaquiline is more than 99.9% bound to plasma proteins, exposure of the breastfed infant is likely to be low. However, the half-lives of the drug and its main metabolite are over 5 months, so until more safety data become available, bedaquiline should be avoided during breastfeeding.
  
Burn of first degree of penis
+
* '''[[Belatacept and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of belatacept during breastfeeding. The manufacturer recommends avoiding nursing if belatacept is given. Because the drug's half-life is 8 to 10 days, it may be more than a month after a dose before the drug is absent from breastmilk.
Burn of first degree of scrotum
 
Burn of first degree of testis
 
  
*'''[[T21.17]]''' Burn of first degree of female genital region
+
* '''[[Belimumab and breast feeding]]'''  
  
Burn of first degree of labium (majus) (minus)
+
* '''[[Belladonna and breast feeding]]'''  
Burn of first degree of perineum
 
Burn of first degree of vulva
 
''Excludes2''  
 
burn of vagina (T28.3)
 
  
*'''[[T21.19]]''' Burn of first degree of other site of trunk
+
* '''[[Benazepril and breast feeding]]''' Because of the low levels of benazepril in breastmilk, amounts ingested by the infant are small and would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants.
*'''[[T21.2]]''' Burn of second degree of trunk ''Use additional''
 
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Bendamustine and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of bendamustine during breastfeeding. Most sources consider breastfeeding to be contraindicated during maternal antineoplastic drug therapy, especially alkylating agents such as bendamustine. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during bendamustine therapy. Based on the half-life of the drug and its metabolites, the drug should be eliminated from the milk by 24-48 hours after the last dose.
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T21.20]]''' Burn of second degree of trunk, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Bendroflumethiazide and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the amount of bendroflumethiazide in breastmilk. Intense diuresis with large doses of bendroflumethiazide can decrease breastmilk production, especially during the neonatal period. Shorter-acting diuretics in low doses are preferred over bendroflumethiazide.
*'''[[T21.21]]''' Burn of second degree of chest wall
 
  
Burn of second degree of breast
+
* '''[[Benralizumab and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T21.22]]''' Burn of second degree of abdominal wall
+
* '''[[Benzalkonium Chloride and breast feeding]]''' Topical maternal application of benzalkonium chloride or benzethonium chloride or their presence as a preservative in pharmaceuticals would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants.
  
Burn of second degree of flank
+
* '''[[Benzathine Penicillin G and breast feeding]]''' : Limited information indicates benzathine penicillin G produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with penicillins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Benzathine penicillin G is acceptable in nursing mothers.
Burn of second degree of groin
 
  
*'''[[T21.23]]''' Burn of second degree of upper back
+
* '''[[Benznidazole and breast feeding]]''' Benznidazole is excreted into milk in dosages much lower than the treatment dosage for infants. Because of the low levels of benznidazole in breastmilk and safety when given directly to infants, its use is acceptable in nursing mothers.
  
Burn of second degree of interscapular region
+
* '''[[Benzocaine and breast feeding]]''' Topical benzocaine has not been studied during breastfeeding, but is unlikely to affect her breastfed infant if it is applied away from the breast. Benzocaine should not be applied to the breast or nipple, because the infant may ingest the drug during nursing and it has been associated with severe methemoglobinemia.
  
*'''[[T21.24]]''' Burn of second degree of lower back
+
* '''[[Benzoyl Peroxide and breast feeding]]''' Topical benzoyl peroxide has not been studied during breastfeeding. Because only about 5% is absorbed following topical application, it is considered a low risk to the nursing infant. Ensure that the infant's skin does not come into direct contact with the areas of skin that have been treated. Only water-miscible cream or gel products should be applied to the breast because ointments may expose the infant to high levels of mineral paraffins via licking.
*'''[[T21.25]]''' Burn of second degree of buttock
 
  
Burn of second degree of anus
+
* '''[[Benzthiazide and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the amount of benzthiazide in breastmilk. Intense diuresis with large doses may decrease breastmilk production. Other diuretics in low doses are preferred over benzthiazide.
  
*'''[[T21.26]]''' Burn of second degree of male genital region
+
* '''[[Benztropine and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of benztropine during breastfeeding. Long-term use of benztropine might reduce milk production or milk letdown, but a single dose is not likely to interfere with breastfeeding. During long-term use, observe for signs of decreased lactation (e.g., insatiety, poor weight gain).
  
Burn of second degree of penis
+
* '''[[Bepotastine and breast feeding]]''' There are no reports of infants breastfed during maternal therapy with bepotastine. Because absorption from the eye is limited, bepotastine would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. To substantially diminish the amount of drug that reaches the breastmilk after using eye drops, place pressure over the tear duct by the corner of the eye for 1 minute or more, then remove the excess solution with an absorbent tissue.
Burn of second degree of scrotum
 
Burn of second degree of testis
 
  
*'''[[T21.27]]''' Burn of second degree of female genital region
+
* '''[[Besifloxacin and breast feeding]]''' Maternal use of besifloxacin eye drops presents negligible risk for the nursing infant. To substantially diminish the amount of drug that reaches the breastmilk after using eye drops, place pressure over the tear duct by the corner of the eye for 1 minute or more, then remove the excess solution with an absorbent tissue.
  
Burn of second degree of labium (majus) (minus)
+
* '''[[Beta-Carotene and breast feeding]]'''  
Burn of second degree of perineum
 
Burn of second degree of vulva
 
''Excludes2''  
 
burn of vagina (T28.3)
 
  
*'''[[T21.29]]''' Burn of second degree of other site of trunk
+
* '''[[Betamethasone and breast feeding]]''' Betamethasone has not been well studied during breastfeeding after systemic or topical use. Systemic betamethasone is best avoided in favor of one of the shorter-acting and better studied alternatives because of its potency and low protein binding which would favor its passage into milk. Use of betamethasone 3 to 9 days prior to delivery of a preterm infant might decrease postpartum milk production in some women. Local injections, such as for tendinitis, would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants, but might occasionally cause temporary loss of milk supply.
*'''[[T21.3]]''' Burn of third degree of trunk ''Use additional''
 
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Betamethasone, Topical and breast feeding]]''' Betamethasone ointment appears to have no advantage over lanolin for treating sore nipples during breastfeeding. Since only extensive application of the most potent corticosteroids may cause systemic effects in the mother, it is unlikely that short-term application of topical corticosteroids would pose a risk to the breastfed infant by passage into breastmilk. However, it would be prudent to use the least potent drug on the smallest area of skin possible. It is particularly important to ensure that the infant's skin does not come into direct contact with the areas of skin that have been treated. Only the lower potency corticosteroids should be used on the nipple or areola where the infant could directly ingest the drugs from the skin; topical betamethasone should be avoided on the nipple. Only water-miscible cream or gel products should be applied to the breast because ointments may expose the infant to high levels of mineral paraffins via licking. Any topical corticosteroid should be wiped off thoroughly prior to nursing if it is being applied to the breast or nipple area.
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T21.30]]''' Burn of third degree of trunk, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Betaxolol and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T21.31]]''' Burn of third degree of chest wall
 
  
Burn of third degree of breast
+
* '''[[Bethanechol and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of bethanechol during breastfeeding. If it is used during breastfeeding, monitor the infant for signs of cholinergic excess (diarrhea, lacrimation, and excessive salivation or urination), especially in younger, exclusively breastfed infants.
  
*'''[[T21.32]]''' Burn of third degree of abdominal wall
+
* '''[[Betony and breast feeding]]'''  
  
Burn of third degree of flank
+
* '''[[Betrixaban and breast feeding]]''' Because no information is available on the use of betrixaban during breastfeeding and the drug is orally absorbable, an alternate drug is preferred while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
Burn of third degree of groin
 
  
*'''[[T21.33]]''' Burn of third degree of upper back
+
* '''[[Bevacizumab and breast feeding]]'''  
  
Burn of third degree of interscapular region
+
* '''[[Bezlotoxumab and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T21.34]]''' Burn of third degree of lower back
+
* '''[[Bictegravir and breast feeding]]''' In the United States and other developed countries, HIV-infected mothers should generally not breastfeed their infants. No published information is available on the use of bictegravir during breastfeeding. In countries in which no acceptable, feasible, sustainable and safe replacement feeding is available, World Health Organization guidelines recommend that all women with an HIV infection who are pregnant or breastfeeding should be maintained on antiretroviral therapy for at least the duration of risk for mother-to-child transmission. Mothers should exclusively breastfeed their infants for the first 6 months of life; breastfeeding with complementary feeding should continue through at least 12 months of life up to 24 months of life. The first choice regimen for nursing mothers is tenofovir, efavirenz and either lamivudine or emtricitabine. If these drugs are unavailable, alternative regimens include: 1) zidovudine, lamivudine and efavirenz; 2) zidovudine, lamivudine and nevirapine; or 3) tenofovir, nevirapine and either lamivudine or emtricitabine. Exclusively breastfed infants should also receive 6 weeks of prophylaxis with nevirapine.
*'''[[T21.35]]''' Burn of third degree of buttock
 
  
Burn of third degree of anus
+
* '''[[Bilberry and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T21.36]]''' Burn of third degree of male genital region
+
* '''[[Bimatoprost and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of bimatoprost during breastfeeding. Because of its short half-life it is not likely to reach the bloodstream of the infant or cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. To substantially diminish the amount of drug that reaches the breastmilk after using eye drops, place pressure over the tear duct by the corner of the eye for 1 minute or more, then remove the excess solution with an absorbent tissue.
  
Burn of third degree of penis
+
* '''[[Binimetinib and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of binimetinib during breastfeeding. Because binimetinib is 97% bound to plasma proteins, and the half-life of the drugis 3.5 hours, the amount in milk is likely to be low. However, the manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during binimetinib therapy and for at least 3 days after the final dose. For patients taking the combination with encorafenib, the manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during binimetinib therapy and for at least 2 weeks after the final dose.
Burn of third degree of scrotum
 
Burn of third degree of testis
 
  
*'''[[T21.37]]''' Burn of third degree of female genital region
+
* '''[[Bisacodyl and breast feeding]]''' Bisacodyl is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and its active metabolite, which is absorbed, is not detectable in breastmilk. Bisacodyl can be taken during breastfeeding and no special precautions are required.
  
Burn of third degree of labium (majus) (minus)
+
* '''[[Bismuth Subsalicylate and breast feeding]]''' Because of the possibility of absorption of salicylate from the breastmilk by the infant, alternatives are preferred.
Burn of third degree of perineum
 
Burn of third degree of vulva
 
''Excludes2''  
 
burn of vagina (T28.3)
 
  
*'''[[T21.39]]''' Burn of third degree of other site of trunk
+
* '''[[Bisoprolol and breast feeding]]''' Because there is little published experience with bisoprolol during breastfeeding, other agents may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
*'''[[T21.4]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of trunk ''Code first''
 
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''
+
* '''[[Bitolterol and breast feeding]]''' Although no published data exist on the use of bitolterol by mouth or inhaler during lactation, data from the related drug, terbutaline, indicate that very little is expected to be excreted into breastmilk. The authors of several reviews and an expert panel agree that use of inhaled bronchodilators is acceptable during breastfeeding because of the low bioavailability and maternal serum levels after use.
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T21.40]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of trunk, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Bitter Orange and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T21.41]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of chest wall
 
  
Corrosion of unspecified degree of breast
+
* '''[[Bivalirudin and breast feeding]]''' Because no information is available on the use of bivalirudin during breastfeeding, an alternate drug is preferred.
  
*'''[[T21.42]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of abdominal wall
+
* '''[[Black Cohosh and breast feeding]]'''  
  
Corrosion of unspecified degree of flank
+
* '''[[Black Currant Seed Oil and breast feeding]]'''
Corrosion of unspecified degree of groin
 
  
*'''[[T21.43]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of upper back
+
* '''[[Black Seed and breast feeding]]'''  
  
Corrosion of unspecified degree of interscapular region
+
* '''[[Bleomycin and breast feeding]]''' Most sources consider breastfeeding to be contraindicated during maternal antineoplastic drug therapy. It might be possible to breastfeed safely during intermittent therapy with an appropriate period of breastfeeding abstinence. Although no data are available to determine an appropriate period to withhold breastfeeding, the drug's terminal half-life of 4 hours with normal kidney function suggests that withholding breastfeeding for at least 24 hours may be sufficient. This period may be longer in patients with impaired kidney function. Chemotherapy may adversely affect the normal microbiome and chemical makeup of breastmilk. Women who receive chemotherapy during pregnancy are more likely to have difficulty nursing their infant.
  
*'''[[T21.44]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of lower back
+
* '''[[Blessed Thistle and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T21.45]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of buttock
 
  
Corrosion of unspecified degree of anus
+
* '''[[Blinatumomab and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of blinatumomab during breastfeeding. Because blinatumomab is a large protein molecule with a molecular weight of about 54,000 the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. Until more data become available, blinatumomab should be used with caution during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during blinatumomab therapy and for at least 48 hours after treatment.
  
*'''[[T21.46]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of male genital region
+
* '''[[Blue Cohosh and breast feeding]]'''  
  
Corrosion of unspecified degree of penis
+
* '''[[Boceprevir and breast feeding]]'''
Corrosion of unspecified degree of scrotum
 
Corrosion of unspecified degree of testis
 
  
*'''[[T21.47]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of female genital region
+
* '''[[Borage and breast feeding]]'''  
  
Corrosion of unspecified degree of labium (majus) (minus)
+
* '''[[Bosentan and breast feeding]]''' There is little published experience with bosentan during breastfeeding. An alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
Corrosion of unspecified degree of perineum
 
Corrosion of unspecified degree of vulva
 
''Excludes2''  
 
corrosion of vagina (T28.8)
 
  
*'''[[T21.49]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of other site of trunk
+
* '''[[Bosutinib and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of bosutinib during breastfeeding. Because bosutinib is 96% bound to plasma proteins, the amount in milk is likely to be low. However, its half-life is about 22 hours and it might accumulate in the infant. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during bosutinib therapy.
*'''[[T21.5]]''' Corrosion of first degree of trunk ''Code first''
 
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''  
+
* '''[[Botulin A and breast feeding]]''' No data exist on the medical use of botulin A (botulinum toxin, abobotulinumtoxinA, incobotulinumtoxinA, onabotulinumtoxinA, prabotulinumtoxinA) during breastfeeding. However, it is not detectable systemically after intramuscular use, thus excretion into breast milk is considered unlikely. One infant was safely breastfed during maternal botulism and no botulinum toxin was detectable in the mother's milk or infant. Since the doses used medically are far lower than those that cause botulism, amounts ingested by the infant, if any, are expected to be small and not cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. No special precautions are required.
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T21.50]]''' Corrosion of first degree of trunk, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Botulin B and breast feeding]]''' No data exist on the medical use of botulin B (botulinum toxin, rimabotulinumtoxinB) during breastfeeding. However, rimabotulinumtoxinB is not detectable systemically after intramuscular use, thus excretion into breast milk is considered unlikely. One infant was safely breastfed during maternal botulism and no botulinum toxin was detectable in the mother's milk or infant's blood or stools. Since the doses used medically are far lower than those that cause botulism, amounts ingested by the infant, if any, are expected to be small and not cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. No special precautions are required.
*'''[[T21.51]]''' Corrosion of first degree of chest wall
 
  
Corrosion of first degree of breast
+
* '''[[Botulinum Poisoning and breast feeding]]''' Breastfeeding is considered to be a risk factor for infant botulism via direct exposure, possibly because of changes in the intestinal flora during weaning. An epidemiologic study in California in 1976-1978 found the age of onset of the disease to be later in breastfed infants (13.8 weeks) than in formula-fed infants (7.6 weeks) and no breastfed infants died from the disease, whereas 8 cases of sudden death from botulism occurred in formula-fed infants. A subsequent study found no difference is severity between breast- and formula-fed infants. Little information is available on the transfer of the botulinum toxin into breastmilk. Mothers suspected of having botulinum poisoning should not breastfeed until they have recovered.
  
*'''[[T21.52]]''' Corrosion of first degree of abdominal wall
+
* '''[[Bremelanotide and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of bremelanotide during breastfeeding. Because bremelanotide is a cyclic peptide molecule with a molecular weight of 1025, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. Until more data become available, bremelanotide should be used with caution during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
  
Corrosion of first degree of flank
+
* '''[[Brentuximab Vedotin and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of brentuximab during breastfeeding. Because brentuximab is a large protein molecule with a molecular weight of about 153,000, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. Until more data become available, brentuximab vedotin should be used with caution during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during brentuximab therapy.
Corrosion of first degree of groin
 
  
*'''[[T21.53]]''' Corrosion of first degree of upper back
+
* '''[[Bretylium and breast feeding]]''' Bretylium is no longer marketed. Because there is little published experience with bretylium during breastfeeding, its high frequency of side effects, and its lack of availability, other agents are preferred.
  
Corrosion of first degree of interscapular region
+
* '''[[Brexanolone and breast feeding]]''' Because of the low amounts of brexanolone in milk and low oral bioavailability, brexanolone would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. If brexanolone is required by the mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding.
  
*'''[[T21.54]]''' Corrosion of first degree of lower back
+
* '''[[Brexpiprazole and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of brexpiprazole during breastfeeding. Until more data become available, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
*'''[[T21.55]]''' Corrosion of first degree of buttock
 
  
Corrosion of first degree of anus
+
* '''[[Brigatinib and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of brigatinib during breastfeeding. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during brigatinib therapy and for 1 week after the final dose.
  
*'''[[T21.56]]''' Corrosion of first degree of male genital region
+
* '''[[Brimonidine and breast feeding]]'''  
  
Corrosion of first degree of penis
+
* '''[[Brinzolamide and breast feeding]]''' Because no information is available on the use of brinzolamide during breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
Corrosion of first degree of scrotum
 
Corrosion of first degree of testis
 
  
*'''[[T21.57]]''' Corrosion of first degree of female genital region
+
* '''[[Brivaracetam and breast feeding]]''' Because no information is available on use of brivaracetam during breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. If brivaracetam is required by the mother, it is not necessarily a reason to discontinue breastfeeding, but monitor the infant for drowsiness, agitation, adequate weight gain, and developmental milestones, especially in younger, exclusively breastfed infants and when using combinations of drugs. Measurement of infant serum levels may help rule out toxicity if there is a concern.
  
Corrosion of first degree of labium (majus) (minus)
+
* '''[[Brodalumab and breast feeding]]'''  
Corrosion of first degree of perineum
 
Corrosion of first degree of vulva
 
''Excludes2''  
 
corrosion of vagina (T28.8)
 
  
*'''[[T21.59]]''' Corrosion of first degree of other site of trunk
+
* '''[[Bromfenac and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T21.6]]''' Corrosion of second degree of trunk ''Code first''
 
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''  
+
* '''[[Bromocriptine and breast feeding]]'''  
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T21.60]]''' Corrosion of second degree of trunk, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Brompheniramine and breast feeding]]''' Small, occasional doses of brompheniramine would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. Larger doses or more prolonged use may cause effects in the infant or decrease the milk supply, particularly in combination with a sympathomimetic such as pseudoephedrine or before lactation is well established. Single bedtime doses after the last feeding of the day may be adequate for many women and will minimize any effects of the drug. The nonsedating antihistamines are preferred alternatives.
*'''[[T21.61]]''' Corrosion of second degree of chest wall
 
  
Corrosion of second degree of breast
+
* '''[[Buckthorn and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T21.62]]''' Corrosion of second degree of abdominal wall
+
* '''[[Budesonide and breast feeding]]''' The amounts of inhaled budesonide excreted into breastmilk are minute and infant exposure is negligible. When taken by mouth, budesonide is only about 9% bioavailable; bioavailability in the infant is likely to be similarly low for any budesonide that enters the breastmilk. Most experts consider oral and inhaled corticosteroids, including budesonide, acceptable to use during breastfeeding.
  
Corrosion of second degree of flank
+
* '''[[Bumetanide and breast feeding]]''' It is unknown if bumetanide is excreted into breastmilk. It should be avoided while breastfeeding a newborn because it may decrease milk flow or completely suppress lactation. Low doses in mothers whose lactation is well established are unlikely to suppress lactation. In general, alternate drugs are preferred.
Corrosion of second degree of groin
 
  
*'''[[T21.63]]''' Corrosion of second degree of upper back
+
* '''[[Bupivacaine and breast feeding]]'''  
  
Corrosion of second degree of interscapular region
+
* '''[[Buprenorphine and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T21.64]]''' Corrosion of second degree of lower back
+
* '''[[Bupropion and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that maternal bupropion doses of up to 300 mg daily produce low levels in breastmilk and would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. However, there is little reported use in breastfed newborn infants and case reports of a possible seizure in partially breastfed 6-month-olds. If bupropion is required by a nursing mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding. However, another drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. Infants exposed to bupropion and an SSRI through breastfeeding should be closely monitored for vomiting, diarrhea, jitteriness, or sedation and possibly measurement of serum levels to rule out toxicity if there is a concern.
*'''[[T21.65]]''' Corrosion of second degree of buttock
 
  
Corrosion of second degree of anus
+
* '''[[Burosumab and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T21.66]]''' Corrosion of second degree of male genital region
+
* '''[[Buspirone and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that maternal doses of buspirone up to 45 mg daily produce low levels in milk. Because no information is available on the long-term use of buspirone during breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
  
Corrosion of second degree of penis
+
* '''[[Busulfan and breast feeding]]''' Most sources consider breastfeeding to be contraindicated during maternal antineoplastic drug therapy. It might be possible to breastfeed safely during intermittent therapy with an appropriate period of breastfeeding abstinence. Although minimal data are available to determine an appropriate period to withhold breastfeeding, the drug's terminal half-live of 2.5 hours suggests that withholding breastfeeding for at least 24 hours may be sufficient. Chemotherapy may adversely affect the normal microbiome and chemical makeup of breastmilk. Women who receive chemotherapy during pregnancy are more likely to have difficulty nursing their infant.
Corrosion of second degree of scrotum
 
Corrosion of second degree of testis
 
  
*'''[[T21.67]]''' Corrosion of second degree of female genital region
+
* '''[[Butabarbital and breast feeding]]''' Because there is little published experience with butabarbital during breastfeeding, other agents may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
  
Corrosion of second degree of labium (majus) (minus)
+
* '''[[Butalbital and breast feeding]]''' Butalbital in breastmilk has caused poor feeding and vomiting in one infant. Other agents are preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
Corrosion of second degree of perineum
 
Corrosion of second degree of vulva
 
''Excludes2''  
 
corrosion of vagina (T28.8)
 
  
*'''[[T21.69]]''' Corrosion of second degree of other site of trunk
+
* '''[[Butenafine and breast feeding]]''' Topical butenafine has not been studied during breastfeeding. Because it is poorly absorbed after topical application, it is not likely to reach the bloodstream of the infant or cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. Ensure that the infant's skin does not come into direct contact with the areas of skin that have been treated. Only water-miscible cream or gel products should be applied to the breast because ointments may expose the infant to high levels of mineral paraffins via licking.
*'''[[T21.7]]''' Corrosion of third degree of trunk ''Code first''
 
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''
+
* '''[[Butoconazole and breast feeding]]''' Vaginal butoconazole has not been studied during breastfeeding. About 5.5% of a vaginal dose is absorbed and its plasma half-life is 21 to 24 hours. Because there is no published experience with butoconazole during breastfeeding, other agents may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T21.70]]''' Corrosion of third degree of trunk, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Butorphanol and breast feeding]]''' Limited data indicate that butorphanol is excreted into breastmilk in small amounts. Butorphanol is poorly orally absorbed, so it is unlikely to adversely affect the breastfed infant. However, because there is no published experience with repeated, high, intravenous or intranasal doses of butorphanol during breastfeeding, other agents may be preferred in these situations, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. Monitor the infant for drowsiness, adequate weight gain, and developmental milestones, especially in younger, exclusively breastfed infants. As with other narcotics, once the mother's milk comes in, it is best to limit maternal intake and to supplement analgesia with a nonnarcotic analgesic if necessary for pain control. If the baby shows signs of increased sleepiness (more than usual), difficulty breastfeeding, breathing difficulties, or limpness, a physician should be contacted immediately. Labor pain medication may delay the onset of lactation.
*'''[[T21.71]]''' Corrosion of third degree of chest wall
 
  
Corrosion of third degree of breast
 
  
*'''[[T21.72]]''' Corrosion of third degree of abdominal wall
+
* '''[[C1 Esterase Inhibitor and breast feeding]]''' C1 esterase inhibitor [human] is a serine proteinase inhibitor derived from human plasma that is used in treating hereditary angioedema. Breastmilk levels of C1 esterase inhibitor have not been measured after exogenous administration in humans. Because of its large molecular weight, amounts in milk are expected to be small. Any C1 esterase inhibitor in breastmilk is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract and not absorbed, except perhaps in neonates. Various international consensus panels state that human plasma-derived C1 esterase inhibitor is considered to be the therapy of choice for both treatment and prophylaxis of maternal hereditary angioedema during lactation.
  
Corrosion of third degree of flank
+
* '''[[Cabbage and breast feeding]]''' Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) leaves have been applied topically to the breasts to treat breast engorgement. Some investigators cut out a hole in the leaves to keep the nipples dry. Leaves have been applied frozen, refrigerated or at room temperature. Various studies found cabbage leaves beneficial for reducing breast engorgement and pain regardless of temperature. However, a meta-analysis concluded that there is no good evidence that topical cabbage leaves were better than no treatment, because engorgement tends to improve over time regardless of treatment. The authors felt that the intervention was cheap, unlikely to cause harm and might be soothing for the mother. Unrestricted nursing of the infant may be an important factor in reducing engorgement. Some low-quality evidence indicates that maternal cabbage ingestion might cause colic in their breastfed infants.
Corrosion of third degree of groin
 
  
*'''[[T21.73]]''' Corrosion of third degree of upper back
+
* '''[[Cabergoline and breast feeding]]''' Cabergoline is usually not used during breastfeeding because it suppresses lactation. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration considers cabergoline to be not indicated to suppress lactation because the similar drug bromocriptine has caused hypertension, stroke, seizures and psychosis when used for this purpose. Cabergoline's use in other conditions has caused side effects similar to other dopamine agonists, such as bromocriptine. Whether rare cases of severe adverse effects occur with cabergoline as with bromocriptine cannot be determined because of the small number of postpartum patients treated in clinical trials to date. However, limited experience from clinical trials indicates that a single oral dose of 1 mg of cabergoline causes fewer side effects (usually headache, dizziness and nausea) than 14 days of bromocriptine and is at least as effective when used to suppress unwanted lactation. Some experts recommend cabergoline as a safer alternative to bromocriptine for lactation suppression, but others do not. The disadvantage of cabergoline is that it has a half-life of about 68 hours, which means that any adverse effects will persist for a prolonged period of time. Women treated with cabergoline for pituitary adenomas who become pregnant can breastfed their infants with no apparent risk of recurrence. A treatment scheme has been reported for mothers with hypergalactia that uses low doses of cabergoline to decrease milk supply.
  
Corrosion of third degree of interscapular region
+
* '''[[Cabozantinib and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of cabozantinib during breastfeeding. Because cabozantinib is more than 97% bound to plasma proteins, the amount in milk is likely to be low. However, its half-life ranges from 55 to 99 hours and it might accumulate in the infant. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during cabozantinib therapy and for 4 months after the last dose.
  
*'''[[T21.74]]''' Corrosion of third degree of lower back
+
* '''[[Caffeine and breast feeding]]''' Caffeine appears in breastmilk rapidly after maternal ingestion. Insufficient high-quality data are available to make good evidence-based recommendations on safe maternal caffeine consumption. Fussiness, jitteriness and poor sleep patterns have been reported in the infants of mothers with very high caffeine intakes equivalent to about 10 or more cups of coffee daily. Studies in mothers taking 5 cups of coffee daily found no stimulation in breastfed infants 3 weeks of age and older. A maternal intake limit of 300 to 500 mg daily might be a safe level of intake for most mothers. However, preterm and younger newborn infants metabolize caffeine very slowly and may have serum levels of caffeine and other active caffeine metabolites similar to their mothers' levels, so a lower intake level preferable in the mothers of these infants. Other sources of caffeine, such as cola and energy drinks, yerba mate or guarana, will have similar dose-related effects on the breastfed infant. Coffee intake of more than 450 mL daily may decrease breastmilk iron concentrations and result in mild iron deficiency anemia in some breastfed infants.
*'''[[T21.75]]''' Corrosion of third degree of buttock
 
  
Corrosion of third degree of anus
+
* '''[[Calcipotriene and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of calcipotriene during breastfeeding. Because it is poorly absorbed after topical application, calcipotriene is probably a low risk to the nursing infant and is generally considered acceptable during breastfeeding, even to the nipple area. Avoid application of the combination product containing betamethasone (Enstilar) to the breast. Only water-miscible cream or gel products should be applied to the breast because ointments may expose the infant to high levels of mineral paraffins via licking.
  
*'''[[T21.76]]''' Corrosion of third degree of male genital region
+
* '''[[Calcitonin and breast feeding]]''' Little information is available on the clinical use of calcitonin during breastfeeding; however, calcitonin is a normal component of human milk where may play a role in development of enteric neurons in the breastfed infant. Because it is a large peptide, absorption by the infant is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. If calcitonin is required by the mother, it is not a necessarily reason to discontinue breastfeeding Calcitonin therapy is sometimes used to treat symptomatic postpartum osteoporosis, which is often treated in part by stopping lactation to reduce calcium loss. There is no evidence that exogenous calcitonin decreases serum prolactin or lactation in nursing mothers.
  
Corrosion of third degree of penis
+
* '''[[Calcitriol and breast feeding]]''' Calcitriol is the normal physiologically active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Limited data indicate that its use in nursing mothers in appropriately adjusted doses does not affect the breastfed infant. If calcitriol is required by the mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding. Calcitriol and calcium dosage requirements are usually reduced during lactation in women with hypoparathyroidism. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the administration of a minimum of 400 IU of vitamin D daily to all infants, children and adolescents.
Corrosion of third degree of scrotum
 
Corrosion of third degree of testis
 
  
*'''[[T21.77]]''' Corrosion of third degree of female genital region
+
* '''[[Calendula and breast feeding]]'''  
  
Corrosion of third degree of labium (majus) (minus)
+
* '''[[Canagliflozin and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of canagliflozin during breastfeeding. Canagliflozin is is an uncharged molecule that is 99% protein bound in plasma, so it is unlikely to pass into breastmilk in clinically important amounts. The manufacturer does not recommend canagliflozin during breastfeeding because of a theoretical risk to the infant's developing kidney. An alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
Corrosion of third degree of perineum
 
Corrosion of third degree of vulva
 
''Excludes2''  
 
corrosion of vagina (T28.8)
 
  
*'''[[T21.79]]''' Corrosion of third degree of other site of trunk
+
* '''[[Canakinumab and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T22]]''' Burn and corrosion of shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and hand
 
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Candesartan and breast feeding]]''' Because no information is available on the use of candesartan during breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
burn and corrosion of interscapular region (T21.-)
 
burn and corrosion of wrist and hand (T23.-)
 
The appropriate 7th character is to be added to each code from category T22
 
A - initial encounter
 
D - subsequent encounter
 
S - sequela
 
  
*'''[[T22.0]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and hand ''Use additional''
+
* '''[[Cannabidiol and breast feeding]]''' Cannabidiol is a component of cannabis. Cannabidiol has not been studied in nursing women taking the pharmaceutical product, but it has been detected in the breastmilk of some mothers who used cannabis products. Because no published information is available with cannabidiol use as an antiepileptic during breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Cannabis and breast feeding]]'''
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T22.00]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and hand, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Capecitabine and breast feeding]]''' Most sources consider breastfeeding to be contraindicated during maternal antineoplastic drug therapy. It might be possible to breastfeed safely during intermittent therapy with an appropriate period of breastfeeding abstinence; the manufacturer recommends an abstinence period of 2 weeks. Capecitabine is metabolized to fluorouracil. Limited information indicates that a maternal continuous intravenous fluorouracil infusion at a dose of 200 mg/square meter daily produces undetectable levels in milk. If capecitabine use is undertaken, monitoring of the infant's complete blood count and differential is advisable. Chemotherapy may adversely affect the normal microbiome and chemical makeup of breastmilk. Women who receive chemotherapy during pregnancy are more likely to have difficulty nursing their infant.
*'''[[T22.01]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of forearm
 
*'''[[T22.011]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of right forearm
 
*'''[[T22.012]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of left forearm
 
*'''[[T22.019]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of unspecified forearm
 
*'''[[T22.02]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of elbow
 
*'''[[T22.021]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of right elbow
 
*'''[[T22.022]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of left elbow
 
*'''[[T22.029]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of unspecified elbow
 
*'''[[T22.03]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.031]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of right upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.032]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of left upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.039]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of unspecified upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.04]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of axilla
 
*'''[[T22.041]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of right axilla
 
*'''[[T22.042]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of left axilla
 
*'''[[T22.049]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of unspecified axilla
 
*'''[[T22.05]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.051]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of right shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.052]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of left shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.059]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of unspecified shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.06]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.061]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of right scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.062]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of left scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.069]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of unspecified scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.09]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of multiple sites of shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T22.091]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of multiple sites of right shoulder and upper limb, except
 
  
wrist and hand
+
* '''[[Caplacizumab and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of caplacizumab during breastfeeding. Because caplacizumab is a large protein molecule with a molecular weight of about 28,000, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. Until more data become available, caplacizumab should be used with caution during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
  
*'''[[T22.092]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of multiple sites of left shoulder and upper limb, except
+
* '''[[Capreomycin and breast feeding]]''' Developmental problems have been reported in two infants exposed to capreomycin in breastmilk; however, their mothers were also exposed to several drugs during pregnancy and during breastfeeding, so the problems cannot necessarily be attributed to capreomycin. Because capreomycin is not orally absorbed it is unlikely to adversely affect the breastfed infant.
  
wrist and hand
+
* '''[[Capsicum and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T22.099]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of multiple sites of unspecified shoulder and upper limb,
+
* '''[[Captopril and breast feeding]]''' Because of the low levels of captopril in breastmilk, amounts ingested by the infant are small and would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants.
  
except wrist and hand
+
* '''[[Caraway and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T22.1]]''' Burn of first degree of shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and hand ''Use additional''
+
* '''[[Carbachol and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of carbachol ophthalmic drops during breastfeeding. Because of its short half-life, it is not likely to reach the bloodstream of the infant or cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants.
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Carbamazepine and breast feeding]]'''
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T22.10]]''' Burn of first degree of shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and hand, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Carbamide Peroxide and breast feeding]]''' Carbamide (urea) peroxide has not been studied during breastfeeding. It is unlikely that carbamide peroxide found in ear drops or teeth whiteners is absorbed into the bloodstream. However, if any carbamide peroxide were absorbed, it would be broken down to urea and hydrogen peroxide, both of which are found normally in human milk. If carbamide peroxide is used by the mother according to directions, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding and no special precautions are required.
*'''[[T22.11]]''' Burn of first degree of forearm
 
*'''[[T22.111]]''' Burn of first degree of right forearm
 
*'''[[T22.112]]''' Burn of first degree of left forearm
 
*'''[[T22.119]]''' Burn of first degree of unspecified forearm
 
*'''[[T22.12]]''' Burn of first degree of elbow
 
*'''[[T22.121]]''' Burn of first degree of right elbow
 
*'''[[T22.122]]''' Burn of first degree of left elbow
 
*'''[[T22.129]]''' Burn of first degree of unspecified elbow
 
*'''[[T22.13]]''' Burn of first degree of upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.131]]''' Burn of first degree of right upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.132]]''' Burn of first degree of left upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.139]]''' Burn of first degree of unspecified upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.14]]''' Burn of first degree of axilla
 
*'''[[T22.141]]''' Burn of first degree of right axilla
 
*'''[[T22.142]]''' Burn of first degree of left axilla
 
*'''[[T22.149]]''' Burn of first degree of unspecified axilla
 
*'''[[T22.15]]''' Burn of first degree of shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.151]]''' Burn of first degree of right shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.152]]''' Burn of first degree of left shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.159]]''' Burn of first degree of unspecified shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.16]]''' Burn of first degree of scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.161]]''' Burn of first degree of right scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.162]]''' Burn of first degree of left scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.169]]''' Burn of first degree of unspecified scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.19]]''' Burn of first degree of multiple sites of shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T22.191]]''' Burn of first degree of multiple sites of right shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and
 
  
hand
+
* '''[[Carbenicillin Indanyl Disodium and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that carbenicillin produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with penicillins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Carbenicillin indanyl disodium is acceptable in nursing mothers.
  
*'''[[T22.192]]''' Burn of first degree of multiple sites of left shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and
+
* '''[[Carbimazole and breast feeding]]'''  
  
hand
+
* '''[[Carbinoxamine and breast feeding]]''' Small occasional doses of carbinoxamine are probably acceptable during breastfeeding. Larger doses or more prolonged use may cause drowsiness and other effects in the infant or decrease the milk supply, particularly in combination with a sympathomimetic such as pseudoephedrine or before lactation is well established. The nonsedating antihistamines are preferred alternatives.
  
*'''[[T22.199]]''' Burn of first degree of multiple sites of unspecified shoulder and upper limb, except
+
* '''[[Carbon- 11 and breast feeding]]''' Information in this record refers to the use of carbon 11 radiopharmaceuticals as diagnostic agents. The International Commission on Radiological Protection also recommends that breastfeeding need not be interrupted after administration of radiopharmaceuticals containing carbon-11.
  
wrist and hand
+
* '''[[Carboplatin and breast feeding]]''' Most sources consider breastfeeding to be contraindicated during maternal antineoplastic drug therapy, especially alkylating agents such as carboplatin. It might be possible to breastfeed safely during intermittent therapy with an appropriate period of breastfeeding abstinence, but the duration of abstinence is not clear. In one case, carboplatin was still detectable in milk 13 days after a dose of 2.9 mg/kg. Chemotherapy may adversely affect the normal microbiome and chemical makeup of breastmilk.Women who receive chemotherapy during pregnancy are more likely to have difficulty nursing their infant.
  
*'''[[T22.2]]''' Burn of second degree of shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and hand ''Use additional''
+
* '''[[Carfilzomib and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of carfilzomib during breastfeeding. Because carfilzomib is 97% bound to plasma proteins, the amount in milk is likely to be low. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during carfilzomib therapy.
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Cariprazine and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of cariprazine during breastfeeding. Until more data become available, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T22.20]]''' Burn of second degree of shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and hand, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Carisoprodol and breast feeding]]''' If carisoprodol is required by the mother, it is not necessarily a reason to discontinue breastfeeding. Slight sedation has occurred in a breastfed newborn infant who was exposed during pregnancy and lactation; sedation might be more pronounced in newborns who are exposed for the first time during nursing. Other agents may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant, or when other drugs that can cause sedation are used simultaneously.
*'''[[T22.21]]''' Burn of second degree of forearm
 
*'''[[T22.211]]''' Burn of second degree of right forearm
 
*'''[[T22.212]]''' Burn of second degree of left forearm
 
*'''[[T22.219]]''' Burn of second degree of unspecified forearm
 
*'''[[T22.22]]''' Burn of second degree of elbow
 
*'''[[T22.221]]''' Burn of second degree of right elbow
 
*'''[[T22.222]]''' Burn of second degree of left elbow
 
*'''[[T22.229]]''' Burn of second degree of unspecified elbow
 
*'''[[T22.23]]''' Burn of second degree of upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.231]]''' Burn of second degree of right upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.232]]''' Burn of second degree of left upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.239]]''' Burn of second degree of unspecified upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.24]]''' Burn of second degree of axilla
 
*'''[[T22.241]]''' Burn of second degree of right axilla
 
*'''[[T22.242]]''' Burn of second degree of left axilla
 
*'''[[T22.249]]''' Burn of second degree of unspecified axilla
 
*'''[[T22.25]]''' Burn of second degree of shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.251]]''' Burn of second degree of right shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.252]]''' Burn of second degree of left shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.259]]''' Burn of second degree of unspecified shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.26]]''' Burn of second degree of scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.261]]''' Burn of second degree of right scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.262]]''' Burn of second degree of left scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.269]]''' Burn of second degree of unspecified scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.29]]''' Burn of second degree of multiple sites of shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T22.291]]''' Burn of second degree of multiple sites of right shoulder and upper limb, except wrist
 
  
and hand
+
* '''[[Carmustine and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of carmustine during breastfeeding. Most sources consider breastfeeding to be contraindicated during maternal antineoplastic drug therapy, especially alkylating agents such as carmustine. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during carmustine therapy and for 1 month after the last dose.
  
*'''[[T22.292]]''' Burn of second degree of multiple sites of left shoulder and upper limb, except wrist
+
* '''[[Carrot and breast feeding]]''' Carrots (Daucus carota) contain alpha- and beta-carotene. A poultice of raw carrots applied to the breast has been used to treat uncomplicated breast engorgement during breastfeeding; however, as with topical cabbage leaves, evidence of efficacy is lacking because engorgement tends to improve over time regardless of treatment. Both beta-carotene and carrot flavor are transmitted into breastmilk. Carrot intake can improve maternal and breastmilk beta-carotene and vitamin A status, but excessive maternal intake of carrots can lead to a harmless, reversible discoloration of the breastfed infant's skin. Exposure to carrot flavor in breastmilk can improve the future acceptance of carrots by the infant.
  
and hand
+
* '''[[Carteolol and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T22.299]]''' Burn of second degree of multiple sites of unspecified shoulder and upper limb, except
+
* '''[[Carvedilol and breast feeding]]''' Based on its physicochemical properties, carvedilol appears to present a low-risk to the breastfed infant. Because there is no published experience with carvedilol during breastfeeding, other agents may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
  
wrist and hand
+
* '''[[Cascara Sagrada and breast feeding]]''' Maternal cascara intake might cause loose stools in some breastfed infants and should be avoided. Other laxatives are preferred.
  
*'''[[T22.3]]''' Burn of third degree of shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and hand ''Use additional''
+
* '''[[Caspofungin and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of caspofungin during breastfeeding. Caspofungin is indicated for use in infants over 3 months of age and it is poorly absorbed orally, so it is not likely to reach the bloodstream of the infant or cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. However, no published experience exists with caspofungin during breastfeeding, therefore an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Castor and breast feeding]]'''
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T22.30]]''' Burn of third degree of shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and hand, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Cefaclor and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that maternal cefaclor produces low levels in milk which are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with cephalosporins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Cefaclor is acceptable in nursing mothers.
*'''[[T22.31]]''' Burn of third degree of forearm
 
*'''[[T22.311]]''' Burn of third degree of right forearm
 
*'''[[T22.312]]''' Burn of third degree of left forearm
 
*'''[[T22.319]]''' Burn of third degree of unspecified forearm
 
*'''[[T22.32]]''' Burn of third degree of elbow
 
*'''[[T22.321]]''' Burn of third degree of right elbow
 
*'''[[T22.322]]''' Burn of third degree of left elbow
 
*'''[[T22.329]]''' Burn of third degree of unspecified elbow
 
*'''[[T22.33]]''' Burn of third degree of upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.331]]''' Burn of third degree of right upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.332]]''' Burn of third degree of left upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.339]]''' Burn of third degree of unspecified upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.34]]''' Burn of third degree of axilla
 
*'''[[T22.341]]''' Burn of third degree of right axilla
 
*'''[[T22.342]]''' Burn of third degree of left axilla
 
*'''[[T22.349]]''' Burn of third degree of unspecified axilla
 
*'''[[T22.35]]''' Burn of third degree of shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.351]]''' Burn of third degree of right shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.352]]''' Burn of third degree of left shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.359]]''' Burn of third degree of unspecified shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.36]]''' Burn of third degree of scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.361]]''' Burn of third degree of right scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.362]]''' Burn of third degree of left scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.369]]''' Burn of third degree of unspecified scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.39]]''' Burn of third degree of multiple sites of shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T22.391]]''' Burn of third degree of multiple sites of right shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and
 
  
hand
+
* '''[[Cefadroxil and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that cefadroxil produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with cephalosporins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Cefadroxil is acceptable in nursing mothers.
  
*'''[[T22.392]]''' Burn of third degree of multiple sites of left shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and
+
* '''[[Cefazolin and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates cefazolin produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with cephalosporins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Cefazolin is acceptable in nursing mothers.
  
hand
+
* '''[[Cefdinir and breast feeding]]''' Although no information is available on the use of cefdinir during breastfeeding, cephalosporins are generally not be expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with cephalosporins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Cefdinir is acceptable in nursing mothers.
  
*'''[[T22.399]]''' Burn of third degree of multiple sites of unspecified shoulder and upper limb, except
+
* '''[[Cefditoren and breast feeding]]''' Although no information is available on the use of cefditoren during breastfeeding, cephalosporins are generally not be expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with cephalosporins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Cefditoren is acceptable in nursing mothers.
  
wrist and hand
+
* '''[[Cefepime and breast feeding]]''' Although no information is available on the use of cefepime during breastfeeding, the levels in breastmilk appear to be low and cephalosporins are generally not be expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with cephalosporins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Cefepime is acceptable in nursing mothers.
  
*'''[[T22.4]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and hand ''Code first''
+
* '''[[Cefixime and breast feeding]]''' Although no information is available on the use of cefixime during breastfeeding, cephalosporins are generally not be expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with cephalosporins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Cefixime is acceptable in nursing mothers.
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''  
+
* '''[[Cefoperazone and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates cefoperazone produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with cephalosporins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Cefoperazone is acceptable in nursing mothers.
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T22.40]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and hand, unspecified
+
* '''[[Cefotaxime and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that cefotaxime produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with cephalosporins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Cefotaxime is acceptable in nursing mothers.
  
site
+
* '''[[Cefotetan and breast feeding]]''' A moderate amount of information indicates that cefotetan produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with cephalosporins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Cefotetan is acceptable in nursing mothers.
  
*'''[[T22.41]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of forearm
+
* '''[[Cefoxitin and breast feeding]]''' Substantial information indicates that cefoxitin produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with cephalosporins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Cefoxitin is acceptable in nursing mothers.
*'''[[T22.411]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of right forearm
 
*'''[[T22.412]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of left forearm
 
*'''[[T22.419]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of unspecified forearm
 
*'''[[T22.42]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of elbow
 
*'''[[T22.421]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of right elbow
 
*'''[[T22.422]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of left elbow
 
*'''[[T22.429]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of unspecified elbow
 
*'''[[T22.43]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.431]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of right upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.432]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of left upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.439]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of unspecified upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.44]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of axilla
 
*'''[[T22.441]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of right axilla
 
*'''[[T22.442]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of left axilla
 
*'''[[T22.449]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of unspecified axilla
 
*'''[[T22.45]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.451]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of right shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.452]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of left shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.459]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of unspecified shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.46]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.461]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of right scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.462]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of left scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.469]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of unspecified scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.49]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of multiple sites of shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and
 
  
hand
+
* '''[[Cefpodoxime and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that cefpodoxime produces low levels in milk and is not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants.. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with cephalosporins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Cefpodoxime is acceptable in nursing mothers.
  
*'''[[T22.491]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of multiple sites of right shoulder and upper limb,
+
* '''[[Cefprozil and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that cefprozil produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with cephalosporins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Cefprozil is acceptable in nursing mothers.
  
except wrist and hand
+
* '''[[Ceftaroline and breast feeding]]''' Although no information is available on the use of ceftaroline during breastfeeding, cephalosporins are generally not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with cephalosporins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Ceftaroline is acceptable in nursing mothers.
  
*'''[[T22.492]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of multiple sites of left shoulder and upper limb, except
+
* '''[[Ceftazidime and Avibactam and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that ceftazidime produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Avibactam has not been studied in nursing mothers. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with cephalosporins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Ceftazidime-avibactam is acceptable in nursing mothers.
  
wrist and hand
+
* '''[[Ceftazidime and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that ceftazidime produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with cephalosporins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Ceftazidime and is acceptable in nursing mothers.
  
*'''[[T22.499]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of multiple sites of unspecified shoulder and upper
+
* '''[[Ceftibuten and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that ceftibuten produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with cephalosporins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Ceftibuten is acceptable in nursing mothers.
  
limb, except wrist and hand
+
* '''[[Ceftizoxime and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that ceftizoxime produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with cephalosporins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Ceftizoxime is acceptable in nursing mothers.
  
*'''[[T22.5]]''' Corrosion of first degree of shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and hand ''Code first''
+
* '''[[Ceftolozane and Tazobactam and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of ceftolozane-tazobactam during breastfeeding. No serious adverse effects have been reported for other cephalosporin antibiotics during breastfeeding. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with cephalosporins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Ceftolozane-tazobactam is acceptable in nursing mothers.
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''  
+
* '''[[Ceftriaxone and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that ceftriaxones produce low levels in milk which are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with cephalosporins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Ceftriaxone is acceptable in nursing mothers.
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T22.50]]''' Corrosion of first degree of shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and hand unspecified site
+
* '''[[Cefuroxime and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that cefuroxime produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause severe adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with cephalosporins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Cefuroxime is acceptable in nursing mothers.
*'''[[T22.51]]''' Corrosion of first degree of forearm
 
*'''[[T22.511]]''' Corrosion of first degree of right forearm
 
*'''[[T22.512]]''' Corrosion of first degree of left forearm
 
*'''[[T22.519]]''' Corrosion of first degree of unspecified forearm
 
*'''[[T22.52]]''' Corrosion of first degree of elbow
 
*'''[[T22.521]]''' Corrosion of first degree of right elbow
 
*'''[[T22.522]]''' Corrosion of first degree of left elbow
 
*'''[[T22.529]]''' Corrosion of first degree of unspecified elbow
 
*'''[[T22.53]]''' Corrosion of first degree of upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.531]]''' Corrosion of first degree of right upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.532]]''' Corrosion of first degree of left upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.539]]''' Corrosion of first degree of unspecified upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.54]]''' Corrosion of first degree of axilla
 
*'''[[T22.541]]''' Corrosion of first degree of right axilla
 
*'''[[T22.542]]''' Corrosion of first degree of left axilla
 
*'''[[T22.549]]''' Corrosion of first degree of unspecified axilla
 
*'''[[T22.55]]''' Corrosion of first degree of shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.551]]''' Corrosion of first degree of right shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.552]]''' Corrosion of first degree of left shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.559]]''' Corrosion of first degree of unspecified shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.56]]''' Corrosion of first degree of scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.561]]''' Corrosion of first degree of right scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.562]]''' Corrosion of first degree of left scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.569]]''' Corrosion of first degree of unspecified scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.59]]''' Corrosion of first degree of multiple sites of shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T22.591]]''' Corrosion of first degree of multiple sites of right shoulder and upper limb, except wrist
 
  
and hand
+
* '''[[Celecoxib and breast feeding]]''' Because of the low levels of celecoxib in breastmilk, amounts ingested by the infant are small and would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. No special precautions are required.
  
*'''[[T22.592]]''' Corrosion of first degree of multiple sites of left shoulder and upper limb, except wrist
+
* '''[[Cellulose and Citric Acid and breast feeding]]''' No data are available on cellulose and citric acid use during breastfeeding. However, the drug is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, so it cannot enter the breastmilk. Cellulose and citric acid is acceptable to use during breastfeeding.
  
and hand
+
* '''[[Cemiplimab and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T22.599]]''' Corrosion of first degree of multiple sites of unspecified shoulder and upper limb,
+
* '''[[Cenegermin and breast feeding]]''' Because cenegermin is a large protein molecule with a molecular weight of 13,266, and absorption from the eye is limited, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and oral absorption by the infant is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. To substantially diminish the amount of drug that reaches the breastmilk after using eye drops, place pressure over the tear duct by the corner of the eye for 1 minute or more, then remove the excess solution with an absorbent tissue. Ophthalmic cenegermin is not expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants.
  
except wrist and hand
+
* '''[[Centruroides (Scorpion) Immune F(ab\')2 and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of centruroides (scorpion) immune f(ab')2 (equine) during breastfeeding. Because it is a large protein molecule, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract.
  
*'''[[T22.6]]''' Corrosion of second degree of shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and hand ''Code first''
+
* '''[[Cephalexin and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that maternal cephalexin produces low levels in milk that are usually not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Cephalexin is an alternative for the treatment of mastitis. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with cephalosporins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. A rare case of a severe allergic reaction occurred in an infant previously exposed to intravenous cefazolin whose mother began taking cephalexin whie breastfeeding. Cephalexin is acceptable in nursing mothers.
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''  
+
* '''[[Cephradine and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates cephradine produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with cephalosporins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. cephradine is acceptable in nursing mothers.
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T22.60]]''' Corrosion of second degree of shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and hand, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Ceritinib and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of ceritinib during breastfeeding. Because ceritinib is 97% bound to plasma proteins, the amount in milk is likely to be low. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during ceritinib therapy and for 2 weeks after the final dose.
*'''[[T22.61]]''' Corrosion of second degree of forearm
 
*'''[[T22.611]]''' Corrosion of second degree of right forearm
 
*'''[[T22.612]]''' Corrosion of second degree of left forearm
 
*'''[[T22.619]]''' Corrosion of second degree of unspecified forearm
 
*'''[[T22.62]]''' Corrosion of second degree of elbow
 
*'''[[T22.621]]''' Corrosion of second degree of right elbow
 
*'''[[T22.622]]''' Corrosion of second degree of left elbow
 
*'''[[T22.629]]''' Corrosion of second degree of unspecified elbow
 
*'''[[T22.63]]''' Corrosion of second degree of upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.631]]''' Corrosion of second degree of right upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.632]]''' Corrosion of second degree of left upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.639]]''' Corrosion of second degree of unspecified upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.64]]''' Corrosion of second degree of axilla
 
*'''[[T22.641]]''' Corrosion of second degree of right axilla
 
*'''[[T22.642]]''' Corrosion of second degree of left axilla
 
*'''[[T22.649]]''' Corrosion of second degree of unspecified axilla
 
*'''[[T22.65]]''' Corrosion of second degree of shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.651]]''' Corrosion of second degree of right shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.652]]''' Corrosion of second degree of left shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.659]]''' Corrosion of second degree of unspecified shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.66]]''' Corrosion of second degree of scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.661]]''' Corrosion of second degree of right scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.662]]''' Corrosion of second degree of left scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.669]]''' Corrosion of second degree of unspecified scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.69]]''' Corrosion of second degree of multiple sites of shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T22.691]]''' Corrosion of second degree of multiple sites of right shoulder and upper limb, except
 
  
wrist and hand
+
* '''[[Certolizumab Pegol and breast feeding]]''' Certolizumab is excreted into breastmilk in some, but not all, women in small amounts. Absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. Most experts consider certolizumab to be probably safe during breastfeeding. The European Medicines Agency has deemed certolizumab pegol acceptable to use during breastfeeding.
  
*'''[[T22.692]]''' Corrosion of second degree of multiple sites of left shoulder and upper limb, except
+
* '''[[Cetirizine and breast feeding]]'''  
  
wrist and hand
+
* '''[[Cetuximab and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of cetuximab during breastfeeding. Because cetuximab is a large protein molecule with a molecular weight of 145,782, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. Until more data become available, cetuximab should be used with caution during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during cetuximab therapy and for 2 months after the last dose.
  
*'''[[T22.699]]''' Corrosion of second degree of multiple sites of unspecified shoulder and upper limb,
+
* '''[[Chamomile and breast feeding]]'''  
  
except wrist and hand
+
* '''[[Chasteberry and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T22.7]]''' Corrosion of third degree of shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and hand ''Code first''
+
* '''[[Chelonitoxin Poisoning and breast feeding]]''' Chelonitoxism is caused by eating sea turtle meat contaminated with chelonitoxins, which are thought to accumulate from the environment without affecting the turtle. Initially, gastrointestinal symptoms occur, followed by neurologic, hepatic and renal toxicity. Breastfed infants have been affected by maternal poisoning, including some deaths. Mothers suspected of having chelonitoxin poisoning should not breastfeed until they have recovered.
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''
+
* '''[[Chloral Hydrate and breast feeding]]''' Short-term or occasional use of chloral hydrate during breastfeeding is unlikely to adversely affect the breastfed infant, especially if the infant is older than 2 months. Because the active metabolite of chloral hydrate has a long half-life, other sedative-hypnotics are preferred for long-term use during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a neonate or preterm infant. Monitor the infant for excessive drowsiness.
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T22.70]]''' Corrosion of third degree of shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and hand, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Chloramphenicol and breast feeding]]''' Adverse reactions such as vomiting, excessive intestinal gas and falling asleep at the breast have been reported in breastfed infants whose mothers were taking oral chloramphenicol. Milk concentrations are not sufficient to induce "gray baby" syndrome, but since chloramphenicol-induced aplastic anemia is not dose-related, this might occur, but has not been reported. An alternate drug is preferred to chloramphenicol during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. If the mother must receive chloramphenicol during nursing, monitor the infant for gastrointestinal disturbances and adequacy of nursing. Monitoring of the infant's complete blood count and differential is advisable. In some cases, discontinuation of breastfeeding might be preferred.
*'''[[T22.71]]''' Corrosion of third degree of forearm
 
*'''[[T22.711]]''' Corrosion of third degree of right forearm
 
*'''[[T22.712]]''' Corrosion of third degree of left forearm
 
*'''[[T22.719]]''' Corrosion of third degree of unspecified forearm
 
*'''[[T22.72]]''' Corrosion of third degree of elbow
 
*'''[[T22.721]]''' Corrosion of third degree of right elbow
 
*'''[[T22.722]]''' Corrosion of third degree of left elbow
 
*'''[[T22.729]]''' Corrosion of third degree of unspecified elbow
 
*'''[[T22.73]]''' Corrosion of third degree of upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.731]]''' Corrosion of third degree of right upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.732]]''' Corrosion of third degree of left upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.739]]''' Corrosion of third degree of unspecified upper arm
 
*'''[[T22.74]]''' Corrosion of third degree of axilla
 
*'''[[T22.741]]''' Corrosion of third degree of right axilla
 
*'''[[T22.742]]''' Corrosion of third degree of left axilla
 
*'''[[T22.749]]''' Corrosion of third degree of unspecified axilla
 
*'''[[T22.75]]''' Corrosion of third degree of shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.751]]''' Corrosion of third degree of right shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.752]]''' Corrosion of third degree of left shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.759]]''' Corrosion of third degree of unspecified shoulder
 
*'''[[T22.76]]''' Corrosion of third degree of scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.761]]''' Corrosion of third degree of right scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.762]]''' Corrosion of third degree of left scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.769]]''' Corrosion of third degree of unspecified scapular region
 
*'''[[T22.79]]''' Corrosion of third degree of multiple sites of shoulder and upper limb, except wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T22.791]]''' Corrosion of third degree of multiple sites of right shoulder and upper limb, except wrist
 
  
and hand
+
* '''[[Chlordiazepoxide and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of chlordiazepoxide during breastfeeding. Because the drug and metabolites could accumulate in the breastfed infant, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
  
*'''[[T22.792]]''' Corrosion of third degree of multiple sites of left shoulder and upper limb, except wrist
+
* '''[[Chlorella and breast feeding]]'''  
  
and hand
+
* '''[[Chlorhexidine and breast feeding]]''' Chlorhexidine has been used vaginally or topically on the abdomen or perineum prior to delivery to prevent infection. No toxicity has been reported in breastfed infants and it has clearly less toxicity compared to povidone-iodine in these situations. Topical application of chlorhexidine to the breast before and after nursing did not appear to adversely affect the breastfed infants in one study. Use of chlorhexidine oral rinse by a nursing mother is unlikely to adversely affect her infant.
  
*'''[[T22.799]]''' Corrosion of third degree of multiple sites of unspecified shoulder and upper limb,
+
* '''[[Chloroprocaine and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of chloroprocaine during breastfeeding. Based on the low excretion of other local anesthetics into breastmilk and the extremely short half-life of chloroprocaine, it is unlikely to adversely affect the breastfed infant. However, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
  
except wrist and hand
+
* '''[[Chloroquine and breast feeding]]''' Very small amounts of chloroquine are excreted in breast milk; when given once weekly, the amount of drug is not sufficient to harm the infant nor is the quantity sufficient to protect the child from malaria. United Kingdom malaria treatment guidelines recommend that weekly chloroquine 500 mg be given until breastfeeding is completed and primaquine can be given. Breastfeeding infants should receive the recommended dosages of chloroquine for malaria prophylaxis. In HIV-infected women, elevated viral HIV loads in milk were decreased after treatment with chloroquine to a greater extent than other women who were treated with the combination of sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine. Because no information is available on the daily use of chloroquine during breastfeeding, hydroxychloroquine or another agent may be preferred in this situation, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
  
*'''[[T23]]''' Burn and corrosion of wrist and hand
+
* '''[[Chlorothiazide and breast feeding]]''' Low-dose chlorothiazide appears to be acceptable during lactation. Intense diuresis with large doses may decrease breastmilk production.
  
The appropriate 7th character is to be added to each code from category T23
+
* '''[[Chlorpheniramine and breast feeding]]''' Small (2 to 4 mg), occasional doses of chlorpheniramine are acceptable during breastfeeding. Larger doses or more prolonged use might cause effects in the infant or decrease the milk supply, particularly in combination with a sympathomimetic such as spseudoephedrine or before lactation is well established. Single bedtime doses after the last feeding of the day may be adequate for many women and will minimize any effects of the drug. The nonsedating antihistamines are preferred alternatives, though.
A - initial encounter
 
D - subsequent encounter
 
S - sequela
 
  
*'''[[T23.0]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of wrist and hand ''Use additional''
+
* '''[[Chlorpromazine and breast feeding]]''' Chlorpromazine is detectable in the milk of some mothers during therapy, but levels appear not to correlate well with the maternal dose or serum level. Some breastfed infants become drowsy during maternal chlorpromazine therapy. Very limited long-term follow-up data indicate no adverse developmental effects when the drug is used alone. However, using it in combination with haloperidol can negatively affect development. Monitor the infant for excessive drowsiness during breastfeeding and for developmental milestones, especially if other antipsychotics are used concurrently.
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Chlorpropamide and breast feeding]]''' Limited data indicate that amounts of chlorpropamide in breastmilk are unlikely to affect a breastfed infant. Short-acting drugs are generally preferred while breastfeeding a neonate to avoid drug accumulation. Monitor breastfed infants for signs of hypoglycemia such as jitteriness, excessive sleepiness, poor feeding, seizures cyanosis, apnea, or hypothermia. If there is concern, monitoring of the breastfed infant's blood glucose is advisable during maternal therapy with hypoglycemic agents.
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T23.00]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of hand, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Chlorthalidone and breast feeding]]''' Although amounts of chlorthalidone in milk are not great, its slow clearance may lead to accumulation in the infant, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. It may also suppress lactation. An alternate drug may be preferred.
*'''[[T23.001]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of right hand, unspecified site
 
*'''[[T23.002]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of left hand, unspecified site
 
*'''[[T23.009]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of unspecified hand, unspecified site
 
*'''[[T23.01]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.011]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of right thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.012]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of left thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.019]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of unspecified thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.02]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of single finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.021]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of single right finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.022]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of single left finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.029]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of unspecified single finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.03]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of multiple fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.031]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of multiple right fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.032]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of multiple left fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.039]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of unspecified multiple fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.04]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of multiple fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.041]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of multiple right fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.042]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of multiple left fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.049]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of unspecified multiple fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.05]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of palm
 
*'''[[T23.051]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of right palm
 
*'''[[T23.052]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of left palm
 
*'''[[T23.059]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of unspecified palm
 
*'''[[T23.06]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of back of hand
 
*'''[[T23.061]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of back of right hand
 
*'''[[T23.062]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of back of left hand
 
*'''[[T23.069]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of back of unspecified hand
 
*'''[[T23.07]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of wrist
 
*'''[[T23.071]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of right wrist
 
*'''[[T23.072]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of left wrist
 
*'''[[T23.079]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of unspecified wrist
 
*'''[[T23.09]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of multiple sites of wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.091]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of multiple sites of right wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.092]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of multiple sites of left wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.099]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of multiple sites of unspecified wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.1]]''' Burn of first degree of wrist and hand ''Use additional''
 
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Chocolate and breast feeding]]''' Chocolate contains small amounts of caffeine and larger amounts of the closely related compound, theobromine. It also contains anandamide and two related compounds that stimulate cannabinoid receptors, tryptophan, and polyphenols. All of these compounds are detectable in breastmilk in small amounts. Low intake of chocolate by a nursing mother is not problematic, but extreme amounts can affect the infant.
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T23.10]]''' Burn of first degree of hand, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Cholera Vaccine and breast feeding]]''' The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and several health professional organizations state that vaccines given to a nursing mother do not affect the safety of breastfeeding for mothers or infants and that breastfeeding is not a contraindication to cholera vaccine. Breastfed infants should be vaccinated according to the routine recommended schedules.
*'''[[T23.101]]''' Burn of first degree of right hand, unspecified site
 
*'''[[T23.102]]''' Burn of first degree of left hand, unspecified site
 
*'''[[T23.109]]''' Burn of first degree of unspecified hand, unspecified site
 
*'''[[T23.11]]''' Burn of first degree of thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.111]]''' Burn of first degree of right thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.112]]''' Burn of first degree of left thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.119]]''' Burn of first degree of unspecified thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.12]]''' Burn of first degree of single finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.121]]''' Burn of first degree of single right finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.122]]''' Burn of first degree of single left finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.129]]''' Burn of first degree of unspecified single finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.13]]''' Burn of first degree of multiple fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.131]]''' Burn of first degree of multiple right fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.132]]''' Burn of first degree of multiple left fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.139]]''' Burn of first degree of unspecified multiple fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.14]]''' Burn of first degree of multiple fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.141]]''' Burn of first degree of multiple right fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.142]]''' Burn of first degree of multiple left fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.149]]''' Burn of first degree of unspecified multiple fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.15]]''' Burn of first degree of palm
 
*'''[[T23.151]]''' Burn of first degree of right palm
 
*'''[[T23.152]]''' Burn of first degree of left palm
 
*'''[[T23.159]]''' Burn of first degree of unspecified palm
 
*'''[[T23.16]]''' Burn of first degree of back of hand
 
*'''[[T23.161]]''' Burn of first degree of back of right hand
 
*'''[[T23.162]]''' Burn of first degree of back of left hand
 
*'''[[T23.169]]''' Burn of first degree of back of unspecified hand
 
*'''[[T23.17]]''' Burn of first degree of wrist
 
*'''[[T23.171]]''' Burn of first degree of right wrist
 
*'''[[T23.172]]''' Burn of first degree of left wrist
 
*'''[[T23.179]]''' Burn of first degree of unspecified wrist
 
*'''[[T23.19]]''' Burn of first degree of multiple sites of wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.191]]''' Burn of first degree of multiple sites of right wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.192]]''' Burn of first degree of multiple sites of left wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.199]]''' Burn of first degree of multiple sites of unspecified wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.2]]''' Burn of second degree of wrist and hand ''Use additional''
 
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Cholestyramine and breast feeding]]''' Cholestyramine is a nonabsorbable resin. Because it does not enter the mother's bloodstream, it will not reach the infant via breastmilk. It is acceptable for use during lactation.
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T23.20]]''' Burn of second degree of hand, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Choline Magnesium Salicylate and breast feeding]]''' Choline magnesium salicylate has not been studied during breastfeeding, but choline magnesium salicylate results in salicylic acid in the blood. Salicylic acid and aspirin have been studied during breastfeeding. The excretion of salicylate into breastmilk increases disproportionately as the maternal dosage increases. Long-term, high-dose maternal aspirin ingestion probably caused metabolic acidosis in one breastfed infant. Reye's syndrome is associated with aspirin administration to infants with viral infections, but the risk of Reye's syndrome from salicylate in breastmilk is unknown. An alternate drug is preferred over choline magnesium salicylate.
*'''[[T23.201]]''' Burn of second degree of right hand, unspecified site
 
*'''[[T23.202]]''' Burn of second degree of left hand, unspecified site
 
*'''[[T23.209]]''' Burn of second degree of unspecified hand, unspecified site
 
*'''[[T23.21]]''' Burn of second degree of thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.211]]''' Burn of second degree of right thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.212]]''' Burn of second degree of left thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.219]]''' Burn of second degree of unspecified thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.22]]''' Burn of second degree of single finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.221]]''' Burn of second degree of single right finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.222]]''' Burn of second degree of single left finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.229]]''' Burn of second degree of unspecified single finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.23]]''' Burn of second degree of multiple fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.231]]''' Burn of second degree of multiple right fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.232]]''' Burn of second degree of multiple left fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.239]]''' Burn of second degree of unspecified multiple fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.24]]''' Burn of second degree of multiple fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.241]]''' Burn of second degree of multiple right fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.242]]''' Burn of second degree of multiple left fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.249]]''' Burn of second degree of unspecified multiple fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.25]]''' Burn of second degree of palm
 
*'''[[T23.251]]''' Burn of second degree of right palm
 
*'''[[T23.252]]''' Burn of second degree of left palm
 
*'''[[T23.259]]''' Burn of second degree of unspecified palm
 
*'''[[T23.26]]''' Burn of second degree of back of hand
 
*'''[[T23.261]]''' Burn of second degree of back of right hand
 
*'''[[T23.262]]''' Burn of second degree of back of left hand
 
*'''[[T23.269]]''' Burn of second degree of back of unspecified hand
 
*'''[[T23.27]]''' Burn of second degree of wrist
 
*'''[[T23.271]]''' Burn of second degree of right wrist
 
*'''[[T23.272]]''' Burn of second degree of left wrist
 
*'''[[T23.279]]''' Burn of second degree of unspecified wrist
 
*'''[[T23.29]]''' Burn of second degree of multiple sites of wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.291]]''' Burn of second degree of multiple sites of right wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.292]]''' Burn of second degree of multiple sites of left wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.299]]''' Burn of second degree of multiple sites of unspecified wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.3]]''' Burn of third degree of wrist and hand ''Use additional''
 
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Chondroitin and breast feeding]]'''
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T23.30]]''' Burn of third degree of hand, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Chromium Cr 51 Edetate and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T23.301]]''' Burn of third degree of right hand, unspecified site
 
*'''[[T23.302]]''' Burn of third degree of left hand, unspecified site
 
*'''[[T23.309]]''' Burn of third degree of unspecified hand, unspecified site
 
*'''[[T23.31]]''' Burn of third degree of thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.311]]''' Burn of third degree of right thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.312]]''' Burn of third degree of left thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.319]]''' Burn of third degree of unspecified thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.32]]''' Burn of third degree of single finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.321]]''' Burn of third degree of single right finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.322]]''' Burn of third degree of single left finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.329]]''' Burn of third degree of unspecified single finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.33]]''' Burn of third degree of multiple fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.331]]''' Burn of third degree of multiple right fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.332]]''' Burn of third degree of multiple left fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.339]]''' Burn of third degree of unspecified multiple fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.34]]''' Burn of third degree of multiple fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.341]]''' Burn of third degree of multiple right fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.342]]''' Burn of third degree of multiple left fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.349]]''' Burn of third degree of unspecified multiple fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.35]]''' Burn of third degree of palm
 
*'''[[T23.351]]''' Burn of third degree of right palm
 
*'''[[T23.352]]''' Burn of third degree of left palm
 
*'''[[T23.359]]''' Burn of third degree of unspecified palm
 
*'''[[T23.36]]''' Burn of third degree of back of hand
 
*'''[[T23.361]]''' Burn of third degree of back of right hand
 
*'''[[T23.362]]''' Burn of third degree of back of left hand
 
*'''[[T23.369]]''' Burn of third degree of back of unspecified hand
 
*'''[[T23.37]]''' Burn of third degree of wrist
 
*'''[[T23.371]]''' Burn of third degree of right wrist
 
*'''[[T23.372]]''' Burn of third degree of left wrist
 
*'''[[T23.379]]''' Burn of third degree of unspecified wrist
 
*'''[[T23.39]]''' Burn of third degree of multiple sites of wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.391]]''' Burn of third degree of multiple sites of right wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.392]]''' Burn of third degree of multiple sites of left wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.399]]''' Burn of third degree of multiple sites of unspecified wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.4]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of wrist and hand ''Code first''
 
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''
+
* '''[[Ciclesonide and breast feeding]]''' Although not measured, the amounts of inhaled corticosteroids absorbed into the maternal bloodstream and excreted into breastmilk are probably too small to affect a breastfed infant. Reviewers and an expert panel consider inhaled corticosteroids acceptable to use during breastfeeding.
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T23.40]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of hand, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Ciclopirox and breast feeding]]''' Topical ciclopirox has not been studied during breastfeeding. Because only about 1.3% is absorbed after topical application, it is considered a low risk to the nursing infant. Avoid application to the nipple area and ensure that the infant's skin does not come into direct contact with the areas of skin that have been treated. Only water-miscible cream or gel products should be applied to the breast because ointments may expose the infant to high levels of mineral paraffins via licking.
*'''[[T23.401]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of right hand, unspecified site
 
*'''[[T23.402]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of left hand, unspecified site
 
*'''[[T23.409]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of unspecified hand, unspecified site
 
*'''[[T23.41]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.411]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of right thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.412]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of left thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.419]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of unspecified thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.42]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of single finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.421]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of single right finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.422]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of single left finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.429]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of unspecified single finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.43]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of multiple fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.431]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of multiple right fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.432]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of multiple left fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.439]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of unspecified multiple fingers (nail), not including
 
  
thumb
+
* '''[[Ciguatera Poisoning and breast feeding]]''' Ciguatera toxin is created in tropical reef-dwelling fish that ingest toxins from algal blooms produced by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. The main toxin appears to be ciguatoxin, although maitotoxin has also been implicated. Ciguatera can present initially with gastrointestinal or neurological symptoms, such as paresthesias of the extremities and around the mouth. Although the fatality rate is low, neurologic effects can last for weeks. Mothers suspected of having ciguatera poisoning should not breastfeed until they have recovered.
  
*'''[[T23.44]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of multiple fingers (nail), including thumb
+
* '''[[Cilostazol and breast feeding]]''' Because no information is available on the use of cilostazol during breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. If it is used by a nursing mother, monitor the infant for bruising and bleeding.
*'''[[T23.441]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of multiple right fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.442]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of multiple left fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.449]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of unspecified multiple fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.45]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of palm
 
*'''[[T23.451]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of right palm
 
*'''[[T23.452]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of left palm
 
*'''[[T23.459]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of unspecified palm
 
*'''[[T23.46]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of back of hand
 
*'''[[T23.461]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of back of right hand
 
*'''[[T23.462]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of back of left hand
 
*'''[[T23.469]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of back of unspecified hand
 
*'''[[T23.47]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of wrist
 
*'''[[T23.471]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of right wrist
 
*'''[[T23.472]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of left wrist
 
*'''[[T23.479]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of unspecified wrist
 
*'''[[T23.49]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of multiple sites of wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.491]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of multiple sites of right wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.492]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of multiple sites of left wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.499]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of multiple sites of unspecified wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.5]]''' Corrosion of first degree of wrist and hand ''Code first''
 
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''
+
* '''[[Cimetidine and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that maternal cimetidine results in infant dosages much less than those given directly to neonates. Cimetidine would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants, especially if the infant is older than 2 months. However, because of its potential for causing hepatic enzyme inhibition, other drugs might be preferred.
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T23.50]]''' Corrosion of first degree of hand, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Cinnarizine and breast feeding]]''' Cinnarizine is not approved for marketing in the United States by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, but is available in other countries. No information is available on the use of cinnarizine during breastfeeding. Expert opinion recommends that cinnarizine not be used in migraine prophylaxis. An alternate drug is preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
*'''[[T23.501]]''' Corrosion of first degree of right hand, unspecified site
 
*'''[[T23.502]]''' Corrosion of first degree of left hand, unspecified site
 
*'''[[T23.509]]''' Corrosion of first degree of unspecified hand, unspecified site
 
*'''[[T23.51]]''' Corrosion of first degree of thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.511]]''' Corrosion of first degree of right thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.512]]''' Corrosion of first degree of left thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.519]]''' Corrosion of first degree of unspecified thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.52]]''' Corrosion of first degree of single finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.521]]''' Corrosion of first degree of single right finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.522]]''' Corrosion of first degree of single left finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.529]]''' Corrosion of first degree of unspecified single finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.53]]''' Corrosion of first degree of multiple fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.531]]''' Corrosion of first degree of multiple right fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.532]]''' Corrosion of first degree of multiple left fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.539]]''' Corrosion of first degree of unspecified multiple fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.54]]''' Corrosion of first degree of multiple fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.541]]''' Corrosion of first degree of multiple right fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.542]]''' Corrosion of first degree of multiple left fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.549]]''' Corrosion of first degree of unspecified multiple fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.55]]''' Corrosion of first degree of palm
 
*'''[[T23.551]]''' Corrosion of first degree of right palm
 
*'''[[T23.552]]''' Corrosion of first degree of left palm
 
*'''[[T23.559]]''' Corrosion of first degree of unspecified palm
 
*'''[[T23.56]]''' Corrosion of first degree of back of hand
 
*'''[[T23.561]]''' Corrosion of first degree of back of right hand
 
*'''[[T23.562]]''' Corrosion of first degree of back of left hand
 
*'''[[T23.569]]''' Corrosion of first degree of back of unspecified hand
 
*'''[[T23.57]]''' Corrosion of first degree of wrist
 
*'''[[T23.571]]''' Corrosion of first degree of right wrist
 
*'''[[T23.572]]''' Corrosion of first degree of left wrist
 
*'''[[T23.579]]''' Corrosion of first degree of unspecified wrist
 
*'''[[T23.59]]''' Corrosion of first degree of multiple sites of wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.591]]''' Corrosion of first degree of multiple sites of right wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.592]]''' Corrosion of first degree of multiple sites of left wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.599]]''' Corrosion of first degree of multiple sites of unspecified wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.6]]''' Corrosion of second degree of wrist and hand ''Code first''
 
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''  
+
* '''[[Ciprofloxacin and breast feeding]]'''  
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T23.60]]''' Corrosion of second degree of hand, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Cisapride and breast feeding]]''' Cisapride was removed from the market in the United States by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration because of cardiac toxicity. Because of the low levels of cisapride in breastmilk, its use is acceptable in nursing mothers if it is required.
*'''[[T23.601]]''' Corrosion of second degree of right hand, unspecified site
 
*'''[[T23.602]]''' Corrosion of second degree of left hand, unspecified site
 
*'''[[T23.609]]''' Corrosion of second degree of unspecified hand, unspecified site
 
*'''[[T23.61]]''' Corrosion of second degree of thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.611]]''' Corrosion of second degree of right thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.612]]''' Corrosion of second degree of left thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.619]]''' Corrosion of second degree of unspecified thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.62]]''' Corrosion of second degree of single finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.621]]''' Corrosion of second degree of single right finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.622]]''' Corrosion of second degree of single left finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.629]]''' Corrosion of second degree of unspecified single finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.63]]''' Corrosion of second degree of multiple fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.631]]''' Corrosion of second degree of multiple right fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.632]]''' Corrosion of second degree of multiple left fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.639]]''' Corrosion of second degree of unspecified multiple fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.64]]''' Corrosion of second degree of multiple fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.641]]''' Corrosion of second degree of multiple right fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.642]]''' Corrosion of second degree of multiple left fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.649]]''' Corrosion of second degree of unspecified multiple fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.65]]''' Corrosion of second degree of palm
 
*'''[[T23.651]]''' Corrosion of second degree of right palm
 
*'''[[T23.652]]''' Corrosion of second degree of left palm
 
*'''[[T23.659]]''' Corrosion of second degree of unspecified palm
 
*'''[[T23.66]]''' Corrosion of second degree of back of hand
 
*'''[[T23.661]]''' Corrosion of second degree back of right hand
 
*'''[[T23.662]]''' Corrosion of second degree back of left hand
 
*'''[[T23.669]]''' Corrosion of second degree back of unspecified hand
 
*'''[[T23.67]]''' Corrosion of second degree of wrist
 
*'''[[T23.671]]''' Corrosion of second degree of right wrist
 
*'''[[T23.672]]''' Corrosion of second degree of left wrist
 
*'''[[T23.679]]''' Corrosion of second degree of unspecified wrist
 
*'''[[T23.69]]''' Corrosion of second degree of multiple sites of wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.691]]''' Corrosion of second degree of multiple sites of right wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.692]]''' Corrosion of second degree of multiple sites of left wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.699]]''' Corrosion of second degree of multiple sites of unspecified wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.7]]''' Corrosion of third degree of wrist and hand ''Code first''
 
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''
+
* '''[[Cisatracurium and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of cisatracurium during breastfeeding. Because it is short acting, highly polar and poorly absorbed orally, it is not likely to reach the breastmilk in high concentration or to reach the bloodstream of the infant. When a combination of anesthetic agents is used for a procedure, follow the recommendations for the most problematic medication used during the procedure.
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T23.70]]''' Corrosion of third degree of hand, unspecified site
+
* '''[[Cisplatin and breast feeding]]''' Most sources consider breastfeeding to be contraindicated during maternal antineoplastic drug therapy, especially alkylating agents such as cisplatin. Excretion of platinum into milk occurs, but results from 3 cases are inconsistent. The exact form and toxicity of platinum excreted into breastmilk are also not known. The nursing infant would receive any platinum compounds orally rather than intravenously and oral absorption of oral platinum compounds by infants is not known. Chemotherapy may adversely affect the normal microbiome and chemical makeup of breastmilk. Women who receive chemotherapy during pregnancy are more likely to have difficulty nursing their infant.
*'''[[T23.701]]''' Corrosion of third degree of right hand, unspecified site
 
*'''[[T23.702]]''' Corrosion of third degree of left hand, unspecified site
 
*'''[[T23.709]]''' Corrosion of third degree of unspecified hand, unspecified site
 
*'''[[T23.71]]''' Corrosion of third degree of thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.711]]''' Corrosion of third degree of right thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.712]]''' Corrosion of third degree of left thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.719]]''' Corrosion of third degree of unspecified thumb (nail)
 
*'''[[T23.72]]''' Corrosion of third degree of single finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.721]]''' Corrosion of third degree of single right finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.722]]''' Corrosion of third degree of single left finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.729]]''' Corrosion of third degree of unspecified single finger (nail) except thumb
 
*'''[[T23.73]]''' Corrosion of third degree of multiple fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.731]]''' Corrosion of third degree of multiple right fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.732]]''' Corrosion of third degree of multiple left fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.739]]''' Corrosion of third degree of unspecified multiple fingers (nail), not including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.74]]''' Corrosion of third degree of multiple fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.741]]''' Corrosion of third degree of multiple right fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.742]]''' Corrosion of third degree of multiple left fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.749]]''' Corrosion of third degree of unspecified multiple fingers (nail), including thumb
 
*'''[[T23.75]]''' Corrosion of third degree of palm
 
*'''[[T23.751]]''' Corrosion of third degree of right palm
 
*'''[[T23.752]]''' Corrosion of third degree of left palm
 
*'''[[T23.759]]''' Corrosion of third degree of unspecified palm
 
*'''[[T23.76]]''' Corrosion of third degree of back of hand
 
*'''[[T23.761]]''' Corrosion of third degree of back of right hand
 
*'''[[T23.762]]''' Corrosion of third degree of back of left hand
 
*'''[[T23.769]]''' Corrosion of third degree back of unspecified hand
 
*'''[[T23.77]]''' Corrosion of third degree of wrist
 
*'''[[T23.771]]''' Corrosion of third degree of right wrist
 
*'''[[T23.772]]''' Corrosion of third degree of left wrist
 
*'''[[T23.779]]''' Corrosion of third degree of unspecified wrist
 
*'''[[T23.79]]''' Corrosion of third degree of multiple sites of wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.791]]''' Corrosion of third degree of multiple sites of right wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.792]]''' Corrosion of third degree of multiple sites of left wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T23.799]]''' Corrosion of third degree of multiple sites of unspecified wrist and hand
 
*'''[[T24]]''' Burn and corrosion of lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Citalopram and breast feeding]]''' Infants receive citalopram in breastmilk and it is detectable in low levels in the serum of some. The dosage that the infant receives and serum level achieved are probably related to the genetic metabolic capacity of the mother and infant. A few cases of minor behavioral side effects such as drowsiness or fussiness have been reported, but no adverse effects on development have been found in infants followed for up to a year. Infants exposed in utero can have withdrawal effects postpartum despite breastfeeding and continued maternal citalopram use. If citalopram is required by the mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding. If the mother was taking citalopram during pregnancy or if other antidepressants have been ineffective, most experts recommend against changing medications during breastfeeding. Otherwise, agents with lower excretion into breastmilk may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. The breastfed infant should be monitored for behavioral side effects such as sedation or fussiness. Mothers taking an SSRI during pregnancy and postpartum may have more difficulty breastfeeding, although this might be a reflection of their disease state. These mothers may need additional breastfeeding support. Breastfed infants exposed to an SSRI during the third trimester of pregnancy have a lower risk of poor neonatal adaptation than formula-fed infants.
burn and corrosion of ankle and foot (T25.-)
 
burn and corrosion of hip region (T21.-)
 
The appropriate 7th character is to be added to each code from category T24
 
A - initial encounter
 
D - subsequent encounter
 
S - sequela
 
  
*'''[[T24.0]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of lower limb, except ankle and foot ''Use additional''
+
* '''[[Citriodiol and breast feeding]]''' No published information is available on the clinical use of citriodiol (para-menthanediol; oil of lemon eucalyptus) during breastfeeding. However, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency consider citriodiol to be safe and effective during breastfeeding when used as directed. It should be used by breastfeeding women to avoid exposure to mosquito-borne viruses. Avoid application directly to the nipple and other areas where the infant might directly ingest the product.
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Cladribine and breast feeding]]''' Because there is no published experience with cladribine during breastfeeding, it should be avoided during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. One group of authors recommends withholding breastfeeding for at 48 hours after a dose and longer in patients with impaired kidney function. Chemotherapy may adversely affect the normal microbiome and chemical makeup of breastmilk. Women who receive chemotherapy during pregnancy are more likely to have difficulty nursing their infant.
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T24.00]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of unspecified site of lower limb, except ankle and foot
+
* '''[[Clarithromycin and breast feeding]]''' Because of the low levels of clarithromycin in breastmilk and safe administration directly to infants, it is acceptable in nursing mothers. The small amounts in milk are unlikely to cause adverse effects in the infant. Monitor the infant for possible effects on the gastrointestinal flora, such as diarrhea, candidiasis (thrush, diaper rash). Unconfirmed epidemiologic evidence indicates that the risk of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis might be increased by maternal use of macrolide antibiotics during the first two weeks of breastfeeding, but others have questioned this relationship.
*'''[[T24.001]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of unspecified site of right lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.002]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of unspecified site of left lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.009]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of unspecified site of unspecified lower limb, except ankle
 
  
and foot
+
* '''[[Clemastine and breast feeding]]''' Small occasional doses of clemastine are acceptable during breastfeeding. Larger doses or more prolonged use may cause drowsiness and other effects in the infant or decrease the milk supply, particularly in combination with a sympathomimetic such as pseudoephedrine or before lactation is well established. Single bedtime doses after the last feeding of the day may be adequate for many women and will minimize any effects of the drug. The nonsedating antihistamines are preferred alternatives.
  
*'''[[T24.01]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of thigh
+
* '''[[Clindamycin and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T24.011]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of right thigh
 
*'''[[T24.012]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of left thigh
 
*'''[[T24.019]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of unspecified thigh
 
*'''[[T24.02]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of knee
 
*'''[[T24.021]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of right knee
 
*'''[[T24.022]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of left knee
 
*'''[[T24.029]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of unspecified knee
 
*'''[[T24.03]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.031]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of right lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.032]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of left lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.039]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of unspecified lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.09]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of multiple sites of lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.091]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of multiple sites of right lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.092]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of multiple sites of left lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.099]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of multiple sites of unspecified lower limb, except ankle and
 
  
foot
+
* '''[[Clobazam and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that maternal doses of clobazam up to 30 mg daily produce low levels in milk. Short-term use would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants, especially if the infant is older than 2 months. During long-term administration, monitor the infant for possible sedation and poor sucking and weight gain.
  
*'''[[T24.1]]''' Burn of first degree of lower limb, except ankle and foot ''Use additional''
+
* '''[[Clobetasol and breast feeding]]''' Clobetasol has not been studied during breastfeeding. Since only extensive application of the most potent corticosteroids may cause systemic effects in the mother, it is unlikely that short-term application of topical corticosteroids would pose a risk to the breastfed infant by passage into breastmilk. However, it would be prudent to use the least potent drug on the smallest area of skin possible. It is particularly important to ensure that the infant's skin does not come into direct contact with the areas of skin that have been treated. Only the lower potency corticosteroids should be used on the nipple or areola where the infant could directly ingest the drugs from the skin; clobetasol should be avoided on the nipple. Only water-miscible cream or gel products should be applied to the breast because ointments may expose the infant to high levels of mineral paraffins via licking. Any topical corticosteroid should be wiped off thoroughly prior to nursing if it is being applied to the breast or nipple area.
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Clocortolone Pivalate and breast feeding]]''' Topical clocortolone has not been studied during breastfeeding. Since only extensive application of the most potent corticosteroids may cause systemic effects in the mother, it is unlikely that short-term application of topical corticosteroids would pose a risk to the breastfed infant by passage into breastmilk. However, it would be prudent to use the least potent drug on the smallest area of skin possible. It is particularly important to ensure that the infant's skin does not come into direct contact with the areas of skin that have been treated. Only the lower potency corticosteroids should be used on the nipple or areola where the infant could directly ingest the drugs from the skin. Any topical corticosteroid should be wiped off thoroughly prior to nursing if it is being applied to the breast or nipple area.
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T24.10]]''' Burn of first degree of unspecified site of lower limb, except ankle and foot
+
* '''[[Clofazimine and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that clofazimine appears in milk in relatively large amounts. Milk can be colored pink by the drug and breastfed infant's skin can be discolored the typical red color that is common in persons taking the drug. No serious or permanent toxicity has been reported in breastfed infants; however, an alternate drug might be considered.
*'''[[T24.101]]''' Burn of first degree of unspecified site of right lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.102]]''' Burn of first degree of unspecified site of left lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.109]]''' Burn of first degree of unspecified site of unspecified lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.11]]''' Burn of first degree of thigh
 
*'''[[T24.111]]''' Burn of first degree of right thigh
 
*'''[[T24.112]]''' Burn of first degree of left thigh
 
*'''[[T24.119]]''' Burn of first degree of unspecified thigh
 
*'''[[T24.12]]''' Burn of first degree of knee
 
*'''[[T24.121]]''' Burn of first degree of right knee
 
*'''[[T24.122]]''' Burn of first degree of left knee
 
*'''[[T24.129]]''' Burn of first degree of unspecified knee
 
*'''[[T24.13]]''' Burn of first degree of lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.131]]''' Burn of first degree of right lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.132]]''' Burn of first degree of left lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.139]]''' Burn of first degree of unspecified lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.19]]''' Burn of first degree of multiple sites of lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.191]]''' Burn of first degree of multiple sites of right lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.192]]''' Burn of first degree of multiple sites of left lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.199]]''' Burn of first degree of multiple sites of unspecified lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.2]]''' Burn of second degree of lower limb, except ankle and foot ''Use additional''
 
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Clomiphene and breast feeding]]''' Clomiphene has not been studied during breastfeeding, but several studies found that it suppresses lactation in women who did not want to breastfeed. It appears to act by lowering serum prolactin, especially the post-stimulation surge in serum prolactin. It is likely that clomiphene would interfere with lactation in a nursing mother.
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T24.20]]''' Burn of second degree of unspecified site of lower limb, except ankle and foot
+
* '''[[Clomipramine and breast feeding]]''' Limited evidence indicates that use of clomipramine during breastfeeding is acceptable. For women who were taking clomipramine during pregnancy, the amount of drug in breastmilk may be insufficient to prevent neonatal withdrawal symptoms in breastfed infants. For use as an antidepressant, clomipramine may be less desirable than other antidepressants that have been studied more thoroughly.
*'''[[T24.201]]''' Burn of second degree of unspecified site of right lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.202]]''' Burn of second degree of unspecified site of left lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.209]]''' Burn of second degree of unspecified site of unspecified lower limb, except ankle and
 
  
foot
+
* '''[[Clonazepam and breast feeding]]''' Maternal clonazepam occasionally causes sedation in their breastfed infants, especially when given with other central nervous system depressants. Monitor the infant for drowsiness, adequate weight gain, and developmental milestones, especially in younger, exclusively breastfed infants and when using combinations of psychotropic drugs. Monitoring of the infant's serum concentration may be indicated if excessive sedation occurs. Because it has a long half-life, a safer, shorter-acting drug should be used as rather than clonazepam. An expert consensus guideline indicates that low-dose clonazepam is an acceptable choice for refractory restless leg syndrome during lactation.
  
*'''[[T24.21]]''' Burn of second degree of thigh
+
* '''[[Clonidine and breast feeding]]''' Because of the high serum levels found in breastfed infants, possible infant side effects, and the possible negative effects on lactation, other antihypertensive agents are preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. Clonidine used as a single postpartum dose as a neuraxial analgesia adjunct probably has not been studied, but it may reduce the need for other medications or their dosages, and appears unlikely to affect breastfeeding.
*'''[[T24.211]]''' Burn of second degree of right thigh
 
*'''[[T24.212]]''' Burn of second degree of left thigh
 
*'''[[T24.219]]''' Burn of second degree of unspecified thigh
 
*'''[[T24.22]]''' Burn of second degree of knee
 
*'''[[T24.221]]''' Burn of second degree of right knee
 
*'''[[T24.222]]''' Burn of second degree of left knee
 
*'''[[T24.229]]''' Burn of second degree of unspecified knee
 
*'''[[T24.23]]''' Burn of second degree of lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.231]]''' Burn of second degree of right lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.232]]''' Burn of second degree of left lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.239]]''' Burn of second degree of unspecified lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.29]]''' Burn of second degree of multiple sites of lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.291]]''' Burn of second degree of multiple sites of right lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.292]]''' Burn of second degree of multiple sites of left lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.299]]''' Burn of second degree of multiple sites of unspecified lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.3]]''' Burn of third degree of lower limb, except ankle and foot ''Use additional''
 
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Clopidogrel and breast feeding]]''' No published information is available on the use of clopidogrel during breastfeeding. The manufacturer reports that no adverse effects have been observed in breastfed infants with maternal clopidogrel use during lactation in a small number of postmarketing cases. Since no published information is available on the use of clopidogrel during breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. If it is used by a nursing mother, monitor the infant for bruising and bleeding.
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T24.30]]''' Burn of third degree of unspecified site of lower limb, except ankle and foot
+
* '''[[Clorazepate and breast feeding]]''' Clorazepate is excreted into breastmilk and appears to accumulate in the serum of breastfed infants. Because the half-life of clorazepate and its active metabolite are long, timing breastfeeding with respect to the dose is of little or no benefit in reducing infant exposure. Other agents may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
*'''[[T24.301]]''' Burn of third degree of unspecified site of right lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.302]]''' Burn of third degree of unspecified site of left lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.309]]''' Burn of third degree of unspecified site of unspecified lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.31]]''' Burn of third degree of thigh
 
*'''[[T24.311]]''' Burn of third degree of right thigh
 
*'''[[T24.312]]''' Burn of third degree of left thigh
 
*'''[[T24.319]]''' Burn of third degree of unspecified thigh
 
*'''[[T24.32]]''' Burn of third degree of knee
 
*'''[[T24.321]]''' Burn of third degree of right knee
 
*'''[[T24.322]]''' Burn of third degree of left knee
 
*'''[[T24.329]]''' Burn of third degree of unspecified knee
 
*'''[[T24.33]]''' Burn of third degree of lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.331]]''' Burn of third degree of right lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.332]]''' Burn of third degree of left lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.339]]''' Burn of third degree of unspecified lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.39]]''' Burn of third degree of multiple sites of lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.391]]''' Burn of third degree of multiple sites of right lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.392]]''' Burn of third degree of multiple sites of left lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.399]]''' Burn of third degree of multiple sites of unspecified lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.4]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of lower limb, except ankle and foot ''Code first''
 
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''
+
* '''[[Clotrimazole and breast feeding]]''' Because clotrimazole has poor oral bioavailability, it is unlikely to adversely affect the breastfed infant, including topical application to the nipples. It has been used orally in infants with thrush, sometimes successfully after nystatin has failed. Any excess cream or ointment should be removed from the nipples before nursing. Only water-miscible cream or gel products should be applied to the breast because ointments may expose the infant to high levels of mineral paraffins via licking.
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T24.40]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of unspecified site of lower limb, except ankle and foot
+
* '''[[Cloxacillin and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that cloxacillin produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with penicillins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Cloxacillin is acceptable in nursing mothers.
*'''[[T24.401]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of unspecified site of right lower limb, except ankle and
 
  
foot
+
* '''[[Clozapine and breast feeding]]''' Because there is little published experience with clozapine during breastfeeding, and sedation and adverse hematologic effects have been reported in breastfed infants, other agents are preferred. If breastfeeding is undertaken by a mother who is taking clozapine, close monitoring of the infant for excessive sedation and periodic monitoring of the infant's white blood cell count is advisable. Several authoritative sources recommend that women taking clozapine not breastfeed.
  
*'''[[T24.402]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of unspecified site of left lower limb, except ankle and
+
* '''[[Coagulation Factor IX and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of coagulation factor IX during breastfeeding. Because it is a large protein molecule, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. Until more data become available, coagulation factor IX should be used with caution during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
  
foot
+
* '''[[Coagulation Factor X and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of coagulation factor X during breastfeeding. Because it is a large protein molecule, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. Until more data become available, coagulation factor X should be used with caution during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
  
*'''[[T24.409]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of unspecified site of unspecified lower limb, except
+
* '''[[Coal Tar and breast feeding]]''' Coal tar applied topically to maternal skin can result in pyrene absorption by the infant, probably by skin-to-skin or skin-to-mouth contact with the mother. Because of the potential toxicity of coal tar to the breastfed infant, alternate drugs are preferred. If a coal tar product is used, it would be prudent to treat the smallest area of skin possible. It is particularly important to ensure that the infant's skin does not come into direct contact with the areas of skin that have been treated.
  
ankle and foot
+
* '''[[Cobimetinib and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of cobimetinib during breastfeeding. Because cobimetinib is 90% bound to plasma proteins, the amount in milk is likely to be low. However, its half-life is about 44 hours and it might accumulate in the infant. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during cobimetinib therapy and for 2 weeks after the last dose.
  
*'''[[T24.41]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of thigh
+
* '''[[Cocaine and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T24.411]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of right thigh
 
*'''[[T24.412]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of left thigh
 
*'''[[T24.419]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of unspecified thigh
 
*'''[[T24.42]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of knee
 
*'''[[T24.421]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of right knee
 
*'''[[T24.422]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of left knee
 
*'''[[T24.429]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of unspecified knee
 
*'''[[T24.43]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.431]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of right lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.432]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of left lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.439]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of unspecified lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.49]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of multiple sites of lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.491]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of multiple sites of right lower limb, except ankle and
 
  
foot
+
* '''[[Codeine and breast feeding]]''' Maternal use of codeine during breastfeeding can cause infant drowsiness, central nervous system depression and even death, with pharmacogenetics possibly playing a role. Newborn infants seem to be particularly sensitive to the effects of even small dosages of narcotic analgesics. Once the mother's milk comes in, it is best to provide pain control with a nonnarcotic analgesic and limit maternal intake of oral codeine to 2-4 days at a low dosage with close infant monitoring, especially in the outpatient setting. If the baby shows signs of increased sleepiness (more than usual), difficulty breastfeeding, breathing difficulties, or limpness, a physician should be contacted immediately. Excessive sedation in the mother often correlates with excess sedation in the breastfed infant. Following these precautions can lower the risk of neonatal sedation. Numerous professional organizations and regulatory agencies recommend that other agents are preferred over codeine or to avoid codeine completely during breastfeeding; however, other opioid alternatives have been studied less and may not be safer.
  
*'''[[T24.492]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of multiple sites of left lower limb, except ankle and
+
* '''[[Coenzyme Q10 and breast feeding]]'''  
  
foot
+
* '''[[Colchicine and breast feeding]]''' Long-term prophylactic maternal doses of colchicine up to 1.5 mg daily produce levels in milk that result in the infant receiving less than 10% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage. The highest milk levels occur 2 to 4 hours after a dose, so avoiding breastfeeding during this time can minimize the infant dose, although some clinicians simply recommend taking the drug after nursing. No adverse effects in breastfed infants have been reported in case series and a case-control study and some authors consider colchicine safe during breastfeeding in women being treated for familial Mediterranean fever or rheumatic conditions.
  
*'''[[T24.499]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of multiple sites of unspecified lower limb, except
+
* '''[[Colesevelam and breast feeding]]''' Colesevelam is a nonabsorbable resin. Because it does not enter the mother's bloodstream, it will not reach the infant via breastmilk. It is acceptable for use during lactation.
  
ankle and foot
+
* '''[[Colestipol and breast feeding]]''' Colestipol is a nonabsorbable resin. Because it does not enter the mother's bloodstream, it will not reach the infant via breastmilk. It is acceptable for use during lactation.
  
*'''[[T24.5]]''' Corrosion of first degree of lower limb, except ankle and foot ''Code first''
+
* '''[[Coleus and breast feeding]]'''  
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''  
+
* '''[[Colistimethate and breast feeding]]''' Limited data indicate that colistin is minimally excreted into breastmilk following intramuscular administration of colistimethate. Because colistin is poorly absorbed orally, it is unlikely to be absorbed in appreciable amounts by the infant or adversely affect the breastfed infant. However, no studies have evaluated serum levels or adverse effects in breastfed infants whose mothers were receiving colistimethate. Breastfeeding is acceptable with the use of inhaled colistin or colistimethate.
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T24.50]]''' Corrosion of first degree of unspecified site of lower limb, except ankle and foot
+
* '''[[Comfrey and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T24.501]]''' Corrosion of first degree of unspecified site of right lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.502]]''' Corrosion of first degree of unspecified site of left lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.509]]''' Corrosion of first degree of unspecified site of unspecified lower limb, except ankle and
 
  
foot
+
* '''[[Contraceptives, Oral, Combined and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T24.51]]''' Corrosion of first degree of thigh
+
* '''[[Copanlisib and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of copanlisib during breastfeeding. Because copanlisib's half-life is about 39 hours, it might accumulate in the infant. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during copanlisib therapy and for 1 month after the last dose.
*'''[[T24.511]]''' Corrosion of first degree of right thigh
 
*'''[[T24.512]]''' Corrosion of first degree of left thigh
 
*'''[[T24.519]]''' Corrosion of first degree of unspecified thigh
 
*'''[[T24.52]]''' Corrosion of first degree of knee
 
*'''[[T24.521]]''' Corrosion of first degree of right knee
 
*'''[[T24.522]]''' Corrosion of first degree of left knee
 
*'''[[T24.529]]''' Corrosion of first degree of unspecified knee
 
*'''[[T24.53]]''' Corrosion of first degree of lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.531]]''' Corrosion of first degree of right lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.532]]''' Corrosion of first degree of left lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.539]]''' Corrosion of first degree of unspecified lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.59]]''' Corrosion of first degree of multiple sites of lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.591]]''' Corrosion of first degree of multiple sites of right lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.592]]''' Corrosion of first degree of multiple sites of left lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.599]]''' Corrosion of first degree of multiple sites of unspecified lower limb, except ankle and
 
  
foot
+
* '''[[Coriander and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T24.6]]''' Corrosion of second degree of lower limb, except ankle and foot ''Code first''
+
* '''[[Corticotropin and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of corticotropin during breastfeeding. It is unlikely to appear in breastmilk and because it is has a molecular weight of 4540 and a half-life of only 10 to 15 minutes. Absorption by the infant is unlikely because it would probably be destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. Based on animal data, an increase in breastmilk cortisol levels might be expected after administration of corticotropin to a nursing mother.
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''  
+
* '''[[Cortisone and breast feeding]]'''  
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T24.60]]''' Corrosion of second degree of unspecified site of lower limb, except ankle and foot
+
* '''[[Cranberry and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T24.601]]''' Corrosion of second degree of unspecified site of right lower limb, except ankle and
 
  
foot
+
* '''[[Creatine and breast feeding]]''' Creatine is used as a dietary supplement to increase muscle mass and improve exercise performance. Although creatine is a normal component of human milk, milk levels of creatine have not been measured after exogenous administration in humans. Creatine is converted into creatinine in the mother's and infant's bodies. It may increase the infant's serum creatinine, which may alter estimations of the infant's kidney function. Some authors speculate that creatine supplementation of nursing mothers might help avoid creatine deficiency syndromes, but no studies are available that test this hypothesis. Until more data are available, it is probably best to avoid creatine supplementation unless it is prescribed by a healthcare professional.
  
*'''[[T24.602]]''' Corrosion of second degree of unspecified site of left lower limb, except ankle and foot
+
* '''[[Crizotinib and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of crizotinib during breastfeeding. Because crizotinib is 91% bound to plasma proteins, the amount in milk is likely to be low. However, its half-life is about 42 hours and it might accumulate in the infant. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during crizotinib therapy and for 45 days after the last dose.
*'''[[T24.609]]''' Corrosion of second degree of unspecified site of unspecified lower limb, except ankle
 
  
and foot
+
* '''[[Cromolyn and breast feeding]]''' Although no published data exist on the use of cromolyn during lactation, maternal milk levels are likely to be very low and it is expected to be poorly absorbed from the infant's gastrointestinal tract. An expert panel considers use of cromolyn to be acceptable during breastfeeding.
  
*'''[[T24.61]]''' Corrosion of second degree of thigh
+
* '''[[Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of crotalidae polyvalent immune fab (ovine) during breastfeeding. Because it is a large protein molecule, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract.
*'''[[T24.611]]''' Corrosion of second degree of right thigh
 
*'''[[T24.612]]''' Corrosion of second degree of left thigh
 
*'''[[T24.619]]''' Corrosion of second degree of unspecified thigh
 
*'''[[T24.62]]''' Corrosion of second degree of knee
 
*'''[[T24.621]]''' Corrosion of second degree of right knee
 
*'''[[T24.622]]''' Corrosion of second degree of left knee
 
*'''[[T24.629]]''' Corrosion of second degree of unspecified knee
 
*'''[[T24.63]]''' Corrosion of second degree of lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.631]]''' Corrosion of second degree of right lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.632]]''' Corrosion of second degree of left lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.639]]''' Corrosion of second degree of unspecified lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.69]]''' Corrosion of second degree of multiple sites of lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.691]]''' Corrosion of second degree of multiple sites of right lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.692]]''' Corrosion of second degree of multiple sites of left lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.699]]''' Corrosion of second degree of multiple sites of unspecified lower limb, except ankle
 
  
and foot
+
* '''[[Cumin and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T24.7]]''' Corrosion of third degree of lower limb, except ankle and foot ''Code first''
+
* '''[[Cyanocobalamin Co 57 and breast feeding]]'''  
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''  
+
* '''[[Cyclizine and breast feeding]]''' Occasional doses of cyclizine are probably acceptable during breastfeeding. Large doses or more prolonged use may cause effects in the infant or decrease the milk supply, particularly in combination with a sympathomimetic such as pseudoephedrine or before lactation is well established.
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T24.70]]''' Corrosion of third degree of unspecified site of lower limb, except ankle and foot
+
* '''[[Cyclobenzaprine and breast feeding]]''' Amounts of cyclobenzaprine in milk appear to be very small and two infants apparently tolerated the drug in milk well. If cyclobenzaprine is required by the mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding. Monitor the infant for (drowsiness, adequate weight gain, and developmental milestones), especially in neonates and preterm infants and when using combinations of sedating drugs.
*'''[[T24.701]]''' Corrosion of third degree of unspecified site of right lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.702]]''' Corrosion of third degree of unspecified site of left lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.709]]''' Corrosion of third degree of unspecified site of unspecified lower limb, except ankle and
 
  
foot
+
* '''[[Cyclopentolate and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of cyclopentolate during breastfeeding. Anticholinergic drugs might interfere with breastfeeding. A single dose of ophthalmic cyclopentolate is not likely to interfere with breastfeeding; however, during long-term use, observe the infant for signs of decreased lactation (e.g., insatiety, poor weight gain). To substantially diminish the amount of drug that reaches the breastmilk after using eye drops, place pressure over the tear duct by the corner of the eye for 1 minute or more, then remove the excess solution with an absorbent tissue.
  
*'''[[T24.71]]''' Corrosion of third degree of thigh
+
* '''[[Cyclophosphamide and breast feeding]]''' Cyclophosphamide appears in milk in potentially toxic amounts; additionally, highly toxic active metabolites could add to the risk to the infant. Neutropenia has been reported in 2 infants whose mothers breastfed them while receiving cyclophosphamide. Chemotherapy may adversely affect the normal microbiome and chemical makeup of breastmilk. Women who receive chemotherapy during pregnancy are more likely to have difficulty nursing their infant. Most sources consider breastfeeding to be contraindicated during maternal cytotoxic antineoplastic drug therapy, especially alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamide.
*'''[[T24.711]]''' Corrosion of third degree of right thigh
 
*'''[[T24.712]]''' Corrosion of third degree of left thigh
 
*'''[[T24.719]]''' Corrosion of third degree of unspecified thigh
 
*'''[[T24.72]]''' Corrosion of third degree of knee
 
*'''[[T24.721]]''' Corrosion of third degree of right knee
 
*'''[[T24.722]]''' Corrosion of third degree of left knee
 
*'''[[T24.729]]''' Corrosion of third degree of unspecified knee
 
*'''[[T24.73]]''' Corrosion of third degree of lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.731]]''' Corrosion of third degree of right lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.732]]''' Corrosion of third degree of left lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.739]]''' Corrosion of third degree of unspecified lower leg
 
*'''[[T24.79]]''' Corrosion of third degree of multiple sites of lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.791]]''' Corrosion of third degree of multiple sites of right lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.792]]''' Corrosion of third degree of multiple sites of left lower limb, except ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T24.799]]''' Corrosion of third degree of multiple sites of unspecified lower limb, except ankle and
 
  
foot
+
* '''[[Cycloserine and breast feeding]]''' Limited information from an old study indicates that maternal doses of cycloserine of 1 gram daily produce moderate levels in milk. If cycloserine is required by the mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding, especially if the infant is older than 2 months. Exclusively breastfed infants should be monitored if this drug is used during lactation, possibly including measurement of serum levels to rule out toxicity if there is a concern.
  
*'''[[T25]]''' Burn and corrosion of ankle and foot
+
* '''[[Cyclosporine and breast feeding]]'''  
  
The appropriate 7th character is to be added to each code from category T25
+
* '''[[Cyproheptadine and breast feeding]]''' Unless it is intentionally being used to lower maternal serum prolactin levels, cyproheptadine should be avoided during lactation because it may interfere with lactation, particularly in combination with a sympathomimetic such as pseudoephedrine or before lactation is well established. The nonsedating antihistamines are preferred alternatives.
A - initial encounter
 
D - subsequent encounter
 
S - sequela
 
  
*'''[[T25.0]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of ankle and foot ''Use additional''
+
* '''[[Dabigatran and breast feeding]]''' Preliminary data from 2 individuals indicate that dabigatran is poorly excreted into breastmilk. However, because it is orally absorbable and no information is available on the effet in breastfed infants, an alternate drug is preferred while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Dabrafenib and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of dabrafenib during breastfeeding. Because dabrafenib is more than 99% bound to plasma proteins, the amount in milk is likely to be low. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during dabrafenib therapy and for 2 weeks after the last dose.
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T25.01]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of ankle
+
* '''[[Dacarbazine and breast feeding]]''' Most sources consider breastfeeding to be contraindicated during maternal antineoplastic drug therapy, especially alkylating agents such as dacarbazine. It might be possible to breastfeed safely during intermittent therapy with an appropriate period of breastfeeding abstinence; however, no data are available to determine an appropriate period to withhold breastfeeding. Chemotherapy may adversely affect the normal microbiome and chemical makeup of breastmilk. Women who receive chemotherapy during pregnancy are more likely to have difficulty nursing their infant.
*'''[[T25.011]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of right ankle
 
*'''[[T25.012]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of left ankle
 
*'''[[T25.019]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of unspecified ankle
 
*'''[[T25.02]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of foot
 
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Daclatasvir and breast feeding]]'''  
burn of unspecified degree of toe(s) (nail) (T25.03-)
 
  
*'''[[T25.021]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of right foot
+
* '''[[Daclizumab and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of daclizumab during breastfeeding. Because daclizumab is a large protein molecule with a molecular weight of about 144,000, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. Until more data become available, daclizumab should be used with caution during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. Some authors recommend avoiding breastfeeding with daclizumab.
*'''[[T25.022]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of left foot
 
*'''[[T25.029]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of unspecified foot
 
*'''[[T25.03]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.031]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of right toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.032]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of left toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.039]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of unspecified toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.09]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of multiple sites of ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.091]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of multiple sites of right ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.092]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of multiple sites of left ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.099]]''' Burn of unspecified degree of multiple sites of unspecified ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.1]]''' Burn of first degree of ankle and foot ''Use additional''
 
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Dacomitinib and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of dacomitinib during breastfeeding. Because dacomitinib is 98% bound to plasma proteins, the amount in milk is likely to be low. However, because of its potential toxicity in the breastfed infant and its half-life of 70 hours, the manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during dacomitinib therapy and for at least 17 days after the last dose.
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T25.11]]''' Burn of first degree of ankle
+
* '''[[Dactinomycin and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of dactinomycin during breastfeeding. Most sources consider breastfeeding to be contraindicated during maternal antineoplastic drug therapy. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during dactinomycin therapy and for 14 days after the last dose.
*'''[[T25.111]]''' Burn of first degree of right ankle
 
*'''[[T25.112]]''' Burn of first degree of left ankle
 
*'''[[T25.119]]''' Burn of first degree of unspecified ankle
 
*'''[[T25.12]]''' Burn of first degree of foot
 
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Dalbavancin and breast feeding]]''' Because dalbavancin is poorly absorbed orally, it is not likely to reach the bloodstream of the infant or cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. Monitor the infant for possible effects on the gastrointestinal tract, such as diarrhea, vomiting, and candidiasis (e.g., thrush, diaper rash). However, because there is no published experience with dalbavancin during breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
burn of first degree of toe(s) (nail) (T25.13-)
 
  
*'''[[T25.121]]''' Burn of first degree of right foot
+
* '''[[Dalfampridine and breast feeding]]''' Because no information is available on the use of dalfampridine during breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
*'''[[T25.122]]''' Burn of first degree of left foot
 
*'''[[T25.129]]''' Burn of first degree of unspecified foot
 
*'''[[T25.13]]''' Burn of first degree of toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.131]]''' Burn of first degree of right toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.132]]''' Burn of first degree of left toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.139]]''' Burn of first degree of unspecified toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.19]]''' Burn of first degree of multiple sites of ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.191]]''' Burn of first degree of multiple sites of right ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.192]]''' Burn of first degree of multiple sites of left ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.199]]''' Burn of first degree of multiple sites of unspecified ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.2]]''' Burn of second degree of ankle and foot ''Use additional''
 
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Dalteparin and breast feeding]]''' Because of the low levels of dalteparin in breastmilk and its large molecular weight of 2000 to 9000 daltons, amounts ingested by the infant are small and it would not be expected to be absorbed from breastmilk by the infant. No special precautions are required.
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T25.21]]''' Burn of second degree of ankle
+
* '''[[Dandelion and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T25.211]]''' Burn of second degree of right ankle
 
*'''[[T25.212]]''' Burn of second degree of left ankle
 
*'''[[T25.219]]''' Burn of second degree of unspecified ankle
 
*'''[[T25.22]]''' Burn of second degree of foot
 
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Dantrolene and breast feeding]]''' Because no information is available on the long-term use of dantrolene during breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. After short-term use, the drug would be expected to be eliminated from milk in 1 to 2 days.
burn of second degree of toe(s) (nail) (T25.23-)
 
  
*'''[[T25.221]]''' Burn of second degree of right foot
+
* '''[[Dapagliflozin and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of dapagliflozin during breastfeeding. Dapagliflozin is an uncharged molecule that is 91% protein bound in plasma, so it is unlikely to pass into breastmilk in clinically important amounts. The manufacturer does not recommend dapagliflozin during breastfeeding because of a theoretical risk to the infant's developing kidney. An alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
*'''[[T25.222]]''' Burn of second degree of left foot
 
*'''[[T25.229]]''' Burn of second degree of unspecified foot
 
*'''[[T25.23]]''' Burn of second degree of toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.231]]''' Burn of second degree of right toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.232]]''' Burn of second degree of left toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.239]]''' Burn of second degree of unspecified toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.29]]''' Burn of second degree of multiple sites of ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.291]]''' Burn of second degree of multiple sites of right ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.292]]''' Burn of second degree of multiple sites of left ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.299]]''' Burn of second degree of multiple sites of unspecified ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.3]]''' Burn of third degree of ankle and foot ''Use additional''
 
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Dapsone and breast feeding]]'''
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T25.31]]''' Burn of third degree of ankle
+
* '''[[Daptomycin and breast feeding]]''' Limited and somewhat inconsistent information indicates that daptomycin produces very low levels in milk and it would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. No special precautions are required.
*'''[[T25.311]]''' Burn of third degree of right ankle
 
*'''[[T25.312]]''' Burn of third degree of left ankle
 
*'''[[T25.319]]''' Burn of third degree of unspecified ankle
 
*'''[[T25.32]]''' Burn of third degree of foot
 
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Daratumumab and breast feeding]]'''  
burn of third degree of toe(s) (nail) (T25.33-)
 
  
*'''[[T25.321]]''' Burn of third degree of right foot
+
* '''[[Darbepoetin and breast feeding]]''' The excretion of darbepoetin alfa in breastmilk or its effects on breastfed infants have not been studied. However, erythropoietin is a normal component of human milk and darbepoetin is immunologically and biologically indistinguishable from native erythropoietin. Intravenous darbepoetin has been given safely to newborn infants in doses much larger than those expected to appear in breastmilk. No special precautions are required during breastfeeding.
*'''[[T25.322]]''' Burn of third degree of left foot
 
*'''[[T25.329]]''' Burn of third degree of unspecified foot
 
*'''[[T25.33]]''' Burn of third degree of toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.331]]''' Burn of third degree of right toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.332]]''' Burn of third degree of left toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.339]]''' Burn of third degree of unspecified toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.39]]''' Burn of third degree of multiple sites of ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.391]]''' Burn of third degree of multiple sites of right ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.392]]''' Burn of third degree of multiple sites of left ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.399]]''' Burn of third degree of multiple sites of unspecified ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.4]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of ankle and foot ''Code first''
 
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''
+
* '''[[Darunavir and breast feeding]]''' In the United States and other developed countries, HIV-infected mothers should generally not breastfeed their infants. No published information is available on the use of darunavir during breastfeeding. In countries in which no acceptable, feasible, sustainable and safe replacement feeding is available, World Health Organization guidelines recommend that all women with an HIV infection who are pregnant or breastfeeding should be maintained on antiretroviral therapy for at least the duration of risk for mother-to-child transmission. Mothers should exclusively breastfeed their infants for the first 6 months of life; breastfeeding with complementary feeding should continue through at least 12 months of life up to 24 months of life. The first choice regimen for nursing mothers is tenofovir, efavirenz and either lamivudine or emtricitabine. If these drugs are unavailable, alternative regimens include: 1) zidovudine, lamivudine and efavirenz; 2) zidovudine, lamivudine and nevirapine; or 3) tenofovir, nevirapine and either lamivudine or emtricitabine. Exclusively breastfed infants should also receive 6 weeks of prophylaxis with nevirapine.
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T25.41]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of ankle
+
* '''[[Dasabuvir and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T25.411]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of right ankle
 
*'''[[T25.412]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of left ankle
 
*'''[[T25.419]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of unspecified ankle
 
*'''[[T25.42]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of foot
 
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Dasatinib and breast feeding]]''' Although one breastfed infants apparently experienced no adverse effects during maternal use of dasatinib, no long-term data are available. Because dasatinib and its metabolite are more than 90% bound to plasma proteins, the amounts in milk are likely to be low. However, there is little published experience with dasatinib during breastfeeding, and an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during dasatinib therapy and for 2 weeks after the last dose.
corrosion of unspecified degree of toe(s) (nail) (T25.43-)
 
  
*'''[[T25.421]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of right foot
+
* '''[[Deep Brain Stimulation and breast feeding]]''' Evidence from a few mothers who received deep brain stimulation indicated that no difficulty was encountered with lactation, other than minor discomfort with chest neurostimulators.
*'''[[T25.422]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of left foot
 
*'''[[T25.429]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of unspecified foot
 
*'''[[T25.43]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.431]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of right toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.432]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of left toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.439]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of unspecified toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.49]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of multiple sites of ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.491]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of multiple sites of right ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.492]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of multiple sites of left ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.499]]''' Corrosion of unspecified degree of multiple sites of unspecified ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.5]]''' Corrosion of first degree of ankle and foot ''Code first''
 
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''  
+
* '''[[Deferasirox and breast feeding]]''' Deferasirox appears to pass into milk very poorly. Although Australian guidelines recommend against breastfeeding during deferasirox treatment, these were published before a case report of an infant being safely breastfed by a mother with beta-thalassemia receiving deferasirox and finding of no drug in breastmilk. However, since little published information is available on the use of deferasirox during breastfeeding, monitoring of the infant's serum iron is recommended.
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T25.51]]''' Corrosion of first degree of ankle
+
* '''[[Deferiprone and breast feeding]]''' Because no information is available on the use of deferiprone during breastfeeding and it is orally absorbed, an alternate drug is preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. Australian guidelines recommend against breastfeeding during deferiprone treatment.
*'''[[T25.511]]''' Corrosion of first degree of right ankle
 
*'''[[T25.512]]''' Corrosion of first degree of left ankle
 
*'''[[T25.519]]''' Corrosion of first degree of unspecified ankle
 
*'''[[T25.52]]''' Corrosion of first degree of foot
 
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Deferoxamine and breast feeding]]''' Deferoxamine is poorly absorbed orally, so it is not likely to reach the bloodstream of the infant or cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. Limited information indicates that maternal doses of deferoxamine up to 2 grams daily do not affect iron levels in breastmilk and did not cause any adverse effects in two breastfed infants. Some experts advocate breastfeeding in women receiving deferoxamine for iron overload caused by beta-thalassemia. However, since little published information is available on the use of deferoxamine during breastfeeding, monitoring of the infant's serum iron is recommended.
corrosion of first degree of toe(s) (nail) (T25.53-)
 
  
*'''[[T25.521]]''' Corrosion of first degree of right foot
+
* '''[[Deflazacort and breast feeding]]''' Because no information is available on the use of deflazacort during breastfeeding, an alternate corticosteroid may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
*'''[[T25.522]]''' Corrosion of first degree of left foot
 
*'''[[T25.529]]''' Corrosion of first degree of unspecified foot
 
*'''[[T25.53]]''' Corrosion of first degree of toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.531]]''' Corrosion of first degree of right toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.532]]''' Corrosion of first degree of left toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.539]]''' Corrosion of first degree of unspecified toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.59]]''' Corrosion of first degree of multiple sites of ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.591]]''' Corrosion of first degree of multiple sites of right ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.592]]''' Corrosion of first degree of multiple sites of left ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.599]]''' Corrosion of first degree of multiple sites of unspecified ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.6]]''' Corrosion of second degree of ankle and foot ''Code first''
 
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''  
+
* '''[[Delafloxacin and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of delafloxacin during breastfeeding. Fluoroquinolones have traditionally not been used in infants because of concern about adverse effects on the infants' developing joints. However, recent studies indicate little risk. The calcium in milk might prevent absorption of fluoroquinolones in milk, but insufficient data exist to prove or disprove this assertion. Use of delafloxacin is acceptable in nursing mothers. However, it is preferable to use an alternate drug for which safety information is available.
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T25.61]]''' Corrosion of second degree of ankle
+
* '''[[Delavirdine and breast feeding]]''' In the United States and other developed countries, HIV-infected mothers should generally not breastfeed their infants. In countries in which no acceptable, feasible, sustainable and safe replacement feeding is available, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is recommended for HIV-infected mothers to reduce the risk of HIV transmission from the mother to the infant compared with mixed feeding. In these settings, abrupt weaning at 4 months does not reduce the risk of HIV transmission or produce an overall health benefit compared to continued breastfeeding, and increases the risk of infant death in HIV-infected infants. Extended antiretroviral prophylaxis in breastfed infants with antiretroviral drugs appears to reduce the rate of HIV transmission during breastfeeding by about half, but the optimal regimen and duration of prophylaxis has not yet been defined. Because there is little published experience with delavirdine during breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
*'''[[T25.611]]''' Corrosion of second degree of right ankle
 
*'''[[T25.612]]''' Corrosion of second degree of left ankle
 
*'''[[T25.619]]''' Corrosion of second degree of unspecified ankle
 
*'''[[T25.62]]''' Corrosion of second degree of foot
 
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Demeclocycline and breast feeding]]''' A number of reviews have stated that tetracyclines are contraindicated during breastfeeding because of possible staining of infants' dental enamel or bone deposition of tetracyclines. However, a close examination of available literature indicates that there is not likely to be harm in short-term use of demeclocycline during lactation because milk levels are low and absorption by the infant is inhibited by the calcium in breastmilk. Short-term use of demeclocycline is acceptable in nursing mothers. As a theoretical precaution, avoid prolonged or repeat courses during nursing. Monitor the infant for rash and for possible effects on the gastrointestinal flora, such as diarrhea or candidiasis (thrush, diaper rash).
corrosion of second degree of toe(s) (nail) (T25.63-)
 
  
*'''[[T25.621]]''' Corrosion of second degree of right foot
+
* '''[[Dengue Tetravalent Vaccine, Live and breast feeding]]''' Dengue vaccine is a live, attenuated vaccine indicated for children up to 16 years of age. No information is available on the clinical use of dengue vaccine during breastfeeding. However, the viruses were not detected in the milk of rats given the vaccine. If dengue vaccine is required by the mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding.
*'''[[T25.622]]''' Corrosion of second degree of left foot
 
*'''[[T25.629]]''' Corrosion of second degree of unspecified foot
 
*'''[[T25.63]]''' Corrosion of second degree of toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.631]]''' Corrosion of second degree of right toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.632]]''' Corrosion of second degree of left toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.639]]''' Corrosion of second degree of unspecified toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.69]]''' Corrosion of second degree of multiple sites of ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.691]]''' Corrosion of second degree of right ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.692]]''' Corrosion of second degree of left ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.699]]''' Corrosion of second degree of unspecified ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.7]]''' Corrosion of third degree of ankle and foot ''Code first''
 
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''  
+
* '''[[Denosumab and breast feeding]]'''  
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T25.71]]''' Corrosion of third degree of ankle
+
* '''[[Desflurane and breast feeding]]''' There is no published experience with desflurane during breastfeeding. Because the serum half-life of desflurane in the mother is short and the drug is not expected to be absorbed by the infant, no waiting period or discarding of milk is required. Breastfeeding can be resumed as soon as the mother has recovered sufficiently from general anesthesia to nurse. When a combination of anesthetic agents is used for a procedure, follow the recommendations for the most problematic medication used during the procedure. In one study, breastfeeding before general anesthesia induction reduced requirements of sevoflurane and propofol compared to those of nursing mothers whose breastfeeding was withheld or nonnursing women. It is possible that requirements for other anesthetic agents would be affected similarly.
*'''[[T25.711]]''' Corrosion of third degree of right ankle
 
*'''[[T25.712]]''' Corrosion of third degree of left ankle
 
*'''[[T25.719]]''' Corrosion of third degree of unspecified ankle
 
*'''[[T25.72]]''' Corrosion of third degree of foot
 
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Desipramine and breast feeding]]''' Milk levels of desipramine and its metabolite are low and have not been detected in the serum of breastfed infants. Immediate side effects have not been reported and a limited amount of follow-up has found no adverse effects on infant growth and development. Desipramine use during breastfeeding would usually not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants, especially if the infant is older than 2 months.
corrosion of third degree of toe(s) (nail) (T25.73-)
 
  
*'''[[T25.721]]''' Corrosion of third degree of right foot
+
* '''[[Desirudin and breast feeding]]''' Desirudin is no longer marketed in the United States. Because no information is available on the use of desirudin during breastfeeding, an alternate drug is preferred.
*'''[[T25.722]]''' Corrosion of third degree of left foot
 
*'''[[T25.729]]''' Corrosion of third degree of unspecified foot
 
*'''[[T25.73]]''' Corrosion of third degree of toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.731]]''' Corrosion of third degree of right toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.732]]''' Corrosion of third degree of left toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.739]]''' Corrosion of third degree of unspecified toe(s) (nail)
 
*'''[[T25.79]]''' Corrosion of third degree of multiple sites of ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.791]]''' Corrosion of third degree of multiple sites of right ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.792]]''' Corrosion of third degree of multiple sites of left ankle and foot
 
*'''[[T25.799]]''' Corrosion of third degree of multiple sites of unspecified ankle and foot
 
  
Burns and corrosions confined to eye and internal organs (T26-T28)
+
* '''[[Desloratadine and breast feeding]]''' Because of its expected low milk levels and lack of sedation and anticholinergic effects, maternal use of desloratadine is unlikely to affect a breastfed infant or milk production. Desloratadine might have a negative effect on lactation in combination with a sympathomimetic agent such as pseudoephedrine.
  
*'''[[T26]]''' Burn and corrosion confined to eye and adnexa
+
* '''[[Desmopressin and breast feeding]]''' Desmopressin from a nasal spray is excreted in negligible amounts into milk and is poorly absorbed orally by the infant, so it appears acceptable to use during breastfeeding. There is no published experience with sublingual desmopressin during breastfeeding. Until more data become available, sublingual desmopressin should be used with caution during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
  
The appropriate 7th character is to be added to each code from category T26
+
* '''[[Desogestrel and breast feeding]]''' Desogestrel is only available in the United States in combination oral contraceptive products containing 150 mcg of desogestrel and 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol. Based on the available evidence, expert opinion holds that nonhormonal methods are preferred during breastfeeding and progestin-only contraceptive are preferred over combined oral contraceptives in breastfeeding women, especially during the first 4 weeks postpartum. For further information, consult the record entitled, "Contraceptives, Oral, Combined."
A - initial encounter
 
D - subsequent encounter
 
S - sequela
 
  
*'''[[T26.0]]''' Burn of eyelid and periocular area ''Use additional''
+
* '''[[Desonide and breast feeding]]''' Desonide has not been studied during breastfeeding. Since only extensive application of the most potent corticosteroids may cause systemic effects in the mother, it is unlikely that short-term application of topical corticosteroids would pose a risk to the breastfed infant by passage into breastmilk. However, it would be prudent to use the least potent drug on the smallest area of skin possible. It is particularly important to ensure that the infant's skin does not come into direct contact with the areas of skin that have been treated. Only water-miscible cream or gel products should be applied to the breast because ointments may expose the infant to high levels of mineral paraffins via licking. Desonide cream or foam are acceptable to use on the nipple. Any topical corticosteroid should be wiped off thoroughly prior to nursing if it is being applied to the breast or nipple area.
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Desoximetasone and breast feeding]]''' Desoximetasone has not been studied during breastfeeding. Since only extensive application of the most potent corticosteroids cause systemic effects in the mother, it is unlikely that short-term application of topical corticosteroids would pose a risk to the breastfed infant by passage into breastmilk. However, it would be prudent to use the least potent drug on the smallest area of skin possible. It is particularly important to ensure that the infant's skin does not come into direct contact with the areas of skin that have been treated. Only the lower potency corticosteroids should be used on the nipple or areola where the infant could directly ingest the drugs from the skin. Only water-miscible cream or gel products should be applied to the breast because ointments may expose the infant to high levels of mineral paraffins via licking. Any topical corticosteroid should be wiped off thoroughly prior to nursing if it is being applied to the breast or nipple area.
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T26.00]]''' Burn of unspecified eyelid and periocular area
+
* '''[[Desvenlafaxine and breast feeding]]''' Modest doses of desvenlafaxine are excreted into breastmilk, but serum drug levels of breastfed infants are less than 10% of simultaneous maternal levels. Total drug exposure of breastfed infants is about half of that experienced by breastfed infants whose mothers are taking venlafaxine. Breastfed infants, especially newborn or preterm infants, should be monitored for excessive sedation and adequate weight gain if this drug is used during lactation, possibly including measurement of serum levels to rule out toxicity if there is a concern. With the related drug venlafaxine, newborn infants of mothers who took the drug during pregnancy sometimes experienced poor neonatal adaptation as seen with other antidepressants such as SSRIs or SNRIs. Similar effects may occur with desvenlafaxine.
*'''[[T26.01]]''' Burn of right eyelid and periocular area
 
*'''[[T26.02]]''' Burn of left eyelid and periocular area
 
*'''[[T26.1]]''' Burn of cornea and conjunctival sac ''Use additional''
 
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Dexamethasone and breast feeding]]''' Because no information is available on the use of systemic dexamethasone during breastfeeding, an alternate corticosteroid may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. Local injections, such as for tendinitis, would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants, but might occasionally cause temporary loss of milk supply.
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T26.10]]''' Burn of cornea and conjunctival sac, unspecified eye
+
* '''[[Dexamethasone, Topical and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T26.11]]''' Burn of cornea and conjunctival sac, right eye
 
*'''[[T26.12]]''' Burn of cornea and conjunctival sac, left eye
 
*'''[[T26.2]]''' Burn with resulting rupture and destruction of eyeball ''Use additional''
 
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Dexbrompheniramine and breast feeding]]''' Small, occasional doses of dexbrompheniramine would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. Larger doses or more prolonged use may cause effects in the infant or decrease the milk supply, particularly in combination with a sympathomimetic such as pseudoephedrine or before lactation is well established. Single bedtime doses after the last feeding of the day may be adequate for many women and will minimize any effects of the drug. The nonsedating antihistamines are preferred alternatives.
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T26.20]]''' Burn with resulting rupture and destruction of unspecified eyeball
+
* '''[[Dexchlorpheniramine and breast feeding]]''' Small, occasional doses of dexchlorpheniramine would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. Larger doses or more prolonged use might cause effects in the infant or decrease the milk supply, particularly in combination with a sympathomimetic such as pseudoephedrine or before lactation is well established. Single bedtime doses after the last feeding of the day may be adequate for many women and will minimize any effects of the drug. The nonsedating antihistamines are preferred alternatives.
*'''[[T26.21]]''' Burn with resulting rupture and destruction of right eyeball
 
*'''[[T26.22]]''' Burn with resulting rupture and destruction of left eyeball
 
*'''[[T26.3]]''' Burns of other specified parts of eye and adnexa ''Use additional''
 
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Dexlansoprazole and breast feeding]]'''
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T26.30]]''' Burns of other specified parts of unspecified eye and adnexa
+
* '''[[Dexmedetomidine and breast feeding]]''' Limited data indicate that very small amounts of dexmedetomidine are excreted into breastmilk for 6 hours after the end of an infusion. Because of the small amounts of colostrum secreted in the first day postpartum, the dose received by a neonate is unlikely to be of any consequence when the drug is used during delivery. The drug is absent from breastmilk by 24 hours after the end of an infusion. Dexmedetomidine would not be expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants or neonates.
*'''[[T26.31]]''' Burns of other specified parts of right eye and adnexa
 
*'''[[T26.32]]''' Burns of other specified parts of left eye and adnexa
 
*'''[[T26.4]]''' Burn of eye and adnexa, part unspecified ''Use additional''
 
  
external cause code to identify the source, place and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77,
+
* '''[[Dexmethylphenidate and breast feeding]]'''
X96-X98, Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T26.40]]''' Burn of unspecified eye and adnexa, part unspecified
+
* '''[[Dexrazoxane and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of dexrazoxane during breastfeeding. The manufacturer recommends that women not breastfeed during treatment and for 2 weeks following the final dose of dexrazoxane. However, because dexrazoxane is used with doxorubicin, the abstinence period might be longer, depending on the doxorubicin dose.
*'''[[T26.41]]''' Burn of right eye and adnexa, part unspecified
 
*'''[[T26.42]]''' Burn of left eye and adnexa, part unspecified
 
*'''[[T26.5]]''' Corrosion of eyelid and periocular area ''Code first''
 
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''  
+
* '''[[Dextroamphetamine and breast feeding]]''' In dosages prescribed for medical indications, some evidence indicates that dextroamphetamine might not affect nursing infants adversely. The effect of dextroamphetamine in milk on the neurological development of the infant has not been well studied. It is possible that large dosages of dextroamphetamine might interfere with milk production, especially in women whose lactation is not well established. Relevant published information was not found as of the revision date on the safety of breastfeeding during amphetamine abuse. One expert recommends that amphetamines not be used therapeutically in nursing mothers.
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T26.50]]''' Corrosion of unspecified eyelid and periocular area
+
* '''[[Dextromethorphan and breast feeding]]''' Neither the excretion of dextromethorphan in milk nor its effect on breastfed infants have been studied. It is unlikely that with usual maternal doses amounts in breastmilk would harm the nursing infant, especially in infants over 2 months of age. It is best to avoid the use of products with a high alcohol content while nursing.
*'''[[T26.51]]''' Corrosion of right eyelid and periocular area
 
*'''[[T26.52]]''' Corrosion of left eyelid and periocular area
 
*'''[[T26.6]]''' Corrosion of cornea and conjunctival sac ''Code first''
 
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''
+
* '''[[Dialysis and breast feeding]]''' There appear to be no contraindications to breastfeeding by mothers who are on dialysis, although there are few reported cases. Analysis of breastmilk indicates that the predialysis milk concentrations of some solutes are abnormal. Authors who managed one patient suggest that breastfeeding after hemodialysis might be preferable to breastfeeding before hemodialysis and milk pumped just before dialysis should be discarded.
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T26.60]]''' Corrosion of cornea and conjunctival sac, unspecified eye
+
* '''[[Diatrizoate and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that maternal doses of diatrizoate up to 38 g (containing 18.5 grams of iodine) produce low levels in milk. In addition, because diatrizoate is poorly absorbed orally, it is not likely to reach the bloodstream of the infant or cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. Guidelines developed by several professional organizations state that breastfeeding need not be disrupted after a nursing mother receives a iodine-containing contrast medium.
*'''[[T26.61]]''' Corrosion of cornea and conjunctival sac, right eye
 
*'''[[T26.62]]''' Corrosion of cornea and conjunctival sac, left eye
 
*'''[[T26.7]]''' Corrosion with resulting rupture and destruction of eyeball ''Code first''
 
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''  
+
* '''[[Diazepam and breast feeding]]'''  
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T26.70]]''' Corrosion with resulting rupture and destruction of unspecified eyeball
+
* '''[[Dibucaine and breast feeding]]''' Topical dibucaine has not been studied during breastfeeding, but is unlikely to affect her breastfed infant if it is applied away from the breast. However, dibucaine ointment should not be applied to the nipple area. Only water-miscible cream or gel products should be applied to the breast because ointments may expose the infant to high levels of mineral paraffins via licking.
*'''[[T26.71]]''' Corrosion with resulting rupture and destruction of right eyeball
 
*'''[[T26.72]]''' Corrosion with resulting rupture and destruction of left eyeball
 
*'''[[T26.8]]''' Corrosions of other specified parts of eye and adnexa ''Code first''
 
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''
+
* '''[[Dichloralphenazone and breast feeding]]''' Short-term or occasional use of dichloralphenazone during breastfeeding is unlikely to adversely affect the breastfed infant, especially if the infant is older than 2 months. Because the active metabolite, trichloroethanol, has a long half-life, long-term use of repeated doses during breastfeeding could result in infant sedation, especially while nursing a neonate or preterm infant. The low doses of dichloralphenazone found in combination migraine products (e.g., Midrin) are less likely to cause drowsiness in the infant unless doses are repeated several times daily. The antipyrine component of dichloralphenazone is considered unlikely to harm the infant. Monitor the infant for excessive drowsiness during use.
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T26.80]]''' Corrosions of other specified parts of unspecified eye and adnexa
+
* '''[[Diclofenac and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T26.81]]''' Corrosions of other specified parts of right eye and adnexa
 
*'''[[T26.82]]''' Corrosions of other specified parts of left eye and adnexa
 
*'''[[T26.9]]''' Corrosion of eye and adnexa, part unspecified ''Code first''
 
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent ''Use additional''
+
* '''[[Dicloxacillin and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that dicloxacillin levels in milk are low and are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. It is frequently used to treat mastitis in nursing mothers. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush have been reported with penicillins, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Dicloxacillin is acceptable in nursing mothers.
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
  
*'''[[T26.90]]''' Corrosion of unspecified eye and adnexa, part unspecified
+
* '''[[Dicyclomine and breast feeding]]''' Dicyclomine has not been well studied during breastfeeding. However, one possible case of apnea has been reported in a breastfed infant that is similar to reactions that have occurred in infants given the drug directly. Dicyclomine should not be used during lactation.
*'''[[T26.91]]''' Corrosion of right eye and adnexa, part unspecified
 
*'''[[T26.92]]''' Corrosion of left eye and adnexa, part unspecified
 
*'''[[T27]]''' Burn and corrosion of respiratory tract ''Use additional''
 
  
external cause code to identify the source and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77, X96-X98) ''Use additional''
+
* '''[[Didanosine and breast feeding]]''' In the United States and other developed countries, HIV-infected mothers should generally not breastfeed their infants. No published information is available on the use of didanosine during breastfeeding. In countries in which no acceptable, feasible, sustainable and safe replacement feeding is available, World Health Organization guidelines recommend that all women with an HIV infection who are pregnant or breastfeeding should be maintained on antiretroviral therapy for at least the duration of risk for mother-to-child transmission. Mothers should exclusively breastfeed their infants for the first 6 months of life; breastfeeding with complementary feeding should continue through at least 12 months of life up to 24 months of life. The first choice regimen for nursing mothers is tenofovir, efavirenz and either lamivudine or emtricitabine. If these drugs are unavailable, alternative regimens include: 1) zidovudine, lamivudine and efavirenz; 2) zidovudine, lamivudine and nevirapine; or 3) tenofovir, nevirapine and either lamivudine or emtricitabine. Exclusively breastfed infants should also receive 6 weeks of prophylaxis with nevirapine.
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
The appropriate 7th character is to be added to each code from category T27
 
A - initial encounter
 
D - subsequent encounter
 
S - sequela
 
  
*'''[[T27.0]]''' Burn of larynx and trachea
+
* '''[[Dienogest and breast feeding]]''' Dienogest is only available in the United States in a combination oral contraceptive product that also contains estradiol valerate. Based on the available evidence, expert opinion holds that nonhormonal methods are preferred during breastfeeding and progestin-only contraceptives are preferred over combined oral contraceptives in breastfeeding women, especially during the first 4 weeks postpartum. For further information, consult the record entitled, "Contraceptives, Oral, Combined."
*'''[[T27.1]]''' Burn involving larynx and trachea with lung
 
*'''[[T27.2]]''' Burn of other parts of respiratory tract
 
  
Burn of thoracic cavity
+
* '''[[Diethyltoluamide and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of diethyltoluamide (DEET) during breastfeeding. However, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency consider DEET to be safe and effective during breastfeeding when used as directed. It should be used by breastfeeding women to avoid exposure to mosquito-borne viruses. Avoid application directly to the nipple and other areas where the infant might directly ingest the product.
  
*'''[[T27.3]]''' Burn of respiratory tract, part unspecified
+
* '''[[Diflorasone and breast feeding]]''' Topical diflorasone has not been studied during breastfeeding. Since only extensive application of the most potent corticosteroids may cause systemic effects in the mother, it is unlikely that short-term application of topical corticosteroids would pose a risk to the breastfed infant by passage into breastmilk. However, it would be prudent to use the least potent drug on the smallest area of skin possible. It is particularly important to ensure that the infant's skin does not come into direct contact with the areas of skin that have been treated. Only the lower potency corticosteroids should be used on the nipple or areola where the infant could directly ingest the drugs from the skin; diflorasone should be avoided on the nipple. Only water-miscible cream or gel products should be applied to the breast because ointments may expose the infant to high levels of mineral paraffins via licking. Any topical corticosteroid should be wiped off thoroughly prior to nursing if it is being applied to the breast or nipple area.
*'''[[T27.4]]''' Corrosion of larynx and trachea ''Code first''
 
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent
+
* '''[[Diflunisal and breast feeding]]''' The small amounts of diflunisal in milk do not appear to pose a serious risk to breastfeeding infants. However, a shorter-acting agents having more published information may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
  
*'''[[T27.5]]''' Corrosion involving larynx and trachea with lung ''Code first''
+
* '''[[Difluprednate and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the ophthalmic use of difluprednate during breastfeeding. Because absorption from the eye is limited, ophthalmic difluprednate would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. To substantially diminish the amount of drug that reaches the breastmilk after using eye drops, place pressure over the tear duct by the corner of the eye for 1 minute or more, then remove the excess solution with an absorbent tissue.
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent
+
* '''[[Digoxin Immune Fab and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of digoxin immune fab (ovine) during breastfeeding. Because it is a large protein molecule with a molecular weight of about 46,000, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract.
  
*'''[[T27.6]]''' Corrosion of other parts of respiratory tract ''Code first''
+
* '''[[Digoxin and breast feeding]]''' Because of the low levels of digoxin in breastmilk, amounts ingested by the infant are small and would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. If the mother is to receive digoxin intravenously, avoidance of breastfeeding for 2 hours after the dose will lessen the dose the infant receives.
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent
+
* '''[[Dihydrocodeine and breast feeding]]''' Maternal use of oral narcotics during breastfeeding can cause infant drowsiness, central nervous system (CNS) depression and even death. Like codeine, pharmacogenetics probably plays a role in the extent of CNS depression. Newborn infants seem to be particularly sensitive to the effects of even small dosages of narcotic analgesics. Dihydrocodeine possibly caused severe respiratory depression in one newborn infant whose mother was taking the drug for cough. Once the mother's milk comes in, it is best to provide pain control with a nonnarcotic analgesic and limit maternal intake of hydromorphone to a few days at a low dosage with close infant monitoring. If the baby shows signs of increased sleepiness (more than usual), difficulty breastfeeding, breathing difficulties, or limpness, a physician should be contacted immediately. Because there is little published experience with dihydrocodine during breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
  
*'''[[T27.7]]''' Corrosion of respiratory tract, part unspecified ''Code first''
+
* '''[[Dill and breast feeding]]'''  
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent
+
* '''[[Diltiazem and breast feeding]]''' Based on limited data, amounts of diltiazem ingested by the infant are small and would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants.
  
*'''[[T28]]''' Burn and corrosion of other internal organs ''Use additional''
+
* '''[[Dimenhydrinate and breast feeding]]''' Small, occasional doses of dimenhydrinate would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. Larger doses or more prolonged use may cause effects in the infant or decrease the milk supply, particularly in combination with a sympathomimetic such as pseudoephedrine or before lactation is well established. Single bedtime doses after the last feeding of the day may be adequate for many women and will minimize any effects of the drug.
  
external cause code to identify the source and intent of the burn (X00-X19, X75-X77, X96-X98) ''Use additional''
+
* '''[[Dimethyl fumarate and breast feeding]]''' There is no published experience with dimethyl fumarate during breastfeeding. Although some authors recommend avoiding breastfeeding during dimethyl fumarate therapy, others and the manufacturer do not. Avoiding breastfeeding for 4 to 5 hours after a dose should minimize infant exposure. The infant should be monitored for adequate weight gain, and developmental milestones, especially in younger, exclusively breastfed infants. Some authors also recommend monitoring for vomiting and diarrhea.
external cause code to identify place (Y92)
 
The appropriate 7th character is to be added to each code from category T28
 
A - initial encounter
 
D - subsequent encounter
 
S - sequela
 
  
*'''[[T28.0]]''' Burn of mouth and pharynx
+
* '''[[Dinoprostone and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T28.1]]''' Burn of esophagus
 
*'''[[T28.2]]''' Burn of other parts of alimentary tract
 
*'''[[T28.3]]''' Burn of internal genitourinary organs
 
*'''[[T28.4]]''' Burns of other and unspecified internal organs
 
*'''[[T28.40]]''' Burn of unspecified internal organ
 
*'''[[T28.41]]''' Burn of ear drum
 
*'''[[T28.411]]''' Burn of right ear drum
 
*'''[[T28.412]]''' Burn of left ear drum
 
*'''[[T28.419]]''' Burn of unspecified ear drum
 
*'''[[T28.49]]''' Burn of other internal organ
 
*'''[[T28.5]]''' Corrosion of mouth and pharynx ''Code first''
 
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent
+
* '''[[Dinutuximab and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of dinutuximab during breastfeeding. Because dinutuximab is a large protein molecule with a molecular weight of about 150,000, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. Until more data become available, dinutuximab should be used with caution during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during dinutuximab therapy.
  
*'''[[T28.6]]''' Corrosion of esophagus ''Code first''
+
* '''[[Diphenhydramine and breast feeding]]''' Small, occasional doses of diphenhydramine would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. Larger doses or more prolonged use may cause effects in the infant or decrease the milk supply, particularly in combination with a sympathomimetic such as pseudoephedrine or before lactation is well established. Single bedtime doses after the last feeding of the day may be adequate for many women and will minimize any effects of the drug. The nonsedating antihistamines are preferred alternatives.
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent
+
* '''[[Diphenoxylate and breast feeding]]''' No data exist on the use of diphenoxylate during breastfeeding. One expert panel considers diphenoxylate to be unacceptable during breastfeeding. Based on its chemical and pharmacological similarity to narcotics, occasional small doses of diphenoxylate may be acceptable while breastfeeding an older infant, but alternatives are preferred, especially while nursing a newborn.
  
*'''[[T28.7]]''' Corrosion of other parts of alimentary tract ''Code first''
+
* '''[[Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccines and breast feeding]]'''  
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent
+
* '''[[Dipyridamole and breast feeding]]''' No published information is available on the use of dipyridamole during breastfeeding, although labeling states that the drug is excreted into human milk. Until more data become available, dipyridamole should be used with caution during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. If it is used by a nursing mother, monitor the infant for bruising and bleeding.
  
*'''[[T28.8]]''' Corrosion of internal genitourinary organs ''Code first''
+
* '''[[Dipyrone and breast feeding]]''' Dipyrone is not approved for marketing in the United States by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or in Canada and many European countries because of its adverse reactions, including agranulocytosis. However, it is widely used in other countries during labor and breastfeeding. After ingestion by the mother, dipyrone and its metabolites appear in breastmilk in rather large amounts. It is found in the blood and urine of breastfed infants and can cause pharmacological effects in the breastfed infant. One case of cyanotic episodes in a breastfed infant was attributed to dipyrone in breastmilk. The drug and metabolites are eliminated from the breastmilk by 48 hours after a dose and one manufacturer recommends no breastfeeding for 48 hours after a dose. Safer alternatives are available for analgesia during breastfeeding.
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent
+
* '''[[Disopyramide and breast feeding]]''' Disopyramide is sometimes found in the plasma of nursing infants at levels of 7.5% to 12.5% of the mother's levels. The N-monodesalkyldisopyramide (NMD) metabolite is more anticholinergic than disopyramide itself and appears in breastmilk in levels higher than disopyramide. However, of the cases reported, there are no reports of infant effects. Disopyramide may be used cautiously while breastfeeding when other alternatives are unacceptable. Observe the infant for anticholinergic symptoms. Infant serum concentrations can be monitored if there is any concern about drug-induced adverse effects. Theoretically, disopyramide might decrease the milk supply.
  
*'''[[T28.9]]''' Corrosions of other and unspecified internal organs ''Code first''
+
* '''[[Divalproex and breast feeding]]'''  
  
(T51-T65) to identify chemical and intent
+
* '''[[Dobutamine and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of dobutamine during breastfeeding. Because of its poor oral bioavailability and short half-life, any dobutamine in milk is unlikely to affect the infant.
  
*'''[[T28.90]]''' Corrosions of unspecified internal organs
+
* '''[[Docetaxel and breast feeding]]''' Most sources consider breastfeeding to be contraindicated during maternal antineoplastic drug therapy. No information is available on the clinical use of docetaxel during breastfeeding. Chemotherapy may adversely affect the normal microbiome and chemical makeup of breastmilk. Women who receive chemotherapy during pregnancy are more likely to have difficulty nursing their infant. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during docetaxel therapy and for 1 week after the last dose.
*'''[[T28.91]]''' Corrosions of ear drum
 
*'''[[T28.911]]''' Corrosions of right ear drum
 
*'''[[T28.912]]''' Corrosions of left ear drum
 
*'''[[T28.919]]''' Corrosions of unspecified ear drum
 
*'''[[T28.99]]''' Corrosions of other internal organs
 
  
Burns and corrosions of multiple and unspecified body regions (T30-T32)
+
* '''[[Docusate and breast feeding]]''' Docusate is minimally absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and therefore the drug is unlikely to be found in the maternal serum or breastmilk. Laxatives that are completely unabsorbed may be preferred.
  
*'''[[T30]]''' Burn and corrosion, body region unspecified
+
* '''[[Dolutegravir and breast feeding]]''' Dolutegravir is detectable in maternal milk and infant plasma during breastfeeding. It appears that elimination by newborn infants is prolonged. In the United States and other developed countries, HIV-infected mothers should generally not breastfeed their infants. No published information is available on the use of dolutegravir during breastfeeding. In countries in which no acceptable, feasible, sustainable and safe replacement feeding is available, World Health Organization guidelines recommend that all women with an HIV infection who are pregnant or breastfeeding should be maintained on antiretroviral therapy for at least the duration of risk for mother-to-child transmission. Mothers should exclusively breastfeed their infants for the first 6 months of life; breastfeeding with complementary feeding should continue through at least 12 months of life up to 24 months of life. The first choice regimen for nursing mothers is tenofovir, efavirenz and either lamivudine or emtricitabine. If these drugs are unavailable, alternative regimens include: 1) zidovudine, lamivudine and efavirenz; 2) zidovudine, lamivudine and nevirapine; or 3) tenofovir, nevirapine and either lamivudine or emtricitabine. Exclusively breastfed infants should also receive 6 weeks of prophylaxis with nevirapine.
*'''[[T30.0]]''' Burn of unspecified body region, unspecified degree
 
  
This code is not for inpatient use. Code to specified site and degree of burns
+
* '''[[Domperidone and breast feeding]]'''
Burn NOS
 
Multiple burns NOS
 
  
*'''[[T30.4]]''' Corrosion of unspecified body region, unspecified degree
+
* '''[[Dong Quai and breast feeding]]'''  
  
This code is not for inpatient use. Code to specified site and degree of corrosion
+
* '''[[Dopamine and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of dopamine during breastfeeding. Because of its poor oral bioavailability and short half-life, any dopamine in milk is unlikely to affect the infant. Intravenous dopamine infusion may decrease milk production. Dopamine is known to reduce serum prolactin in nonnursing women, but no information is available on its effect on milk production in nursing mothers.
Corrosion NOS
 
Multiple corrosion NOS
 
  
*'''[[T31]]''' Burns classified according to extent of body surface involved
+
* '''[[Doravirine and breast feeding]]''' In the United States and other developed countries, HIV-infected mothers should generally not breastfeed their infants. In countries in which no acceptable, feasible, sustainable and safe replacement feeding is available, World Health Organization guidelines recommend that all women with an HIV infection who are pregnant or breastfeeding should be maintained on antiretroviral therapy for at least the duration of risk for mother-to-child transmission. Mothers should exclusively breastfeed their infants for the first 6 months of life; breastfeeding with complementary feeding should continue through 12 months of life. The first choice regimen for nursing mothers is tenofovir, efavirenz and either lamivudine or emtricitabine. If these drugs are unavailable, alternative regimens include: 1) zidovudine, lamivudine and efavirenz; 2) zidovudine, lamivudine and nevirapine; or 3) tenofovir, nevirapine and either lamivudine or emtricitabine. Exclusively breastfed infants should also receive 6 weeks of prophylaxis with nevirapine.
  
Note
+
* '''[[Doripenem and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of doripenem during breastfeeding. Its excretion into breastmilk is likely similar to that of imipenem and meropenem, which produce low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush has been reported with beta-lactams, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Doripenem is acceptable in nursing mothers.
This category is to be used as the primary code only when the site of the burn is unspecified. It should be used
 
as a supplementary code with categories T20-T25 when the site is specified
 
  
*'''[[T31.0]]''' Burns involving less than 10% of body surface
+
* '''[[Dornase Alfa and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of dornase alpha (hamster) during breastfeeding. Because it is a large protein molecule with a molecular weight of about 37,000, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract.
*'''[[T31.1]]''' Burns involving 10-19% of body surface
 
*'''[[T31.10]]''' Burns involving 10-19% of body surface with 0% to 9% third degree burns
 
  
Burns involving 10-19% of body surface NOS
+
* '''[[Dorzolamide and breast feeding]]''' Limited experience with the use of ophthalmic dorzolamide indicate that it is unlikely to adversely affect the breastfed infant. To substantially diminish the amount of drug that reaches the breastmilk after using eye drops, place pressure over the tear duct by the corner of the eye for 1 minute or more, then remove the excess solution with an absorbent tissue.
  
*'''[[T31.11]]''' Burns involving 10-19% of body surface with 10-19% third degree burns
+
* '''[[Dothiepin and breast feeding]]''' Dothiepin is not approved for marketing in the United States by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, but is available in other countries. Limited information indicates that maternal doses of up to 225 mg daily produce low levels in milk and breastfed infants' serum, and cause no adverse developmental consequences. Dothiepin would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants, especially if the infant is older than 2 months.
*'''[[T31.2]]''' Burns involving 20-29% of body surface
 
*'''[[T31.20]]''' Burns involving 20-29% of body surface with 0% to 9% third degree burns
 
  
Burns involving 20-29% of body surface NOS
+
* '''[[Doxazosin and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that maternal doses of 4 mg daily produce low very levels in milk and would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants.
  
*'''[[T31.21]]''' Burns involving 20-29% of body surface with 10-19% third degree burns
+
* '''[[Doxepin and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T31.22]]''' Burns involving 20-29% of body surface with 20-29% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.3]]''' Burns involving 30-39% of body surface
 
*'''[[T31.30]]''' Burns involving 30-39% of body surface with 0% to 9% third degree burns
 
  
Burns involving 30-39% of body surface NOS
+
* '''[[Doxorubicin and breast feeding]]''' Most sources consider breastfeeding to be contraindicated during maternal antineoplastic drug therapy, especially anthracyclines such as doxorubicin. It might be possible to breastfeed safely during intermittent therapy with an appropriate period of breastfeeding abstinence; however, the high levels and persistence of doxorubicinol in milk make defining an appropriate abstinence interval difficult. Chemotherapy may adversely affect the normal microbiome and chemical makeup of breastmilk. Women who receive chemotherapy during pregnancy are more likely to have difficulty nursing their infant.
  
*'''[[T31.31]]''' Burns involving 30-39% of body surface with 10-19% third degree burns
+
* '''[[Doxycycline and breast feeding]]''' A number of reviews have stated that tetracyclines are contraindicated during breastfeeding because of possible staining of infants' dental enamel or bone deposition of tetracyclines. However, a close examination of available literature indicates that there is not likely to be harm in short-term use of doxycycline during lactation because milk levels are low and absorption by the infant is inhibited by the calcium in breastmilk. Short-term use of doxycycline is acceptable in nursing mothers. As a theoretical precaution, avoid prolonged or repeat courses during nursing. Monitor the infant for rash and for possible effects on the gastrointestinal flora, such as diarrhea or candidiasis (thrush, diaper rash).
*'''[[T31.32]]''' Burns involving 30-39% of body surface with 20-29% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.33]]''' Burns involving 30-39% of body surface with 30-39% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.4]]''' Burns involving 40-49% of body surface
 
*'''[[T31.40]]''' Burns involving 40-49% of body surface with 0% to 9% third degree burns
 
  
Burns involving 40-49% of body surface NOS
+
* '''[[Doxylamine and breast feeding]]''' Small occasional doses of doxylamine would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. Larger doses or more prolonged use may cause drowsiness and other effects in the infant or decrease the milk supply, particularly in combination with a sympathomimetic such as pseudoephedrine or before lactation is well established.
  
*'''[[T31.41]]''' Burns involving 40-49% of body surface with 10-19% third degree burns
+
* '''[[Dronabinol and breast feeding]]''' Dronabinol is the synthetic form of tetrahydrocannabinol, the major active component of cannabis. Tetrahydrocannabinol is found in the breastmilk of mothers who use cannabis products. Because no published information is available with dronabinol use as an antiemetic during breastfeeding, an alternate antiemetic should be used.
*'''[[T31.42]]''' Burns involving 40-49% of body surface with 20-29% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.43]]''' Burns involving 40-49% of body surface with 30-39% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.44]]''' Burns involving 40-49% of body surface with 40-49% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.5]]''' Burns involving 50-59% of body surface
 
*'''[[T31.50]]''' Burns involving 50-59% of body surface with 0% to 9% third degree burns
 
  
Burns involving 50-59% of body surface NOS
+
* '''[[Droperidol and breast feeding]]''' Because little information is available on the long-term use of droperidol during breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. Single-dose or short-term use during breastfeeding, such as during surgery, is unlikely to adversely affect the breastfed infant, especially if the infant is older than 2 months. When multiple doses are given to the mother, monitor the infant for drowsiness, especially in younger, exclusively breastfed infants and when using combinations of psychotropic drugs.
  
*'''[[T31.51]]''' Burns involving 50-59% of body surface with 10-19% third degree burns
+
* '''[[Drospirenone and breast feeding]]''' Drospirenone is a progestin that is an analogue of spironolactone. It has antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic activities. Amounts in milk are very low and no adverse effects on the breasted infanor mik supply are expected. Based on the available evidence, expert opinion holds that nonhormonal methods are preferred during breastfeeding and progestin-only contraceptives are preferred over combined oral contraceptives in breastfeeding women, especially during the first 4 weeks postpartum. For further information, consult the record entitled, "Contraceptives, Oral, Combined."
*'''[[T31.52]]''' Burns involving 50-59% of body surface with 20-29% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.53]]''' Burns involving 50-59% of body surface with 30-39% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.54]]''' Burns involving 50-59% of body surface with 40-49% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.55]]''' Burns involving 50-59% of body surface with 50-59% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.6]]''' Burns involving 60-69% of body surface
 
*'''[[T31.60]]''' Burns involving 60-69% of body surface with 0% to 9% third degree burns
 
  
Burns involving 60-69% of body surface NOS
+
* '''[[Dulaglutide and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of dulaglutide during breastfeeding. Because dulaglutide is a large protein molecule with a molecular weight of 59,669 daltons, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. Until more data become available, dulaglutide should be used with caution during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
  
*'''[[T31.61]]''' Burns involving 60-69% of body surface with 10-19% third degree burns
+
* '''[[Duloxetine and breast feeding]]''' Little published information is available on the use of duloxetine during breastfeeding; however, the dose in milk is low and serum levels were low in two breastfed infants. An alternate drug that has been better studied may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. If duloxetine is required by the mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding. Monitor the infant for drowsiness, adequate weight gain, and developmental milestones, especially in younger, exclusively breastfed infants and when using combinations of psychotropic drugs. Galactorrhea has been reported in women taking duloxetine.
*'''[[T31.62]]''' Burns involving 60-69% of body surface with 20-29% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.63]]''' Burns involving 60-69% of body surface with 30-39% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.64]]''' Burns involving 60-69% of body surface with 40-49% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.65]]''' Burns involving 60-69% of body surface with 50-59% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.66]]''' Burns involving 60-69% of body surface with 60-69% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.7]]''' Burns involving 70-79% of body surface
 
*'''[[T31.70]]''' Burns involving 70-79% of body surface with 0% to 9% third degree burns
 
  
Burns involving 70-79% of body surface NOS
+
* '''[[Dupilumab and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T31.71]]''' Burns involving 70-79% of body surface with 10-19% third degree burns
+
* '''[[Durvalumab and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T31.72]]''' Burns involving 70-79% of body surface with 20-29% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.73]]''' Burns involving 70-79% of body surface with 30-39% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.74]]''' Burns involving 70-79% of body surface with 40-49% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.75]]''' Burns involving 70-79% of body surface with 50-59% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.76]]''' Burns involving 70-79% of body surface with 60-69% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.77]]''' Burns involving 70-79% of body surface with 70-79% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.8]]''' Burns involving 80-89% of body surface
 
*'''[[T31.80]]''' Burns involving 80-89% of body surface with 0% to 9% third degree burns
 
  
Burns involving 80-89% of body surface NOS
+
* '''[[Duvelisib and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of duvelisib during breastfeeding. Because duvelisib is 98% bound to plasma proteins, the amount in milk is likely to be low. However, because of its potential toxicity in the breastfed infant, the manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during duvelisib therapy and for at least 1 month after the last dose.
  
*'''[[T31.81]]''' Burns involving 80-89% of body surface with 10-19% third degree burns
+
* '''[[Dyphylline and breast feeding]]''' Because of the relatively high levels in milk and a previous report with theophylline, occasional stimulant effects in infants should be anticipated in breastfed infants. No severe adverse reactions are expected. Amounts in milk can be minimized by avoiding breastfeeding for 3 to 4 hours after a dose.
*'''[[T31.82]]''' Burns involving 80-89% of body surface with 20-29% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.83]]''' Burns involving 80-89% of body surface with 30-39% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.84]]''' Burns involving 80-89% of body surface with 40-49% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.85]]''' Burns involving 80-89% of body surface with 50-59% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.86]]''' Burns involving 80-89% of body surface with 60-69% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.87]]''' Burns involving 80-89% of body surface with 70-79% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.88]]''' Burns involving 80-89% of body surface with 80-89% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.9]]''' Burns involving 90% or more of body surface
 
*'''[[T31.90]]''' Burns involving 90% or more of body surface with 0% to 9% third degree burns
 
  
Burns involving 90% or more of body surface NOS
+
* '''[[Echinacea and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T31.91]]''' Burns involving 90% or more of body surface with 10-19% third degree burns
+
* '''[[Echothiophate and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of echothiophate ophthalmic drops during breastfeeding. Because echothiophate is a quaternary ammonium compound, it is not likely to pass into the breastmilk or reach the bloodstream of the infant.
*'''[[T31.92]]''' Burns involving 90% or more of body surface with 20-29% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.93]]''' Burns involving 90% or more of body surface with 30-39% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.94]]''' Burns involving 90% or more of body surface with 40-49% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.95]]''' Burns involving 90% or more of body surface with 50-59% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.96]]''' Burns involving 90% or more of body surface with 60-69% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.97]]''' Burns involving 90% or more of body surface with 70-79% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.98]]''' Burns involving 90% or more of body surface with 80-89% third degree burns
 
*'''[[T31.99]]''' Burns involving 90% or more of body surface with 90% or more third degree burns
 
*'''[[T32]]''' Corrosions classified according to extent of body surface involved
 
  
Note
+
* '''[[Econazole and breast feeding]]''' Topical econazole has not been studied during breastfeeding. Because less than 1% is absorbed after topical application, it is considered a low risk to the nursing infant. Avoid application to the nipple area and ensure that the infant's skin does not come into direct contact with the areas of skin that have been treated. Only water-miscible cream or gel products should be applied to the breast because ointments may expose the infant to high levels of mineral paraffins via licking.
This category is to be used as the primary code only when the site of the corrosion is unspecified. It may be
 
used as a supplementary code with categories T20-T25 when the site is specified
 
  
*'''[[T32.0]]''' Corrosions involving less than 10% of body surface
+
* '''[[Eculizumab and breast feeding]]''' Maternal dosages of eculizumab usually produce undetectable levels in breastmilk. Because eculizumab is a large protein molecule with a molecular weight of about 148,000, absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. No adverse effects attributable to eculizumab have been reported in infants who were breastfed during maternal therapy.
*'''[[T32.1]]''' Corrosions involving 10-19% of body surface
 
*'''[[T32.10]]''' Corrosions involving 10-19% of body surface with 0% to 9% third degree corrosion
 
  
Corrosions involving 10-19% of body surface NOS
+
* '''[[Edoxaban and breast feeding]]''' Because no information is available on the use of edoxaban during breastfeeding and the drug is orally absorbable, an alternate drug is preferred while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
  
*'''[[T32.11]]''' Corrosions involving 10-19% of body surface with 10-19% third degree corrosion
+
* '''[[Edrophonium and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of edrophonium during breastfeeding. However, because of its short half-life and quaternary ammonium structure, it is unlikely to be excreted into breastmilk or orally absorbed by the infant. Administering the drug just after breastfeeding and waiting 2 to 3 hours before breastfeeding again should avoid any adverse reactions in the infant.
*'''[[T32.2]]''' Corrosions involving 20-29% of body surface
 
*'''[[T32.20]]''' Corrosions involving 20-29% of body surface with 0% to 9% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.21]]''' Corrosions involving 20-29% of body surface with 10-19% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.22]]''' Corrosions involving 20-29% of body surface with 20-29% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.3]]''' Corrosions involving 30-39% of body surface
 
*'''[[T32.30]]''' Corrosions involving 30-39% of body surface with 0% to 9% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.31]]''' Corrosions involving 30-39% of body surface with 10-19% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.32]]''' Corrosions involving 30-39% of body surface with 20-29% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.33]]''' Corrosions involving 30-39% of body surface with 30-39% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.4]]''' Corrosions involving 40-49% of body surface
 
*'''[[T32.40]]''' Corrosions involving 40-49% of body surface with 0% to 9% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.41]]''' Corrosions involving 40-49% of body surface with 10-19% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.42]]''' Corrosions involving 40-49% of body surface with 20-29% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.43]]''' Corrosions involving 40-49% of body surface with 30-39% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.44]]''' Corrosions involving 40-49% of body surface with 40-49% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.5]]''' Corrosions involving 50-59% of body surface
 
*'''[[T32.50]]''' Corrosions involving 50-59% of body surface with 0% to 9% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.51]]''' Corrosions involving 50-59% of body surface with 10-19% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.52]]''' Corrosions involving 50-59% of body surface with 20-29% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.53]]''' Corrosions involving 50-59% of body surface with 30-39% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.54]]''' Corrosions involving 50-59% of body surface with 40-49% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.55]]''' Corrosions involving 50-59% of body surface with 50-59% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.6]]''' Corrosions involving 60-69% of body surface
 
*'''[[T32.60]]''' Corrosions involving 60-69% of body surface with 0% to 9% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.61]]''' Corrosions involving 60-69% of body surface with 10-19% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.62]]''' Corrosions involving 60-69% of body surface with 20-29% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.63]]''' Corrosions involving 60-69% of body surface with 30-39% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.64]]''' Corrosions involving 60-69% of body surface with 40-49% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.65]]''' Corrosions involving 60-69% of body surface with 50-59% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.66]]''' Corrosions involving 60-69% of body surface with 60-69% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.7]]''' Corrosions involving 70-79% of body surface
 
*'''[[T32.70]]''' Corrosions involving 70-79% of body surface with 0% to 9% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.71]]''' Corrosions involving 70-79% of body surface with 10-19% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.72]]''' Corrosions involving 70-79% of body surface with 20-29% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.73]]''' Corrosions involving 70-79% of body surface with 30-39% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.74]]''' Corrosions involving 70-79% of body surface with 40-49% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.75]]''' Corrosions involving 70-79% of body surface with 50-59% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.76]]''' Corrosions involving 70-79% of body surface with 60-69% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.77]]''' Corrosions involving 70-79% of body surface with 70-79% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.8]]''' Corrosions involving 80-89% of body surface
 
*'''[[T32.80]]''' Corrosions involving 80-89% of body surface with 0% to 9% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.81]]''' Corrosions involving 80-89% of body surface with 10-19% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.82]]''' Corrosions involving 80-89% of body surface with 20-29% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.83]]''' Corrosions involving 80-89% of body surface with 30-39% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.84]]''' Corrosions involving 80-89% of body surface with 40-49% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.85]]''' Corrosions involving 80-89% of body surface with 50-59% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.86]]''' Corrosions involving 80-89% of body surface with 60-69% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.87]]''' Corrosions involving 80-89% of body surface with 70-79% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.88]]''' Corrosions involving 80-89% of body surface with 80-89% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.9]]''' Corrosions involving 90% or more of body surface
 
*'''[[T32.90]]''' Corrosions involving 90% or more of body surface with 0% to 9% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.91]]''' Corrosions involving 90% or more of body surface with 10-19% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.92]]''' Corrosions involving 90% or more of body surface with 20-29% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.93]]''' Corrosions involving 90% or more of body surface with 30-39% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.94]]''' Corrosions involving 90% or more of body surface with 40-49% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.95]]''' Corrosions involving 90% or more of body surface with 50-59% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.96]]''' Corrosions involving 90% or more of body surface with 60-69% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.97]]''' Corrosions involving 90% or more of body surface with 70-79% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.98]]''' Corrosions involving 90% or more of body surface with 80-89% third degree corrosion
 
*'''[[T32.99]]''' Corrosions involving 90% or more of body surface with 90% or more third degree corrosion
 
  
Frostbite (T33-T34)
+
* '''[[Efavirenz and breast feeding]]''' In the United States and other developed countries, HIV-infected mothers should generally not breastfeed their infants. Published experience with efavirenz during breastfeeding is limited. In countries in which no acceptable, feasible, sustainable and safe replacement feeding is available, World Health Organization guidelines recommend that all women with an HIV infection who are pregnant or breastfeeding should be maintained on antiretroviral therapy for at least the duration of risk for mother-to-child transmission. Mothers should exclusively breastfeed their infants for the first 6 months of life; breastfeeding with complementary feeding should continue through at least 12 months of life up to 24 months of life. The first choice regimen for nursing mothers is tenofovir, efavirenz and either lamivudine or emtricitabine. If these drugs are unavailable, alternative regimens include: 1) zidovudine, lamivudine and efavirenz; 2) zidovudine, lamivudine and nevirapine; or 3) tenofovir, nevirapine and either lamivudine or emtricitabine. Exclusively breastfed infants should also receive 6 weeks of prophylaxis with nevirapine. Treatment of mothers of HIV+ mothers with efavirenz as part of Option B+ therapy does not appear to affect growth of their HIV-negative breastfed infants.
''Excludes2''  
 
hypothermia and other effects of reduced temperature (T68, T69.-)
 
  
*'''[[T33]]''' Superficial frostbite
+
* '''[[Efinaconazole and breast feeding]]''' Topical efinaconazole has not been studied during breastfeeding. Because maternal blood levels are very low after topical application to the toenails, it is unlikely that a measurable amount of the drug will enter the breastmilk.
  
''Includes''  
+
* '''[[Eflornithine and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that maternal intravenous eflornithine 400 mg/kg daily for 7 days does not cause any adverse serious effects in breastfed infants. Eflornithine is poorly absorbed after topical application, so it is not likely to reach the bloodstream of the infant or cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants.
frostbite with partial thickness skin loss
 
The appropriate 7th character is to be added to each code from category T33
 
A - initial encounter
 
D - subsequent encounter
 
S - sequela
 
  
*'''[[T33.0]]''' Superficial frostbite of head
+
* '''[[Elagolix and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of elagolix during breastfeeding. Elagolix is 80% protein bound, has a half-life of 4 to 6 hours, and it is a peptide that is likely digested in the infant's gastrointestinal tract, so it is unlikely to reach clinically important levels in infant serum. However, because no information is available on the use of elagolix during breastfeeding caution should be used, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
*'''[[T33.01]]''' Superficial frostbite of ear
 
*'''[[T33.011]]''' Superficial frostbite of right ear
 
*'''[[T33.012]]''' Superficial frostbite of left ear
 
*'''[[T33.019]]''' Superficial frostbite of unspecified ear
 
*'''[[T33.02]]''' Superficial frostbite of nose
 
*'''[[T33.09]]''' Superficial frostbite of other part of head
 
*'''[[T33.1]]''' Superficial frostbite of neck
 
*'''[[T33.2]]''' Superficial frostbite of thorax
 
*'''[[T33.3]]''' Superficial frostbite of abdominal wall, lower back and pelvis
 
*'''[[T33.4]]''' Superficial frostbite of arm
 
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Elbasvir and breast feeding]]'''  
superficial frostbite of wrist and hand (T33.5-)
 
  
*'''[[T33.40]]''' Superficial frostbite of unspecified arm
+
* '''[[Elderberry and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T33.41]]''' Superficial frostbite of right arm
 
*'''[[T33.42]]''' Superficial frostbite of left arm
 
*'''[[T33.5]]''' Superficial frostbite of wrist, hand, and fingers
 
*'''[[T33.51]]''' Superficial frostbite of wrist
 
*'''[[T33.511]]''' Superficial frostbite of right wrist
 
*'''[[T33.512]]''' Superficial frostbite of left wrist
 
*'''[[T33.519]]''' Superficial frostbite of unspecified wrist
 
*'''[[T33.52]]''' Superficial frostbite of hand
 
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Eletriptan and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that a maternal dose of eletriptan up to 80 mg daily produce low levels in milk and would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants, especially if the infant is older than 2 months.
superficial frostbite of fingers (T33.53-)
 
  
*'''[[T33.521]]''' Superficial frostbite of right hand
+
* '''[[Eleuthero and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T33.522]]''' Superficial frostbite of left hand
 
*'''[[T33.529]]''' Superficial frostbite of unspecified hand
 
*'''[[T33.53]]''' Superficial frostbite of finger(s)
 
*'''[[T33.531]]''' Superficial frostbite of right finger(s)
 
*'''[[T33.532]]''' Superficial frostbite of left finger(s)
 
*'''[[T33.539]]''' Superficial frostbite of unspecified finger(s)
 
*'''[[T33.6]]''' Superficial frostbite of hip and thigh
 
*'''[[T33.60]]''' Superficial frostbite of unspecified hip and thigh
 
*'''[[T33.61]]''' Superficial frostbite of right hip and thigh
 
*'''[[T33.62]]''' Superficial frostbite of left hip and thigh
 
*'''[[T33.7]]''' Superficial frostbite of knee and lower leg
 
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Elotuzumab and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of elotuzumab during breastfeeding. Because elotuzumab is a large protein molecule with a molecular weight of 148,100, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. However, elotuzumab is administered with dexamethasone and lenalidomide, two drugs which also have no information on use in nursing mothers. The manufacturer recommends that women receiving elotuzumab should not breastfeed.
superficial frostbite of ankle and foot (T33.8-)
 
  
*'''[[T33.70]]''' Superficial frostbite of unspecified knee and lower leg
+
* '''[[Eluxadoline and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of eluxadoline during breastfeeding. Because it has opioid agonist activity, an alternate drug is preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
*'''[[T33.71]]''' Superficial frostbite of right knee and lower leg
 
*'''[[T33.72]]''' Superficial frostbite of left knee and lower leg
 
*'''[[T33.8]]''' Superficial frostbite of ankle, foot, and toe(s)
 
*'''[[T33.81]]''' Superficial frostbite of ankle
 
*'''[[T33.811]]''' Superficial frostbite of right ankle
 
*'''[[T33.812]]''' Superficial frostbite of left ankle
 
*'''[[T33.819]]''' Superficial frostbite of unspecified ankle
 
*'''[[T33.82]]''' Superficial frostbite of foot
 
*'''[[T33.821]]''' Superficial frostbite of right foot
 
*'''[[T33.822]]''' Superficial frostbite of left foot
 
*'''[[T33.829]]''' Superficial frostbite of unspecified foot
 
*'''[[T33.83]]''' Superficial frostbite of toe(s)
 
*'''[[T33.831]]''' Superficial frostbite of right toe(s)
 
*'''[[T33.832]]''' Superficial frostbite of left toe(s)
 
*'''[[T33.839]]''' Superficial frostbite of unspecified toe(s)
 
*'''[[T33.9]]''' Superficial frostbite of other and unspecified sites
 
*'''[[T33.90]]''' Superficial frostbite of unspecified sites
 
  
Superficial frostbite NOS
+
* '''[[Elvitegravir and breast feeding]]''' In the United States and other developed countries, HIV-infected mothers should generally not breastfeed their infants. No published information is available on the use of elvitegravir during breastfeeding. In countries in which no acceptable, feasible, sustainable and safe replacement feeding is available, World Health Organization guidelines recommend that all women with an HIV infection who are pregnant or breastfeeding should be maintained on antiretroviral therapy for at least the duration of risk for mother-to-child transmission. Mothers should exclusively breastfeed their infants for the first 6 months of life; breastfeeding with complementary feeding should continue through at least 12 months of life up to 24 months of life. The first choice regimen for nursing mothers is tenofovir, efavirenz and either lamivudine or emtricitabine. If these drugs are unavailable, alternative regimens include: 1) zidovudine, lamivudine and efavirenz; 2) zidovudine, lamivudine and nevirapine; or 3) tenofovir, nevirapine and either lamivudine or emtricitabine. Exclusively breastfed infants should also receive 6 weeks of prophylaxis with nevirapine.
  
*'''[[T33.99]]''' Superficial frostbite of other sites
+
* '''[[Emapalumab and breast feeding]]'''  
  
Superficial frostbite of leg NOS
+
* '''[[Emedastine and breast feeding]]''' Because absorption from the eye is limited, emedastine would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. To substantially diminish the amount of drug that reaches the breastmilk after using eye drops, place pressure over the tear duct by the corner of the eye for 1 minute or more, then remove the excess solution with an absorbent tissue.
Superficial frostbite of trunk NOS
 
  
*'''[[T34]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis
+
* '''[[Emicizumab and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of emicizumab during breastfeeding. Because emicizumab is a large protein molecule with a molecular weight of 145,600, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract.
  
The appropriate 7th character is to be added to each code from category T34
+
* '''[[Empagliflozin and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of empagliflozin during breastfeeding. Empagliflozin is an uncharged molecule that is 86% protein bound in plasma, so it is unlikely to pass into breastmilk in clinically important amounts. The manufacturer does not recommend empagliflozin during breastfeeding because of a theoretical risk to the infant's developing kidney. An alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
A - initial encounter
 
D - subsequent encounter
 
S - sequela
 
  
*'''[[T34.0]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of head
+
* '''[[Emtricitabine and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T34.01]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of ear
 
*'''[[T34.011]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of right ear
 
*'''[[T34.012]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of left ear
 
*'''[[T34.019]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of unspecified ear
 
*'''[[T34.02]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of nose
 
*'''[[T34.09]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of other part of head
 
*'''[[T34.1]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of neck
 
*'''[[T34.2]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of thorax
 
*'''[[T34.3]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of abdominal wall, lower back and pelvis
 
*'''[[T34.4]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of arm
 
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Emu Oil and breast feeding]]''' Emu oil is a mixture of fatty acids derived from the fat of the emu (Dromiceius novahollandiae). It contains linoleic, linolenic myristic, oleic, palmitic, palmitoleic, and stearic acids. It has been used as a moisturizing agent and some animal data indicate that in might promote wound healing and decrease inflammation. An emu oil-based cream (Clemulina Pus cream, Sitar Laboratories, Padua, Italy) applied to the nipples and areolas of breastfeeding mothers after each nursing appeared to improve skin hydration. Whether this led to reduced nipple cracking or any effects on nursing infants was not studied.
frostbite with tissue necrosis of wrist and hand (T34.5-)
 
  
*'''[[T34.40]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of unspecified arm
+
* '''[[Enalapril and breast feeding]]''' Because of the low levels of enalapril in breastmilk, amounts ingested by the infant are small and would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants.
*'''[[T34.41]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of right arm
 
*'''[[T34.42]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of left arm
 
*'''[[T34.5]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of wrist, hand, and finger(s)
 
*'''[[T34.51]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of wrist
 
*'''[[T34.511]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of right wrist
 
*'''[[T34.512]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of left wrist
 
*'''[[T34.519]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of unspecified wrist
 
*'''[[T34.52]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of hand
 
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Enasidenib and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of enasidenib during breastfeeding. Because enasidenib is 98.5% bound to plasma proteins and its active metabolite is 96.6% bound to plasma proteins, the amount in milk is likely to be low. However, the half-life of enasidenib is 137 hours and it might accumulate in the infant. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during enasidenib therapy and for at least 1 month after the end of therapy.
frostbite with tissue necrosis of finger(s) (T34.53-)
 
  
*'''[[T34.521]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of right hand
+
* '''[[Encorafenib and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of encorafenib during breastfeeding. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during encorafenib therapy and for at least 2 weeks after the final dose.
*'''[[T34.522]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of left hand
 
*'''[[T34.529]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of unspecified hand
 
*'''[[T34.53]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of finger(s)
 
*'''[[T34.531]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of right finger(s)
 
*'''[[T34.532]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of left finger(s)
 
*'''[[T34.539]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of unspecified finger(s)
 
*'''[[T34.6]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of hip and thigh
 
*'''[[T34.60]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of unspecified hip and thigh
 
*'''[[T34.61]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of right hip and thigh
 
*'''[[T34.62]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of left hip and thigh
 
*'''[[T34.7]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of knee and lower leg
 
  
''Excludes2''  
+
* '''[[Enflurane and breast feeding]]''' There is no published experience with enflurane during breastfeeding. Because the serum half-life of enflurane in the mother is short and the drug is not expected to be absorbed by the infant, no waiting period or discarding of milk is required. Breastfeeding can be resumed as soon as the mother has recovered sufficiently from general anesthesia to nurse. When a combination of anesthetic agents is used for a procedure, follow the recommendations for the most problematic medication used during the procedure. In one study, breastfeeding before general anesthesia induction reduced requirements of sevoflurane and propofol compared to those of nursing mothers whose breastfeeding was withheld or nonnursing women. It is possible that requirements for other anesthetic agents would be affected similarly.
frostbite with tissue necrosis of ankle and foot (T34.8-)
 
  
*'''[[T34.70]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of unspecified knee and lower leg
+
* '''[[Enfuvirtide and breast feeding]]''' In the United States and other developed countries, HIV-infected mothers should generally not breastfeed their infants. No published information is available on the use of enfuvirtide during breastfeeding. In countries in which no acceptable, feasible, sustainable and safe replacement feeding is available, World Health Organization guidelines recommend that all women with an HIV infection who are pregnant or breastfeeding should be maintained on antiretroviral therapy for at least the duration of risk for mother-to-child transmission. Mothers should exclusively breastfeed their infants for the first 6 months of life; breastfeeding with complementary feeding should continue through at least 12 months of life up to 24 months of life. The first choice regimen for nursing mothers is tenofovir, efavirenz and either lamivudine or emtricitabine. If these drugs are unavailable, alternative regimens include: 1) zidovudine, lamivudine and efavirenz; 2) zidovudine, lamivudine and nevirapine; or 3) tenofovir, nevirapine and either lamivudine or emtricitabine. Exclusively breastfed infants should also receive 6 weeks of prophylaxis with nevirapine.
*'''[[T34.71]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of right knee and lower leg
 
*'''[[T34.72]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of left knee and lower leg
 
*'''[[T34.8]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of ankle, foot, and toe(s)
 
*'''[[T34.81]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of ankle
 
*'''[[T34.811]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of right ankle
 
*'''[[T34.812]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of left ankle
 
*'''[[T34.819]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of unspecified ankle
 
*'''[[T34.82]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of foot
 
*'''[[T34.821]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of right foot
 
*'''[[T34.822]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of left foot
 
*'''[[T34.829]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of unspecified foot
 
*'''[[T34.83]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of toe(s)
 
*'''[[T34.831]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of right toe(s)
 
*'''[[T34.832]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of left toe(s)
 
*'''[[T34.839]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of unspecified toe(s)
 
*'''[[T34.9]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of other and unspecified sites
 
*'''[[T34.90]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of unspecified sites
 
  
Frostbite with tissue necrosis NOS
+
* '''[[Enoxacin and breast feeding]]''' Fluoroquinolones have traditionally not been used in infants because of concern about adverse effects on the infants' developing joints. However, recent studies indicate little risk. The calcium in milk might prevent absorption of the small amounts of fluoroquinolones in milk, but insufficient data exist to prove or disprove this assertion. Use of enoxacin is probably acceptable in nursing mothers with monitoring of the infant for possible effects on the gastrointestinal flora, such as diarrhea or candidiasis (thrush, diaper rash). However, it is preferable to use an alternate drug for which safety information is available.
  
*'''[[T34.99]]''' Frostbite with tissue necrosis of other sites
+
* '''[[Enoxaparin and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that maternal enoxaparin in doses up to 40 mg daily do not to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. Because its large molecular weight of 2000 to 8000 daltons, enoxaparin would not be expected to be excreted into breastmilk or to be absorbed from breastmilk by the infant. No special precautions are required.
  
Frostbite with tissue necrosis of leg NOS
+
* '''[[Entacapone and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of entacapone during breastfeeding. An alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
Frostbite with tissue necrosis of trunk NOS
 
Poisoning by, adverse effects of and underdosing of drugs, medicaments and biological substances (T36-T50)
 
''Includes''
 
adverse effect of correct substance properly administered
 
poisoning by overdose of substance
 
poisoning by wrong substance given or taken in error
 
underdosing by (inadvertently) (deliberately) taking less substance than prescribed or instructed ''Code first''  
 
, for adverse effects, the nature of the adverse effect, such as
 
adverse effect NOS (T88.7)
 
aspirin gastritis (K29.-)
 
blood disorders (D56-D76)
 
contact dermatitis (L23-L25)
 
dermatitis due to substances taken internally (L27.-)
 
nephropathy (N14.0-N14.2)
 
Note
 
The drug giving rise to the adverse effect should be identified by use of codes from categories T36-T50 with fifth or
 
sixth character 5 ''Use additional''
 
code(s) to specify
 
manifestations of poisoning
 
underdosing or failure in dosage during medical and surgical care (Y63.6, Y63.8-Y63.9)
 
underdosing of medication regimen (Z91.12-, Z91.13-)
 
''Excludes1''
 
toxic reaction to local anesthesia in pregnancy (O29.3-)
 
''Excludes2''
 
abuse and dependence of psychoactive substances (F10-F19)
 
abuse of non-dependence-producing substances (F55.-)
 
drug reaction and poisoning affecting newborn (P00-P96)
 
pathological drug intoxication (inebriation) (F10-F19)
 
  
*'''[[T36]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of systemic antibiotics
+
* '''[[Entecavir and breast feeding]]'''  
  
''Excludes1''  
+
* '''[[Epinastine and breast feeding]]''' Because absorption from the eye is limited, epinastine would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. To substantially diminish the amount of drug that reaches the breastmilk after using eye drops, place pressure over the tear duct by the corner of the eye for 1 minute or more, then remove the excess solution with an absorbent tissue.
antineoplastic antibiotics (T45.1-)
 
locally applied antibiotic NEC (T49.0)
 
topically used antibiotic for ear, nose and throat (T49.6)
 
topically used antibiotic for eye (T49.5)
 
The appropriate 7th character is to be added to each code from category T36
 
A - initial encounter
 
D - subsequent encounter
 
S - sequela
 
  
*'''[[T36.0]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of penicillins
+
* '''[[Epinephrine and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of epinephrine during breastfeeding. Because of its poor oral bioavailability and short half-life, any epinephrine in milk is unlikely to affect the infant. High intravenous doses of epinephrine might reduce milk production or milk letdown. Low-dose intramuscular (such as Epi-Pen), epidural, topical, inhaled or ophthalmic epinephrine are unlikely to interfere with breastfeeding. To substantially diminish the effect of the drug after using eye drops, place pressure over the tear duct by the corner of the eye for 1 minute or more, then remove the excess solution with an absorbent tissue.
*'''[[T36.0X]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of penicillins
 
*'''[[T36.0X1]]''' Poisoning by penicillins, accidental (unintentional)
 
  
Poisoning by penicillins NOS
+
* '''[[Epoetin Alfa and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T36.0X2]]''' Poisoning by penicillins, intentional self-harm
+
* '''[[Epoetin Beta and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T36.0X3]]''' Poisoning by penicillins, assault
 
*'''[[T36.0X4]]''' Poisoning by penicillins, undetermined
 
*'''[[T36.0X5]]''' Adverse effect of penicillins
 
*'''[[T36.0X6]]''' Underdosing of penicillins
 
*'''[[T36.1]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of cephalosporins and other beta-lactam antibiotics
 
*'''[[T36.1X]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of cephalosporins and other beta-lactam
 
  
antibiotics
+
* '''[[Eprosartan and breast feeding]]''' Because no information is available on the use of eprosartan during breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
  
*'''[[T36.1X1]]''' Poisoning by cephalosporins and other beta-lactam antibiotics, accidental
+
* '''[[Eptifibatide and breast feeding]]''' No published information is available on the use of eptifibatide during breastfeeding. Because eptifibatide is a peptide, absorption by the infant is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. Until more data become available, eptifibatide should be used with caution during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. If it is used by a nursing mother, monitor the infant for bruising and bleeding.
  
(unintentional)
+
* '''[[Eravacycline and breast feeding]]''' Eravacycline is a tetracycline antibiotic. A number of reviews have stated that tetracyclines are contraindicated during breastfeeding because of possible staining of infants' dental enamel or bone deposition of tetracyclines. However, a close examination of available literature indicates that there is not likely to be harm in short-term use of a eravacycline during lactation because the drug is 79 to 90% bound to plasma proteins, so milk levels are likely low and absorption by the infant is inhibited by the calcium in breastmilk. Short-term use of eravacycline acceptable in nursing mothers. As a theoretical precaution, avoid prolonged or repeat courses during nursing. Monitor the infant for rash and for possible effects on the gastrointestinal flora, such as diarrhea or candidiasis (thrush, diaper rash).
Poisoning by cephalosporins and other beta-lactam antibiotics NOS
 
  
*'''[[T36.1X2]]''' Poisoning by cephalosporins and other beta-lactam antibiotics, intentional self-harm
+
* '''[[Erenumab and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T36.1X3]]''' Poisoning by cephalosporins and other beta-lactam antibiotics, assault
 
*'''[[T36.1X4]]''' Poisoning by cephalosporins and other beta-lactam antibiotics, undetermined
 
*'''[[T36.1X5]]''' Adverse effect of cephalosporins and other beta-lactam antibiotics
 
*'''[[T36.1X6]]''' Underdosing of cephalosporins and other beta-lactam antibiotics
 
*'''[[T36.2]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of chloramphenicol group
 
*'''[[T36.2X]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of chloramphenicol group
 
*'''[[T36.2X1]]''' Poisoning by chloramphenicol group, accidental (unintentional)
 
  
Poisoning by chloramphenicol group NOS
+
* '''[[Ergonovine and breast feeding]]''' Ergonovine given in the immediate postpartum period lowers serum basal prolactin and possibly suckling-induced prolactin increases. It also appears to decrease the rate of breastfeeding. Ergonovine is probably best avoided in mothers who wish to nurse, relying instead on suckling-induced oxytocin release to hasten uterine involution. The prolactin level in a mother with established lactation may not affect her ability to breastfeed.
  
*'''[[T36.2X2]]''' Poisoning by chloramphenicol group, intentional self-harm
+
* '''[[Ergotamine and breast feeding]]''' Because there is limited published experience with ergotamine during breastfeeding and it might cause adverse effects in the infant, most authorities consider ergotamine to be undesirable to use during nursing.
*'''[[T36.2X3]]''' Poisoning by chloramphenicol group, assault
 
*'''[[T36.2X4]]''' Poisoning by chloramphenicol group, undetermined
 
*'''[[T36.2X5]]''' Adverse effect of chloramphenicol group
 
*'''[[T36.2X6]]''' Underdosing of chloramphenicol group
 
*'''[[T36.3]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of macrolides
 
*'''[[T36.3X]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of macrolides
 
*'''[[T36.3X1]]''' Poisoning by macrolides, accidental (unintentional)
 
  
Poisoning by macrolides NOS
+
* '''[[Erlotinib and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of erlotinib during breastfeeding. Because erlotinib is 93% bound to plasma proteins, the amount in milk is likely to be low. However, its half-life is about 36 hours and it might accumulate in the infant. It is also given in combination with gemcitabine for pancreatic cancer, which may increase the risk to the infant. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during erlotinib therapy and for 2 weeks after the final dose.
  
*'''[[T36.3X2]]''' Poisoning by macrolides, intentional self-harm
+
* '''[[Ertapenem and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that ertapenem produces low levels in milk that are not expected to cause adverse effects in breastfed infants. Occasionally disruption of the infant's gastrointestinal flora, resulting in diarrhea or thrush has been reported with beta-lactams, but these effects have not been adequately evaluated. Ertapenem is acceptable in nursing mothers.
*'''[[T36.3X3]]''' Poisoning by macrolides, assault
 
*'''[[T36.3X4]]''' Poisoning by macrolides, undetermined
 
*'''[[T36.3X5]]''' Adverse effect of macrolides
 
*'''[[T36.3X6]]''' Underdosing of macrolides
 
*'''[[T36.4]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of tetracyclines
 
*'''[[T36.4X]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of tetracyclines
 
*'''[[T36.4X1]]''' Poisoning by tetracyclines, accidental (unintentional)
 
  
Poisoning by tetracyclines NOS
+
* '''[[Ertugliflozin and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of ertugliflozin during breastfeeding. Ertugliflozin is an uncharged molecule that is 94% protein bound in plasma, so it is unlikely to pass into breastmilk in clinically important amounts. The manufacturer does not recommend ertugliflozin during breastfeeding because of a theoretical risk to the infant's developing kidney. An alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
  
*'''[[T36.4X2]]''' Poisoning by tetracyclines, intentional self-harm
+
* '''[[Erythromycin and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T36.4X3]]''' Poisoning by tetracyclines, assault
 
*'''[[T36.4X4]]''' Poisoning by tetracyclines, undetermined
 
*'''[[T36.4X5]]''' Adverse effect of tetracyclines
 
*'''[[T36.4X6]]''' Underdosing of tetracyclines
 
*'''[[T36.5]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of aminoglycosides
 
  
Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of streptomycin
+
* '''[[Escitalopram and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T36.5X]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of aminoglycosides
+
* '''[[Esketamine and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T36.5X1]]''' Poisoning by aminoglycosides, accidental (unintentional)
 
  
Poisoning by aminoglycosides NOS
+
* '''[[Eslicarbazepine and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of eslicarbazepine during breastfeeding. However, eslicarbazepine is the active metabolite of oxcarbazepine. Limited information indicates that oxcarbazepine would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants, especially if the infant is older than 2 months. Monitor the infant for drowsiness, adequate weight gain, and developmental milestones, especially in younger, exclusively breastfed infants and when using combinations of anticonvulsants.
  
*'''[[T36.5X2]]''' Poisoning by aminoglycosides, intentional self-harm
+
* '''[[Esmolol and breast feeding]]''' Based on its physicochemical properties and extremely short half-life, esmolol would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants.
*'''[[T36.5X3]]''' Poisoning by aminoglycosides, assault
 
*'''[[T36.5X4]]''' Poisoning by aminoglycosides, undetermined
 
*'''[[T36.5X5]]''' Adverse effect of aminoglycosides
 
*'''[[T36.5X6]]''' Underdosing of aminoglycosides
 
*'''[[T36.6]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of rifampicins
 
*'''[[T36.6X]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of rifampicins
 
*'''[[T36.6X1]]''' Poisoning by rifampicins, accidental (unintentional)
 
  
Poisoning by rifampicins NOS
+
* '''[[Esomeprazole and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T36.6X2]]''' Poisoning by rifampicins, intentional self-harm
+
* '''[[Estazolam and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of estazolam during breastfeeding. Because of the long duration of action of estazolam, an alternate hypnotic is preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
*'''[[T36.6X3]]''' Poisoning by rifampicins, assault
 
*'''[[T36.6X4]]''' Poisoning by rifampicins, undetermined
 
*'''[[T36.6X5]]''' Adverse effect of rifampicins
 
*'''[[T36.6X6]]''' Underdosing of rifampicins
 
*'''[[T36.7]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of antifungal antibiotics, systemically used
 
*'''[[T36.7X]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of antifungal antibiotics, systemically used
 
*'''[[T36.7X1]]''' Poisoning by antifungal antibiotics, systemically used, accidental (unintentional)
 
  
Poisoning by antifungal antibiotics, systemically used NOS
+
* '''[[Estradiol Cypionate and breast feeding]]''' Estradiol cypionate has not been studied during breastfeeding. However, the similar drug, estradiol valerate, has been used to suppress lactation, usually in combination with testosterone. Generally, estradiol cypionate should be avoided in mothers wishing to breastfeed.
  
*'''[[T36.7X2]]''' Poisoning by antifungal antibiotics, systemically used, intentional self-harm
+
* '''[[Estradiol Valerate and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T36.7X3]]''' Poisoning by antifungal antibiotics, systemically used, assault
 
*'''[[T36.7X4]]''' Poisoning by antifungal antibiotics, systemically used, undetermined
 
*'''[[T36.7X5]]''' Adverse effect of antifungal antibiotics, systemically used
 
*'''[[T36.7X6]]''' Underdosing of antifungal antibiotics, systemically used
 
*'''[[T36.8]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of other systemic antibiotics
 
*'''[[T36.8X]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of other systemic antibiotics
 
*'''[[T36.8X1]]''' Poisoning by other systemic antibiotics, accidental (unintentional)
 
  
Poisoning by other systemic antibiotics NOS
+
* '''[[Estradiol and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T36.8X2]]''' Poisoning by other systemic antibiotics, intentional self-harm
+
* '''[[Eszopiclone and breast feeding]]''' Because no information is available on the use of eszopiclone during breastfeeding, an alternate hypnotic may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. Data from the racemate, zopiclone, in larger doses indicate that occasional use while breastfeeding an older infant should pose little risk to the infant, but the infant should be monitored for excessive drowsiness.
*'''[[T36.8X3]]''' Poisoning by other systemic antibiotics, assault
 
*'''[[T36.8X4]]''' Poisoning by other systemic antibiotics, undetermined
 
*'''[[T36.8X5]]''' Adverse effect of other systemic antibiotics
 
*'''[[T36.8X6]]''' Underdosing of other systemic antibiotics
 
*'''[[T36.9]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of unspecified systemic antibiotic
 
*'''[[T36.91]]''' Poisoning by unspecified systemic antibiotic, accidental (unintentional)
 
  
Poisoning by systemic antibiotic NOS
+
* '''[[Etanercept and breast feeding]]''' Etanercept is minimally excreted into breastmilk and poorly absorbed by the infant, which would be expected because of its high molecular weight of approximately 150,000. However, long-term follow-up data on infants breastfed during maternal etanercept use are not available. The risk of adverse effects in older infants is not known, but thought to be unlikely. Most experts feel that the drug is a low risk to the nursing infant and can be given during breastfeeding.
  
*'''[[T36.92]]''' Poisoning by unspecified systemic antibiotic, intentional self-harm
+
* '''[[Ethacrynic Acid and breast feeding]]''' Because no information is available on the use of ethacrynic acid during breastfeeding and because intense diuresis might decrease lactation, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
*'''[[T36.93]]''' Poisoning by unspecified systemic antibiotic, assault
 
*'''[[T36.94]]''' Poisoning by unspecified systemic antibiotic, undetermined
 
*'''[[T36.95]]''' Adverse effect of unspecified systemic antibiotic
 
*'''[[T36.96]]''' Underdosing of unspecified systemic antibiotic
 
*'''[[T37]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of other systemic anti-infectives and antiparasitics
 
  
''Excludes1''  
+
* '''[[Ethambutol and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that maternal doses of ethambutol up to 15 mg/kg daily produce low levels in milk and would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants, especially if the infant is older than 2 months. The amount of ethambutol in milk is insufficient to treat tuberculosis in the breastfed infant. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other professional organizations state that breastfeeding should not be discouraged in women taking ethambutol.
anti-infectives topically used for ear, nose and throat (T49.6-)
 
anti-infectives topically used for eye (T49.5-)
 
locally applied anti-infectives NEC (T49.0-)
 
The appropriate 7th character is to be added to each code from category T37
 
A - initial encounter
 
D - subsequent encounter
 
S - sequela
 
  
*'''[[T37.0]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of sulfonamides
+
* '''[[Ethinyl Estradiol and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T37.0X]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of sulfonamides
 
*'''[[T37.0X1]]''' Poisoning by sulfonamides, accidental (unintentional)
 
  
Poisoning by sulfonamides NOS
+
* '''[[Ethionamide and breast feeding]]''' Minimal information exists on the use of ethionamide during breastfeeding. Although some developmental problems have been reported in two infants exposed to ethionamide in breastmilk, their mothers were also exposed to several drugs during pregnancy and during breastfeeding, so the problems cannot necessarily be attributed to ethionamide. If ethionamide is required by the mother of an older infant, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding, but until more data become available, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
  
*'''[[T37.0X2]]''' Poisoning by sulfonamides, intentional self-harm
+
* '''[[Ethosuximide and breast feeding]]''' Average ethosuximide dosages of 50 to 60% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage are excreted in human milk and infant plasma levels of 25 to 30% of maternal levels are common. Although no adverse effects attributable solely to ethosuximide in breastmilk have been reported, monitor the infant for drowsiness, adequate weight gain, and developmental milestones, especially in younger, exclusively breastfed infants and when using combinations of anticonvulsants. Measurement of an infant serum level might help rule out toxicity if there is a concern.
*'''[[T37.0X3]]''' Poisoning by sulfonamides, assault
 
*'''[[T37.0X4]]''' Poisoning by sulfonamides, undetermined
 
*'''[[T37.0X5]]''' Adverse effect of sulfonamides
 
*'''[[T37.0X6]]''' Underdosing of sulfonamides
 
*'''[[T37.1]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of antimycobacterial drugs
 
  
''Excludes1''  
+
* '''[[Etidronate and breast feeding]]''' Because no information is available on the use of etidronate during breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. However, absorption of etidronate by a breastfed infant is unlikely.
rifampicins (T36.6-)
 
streptomycin (T36.5-)
 
  
*'''[[T37.1X]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of antimycobacterial drugs
+
* '''[[Etodolac and breast feeding]]''' Because no information is available on the use of etodolac during breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
*'''[[T37.1X1]]''' Poisoning by antimycobacterial drugs, accidental (unintentional)
 
  
Poisoning by antimycobacterial drugs NOS
+
* '''[[Etomidate and breast feeding]]''' Amounts of etomidate in milk are very small and decrease rapidly. Existing data indicate that no waiting period is required before resuming breastfeeding after etomidate anesthesia. Breastfeeding can be resumed as soon as the mother has recovered sufficiently from general anesthesia to nurse. When a combination of anesthetic agents is used for a procedure, follow the recommendations for the most problematic medication used during the procedure.
  
*'''[[T37.1X2]]''' Poisoning by antimycobacterial drugs, intentional self-harm
+
* '''[[Etonogestrel and breast feeding]]'''  
*'''[[T37.1X3]]''' Poisoning by antimycobacterial drugs, assault
 
*'''[[T37.1X4]]''' Poisoning by antimycobacterial drugs, undetermined
 
*'''[[T37.1X5]]''' Adverse effect of antimycobacterial drugs
 
*'''[[T37.1X6]]''' Underdosing of antimycobacterial drugs
 
*'''[[T37.2]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of antimalarials and drugs acting on other blood
 
  
protozoa
+
* '''[[Etoposide and breast feeding]]''' Most sources consider breastfeeding to be contraindicated during maternal antineoplastic drug therapy. It might be possible to breastfeed safely during intermittent therapy with etoposide after an appropriate period of breastfeeding abstinence. A period of at least 24 hours is required after a dose of 80 mg/sq m or less. Others have suggested an abstinence period of 72 hours after etoposide use. Chemotherapy may adversely affect the normal microbiome and chemical makeup of breastmilk. Women who receive chemotherapy during pregnancy are more likely to have difficulty nursing their infant.
''Excludes1''  
 
hydroxyquinoline derivatives (T37.8-)
 
  
*'''[[T37.2X]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of antimalarials and drugs acting on other
+
* '''[[Etravirine and breast feeding]]''' In the United States and other developed countries, HIV-infected mothers should generally not breastfeed their infants. In countries in which no acceptable, feasible, sustainable and safe replacement feeding is available, World Health Organization guidelines recommend that all women with an HIV infection who are pregnant or breastfeeding should be maintained on antiretroviral therapy for at least the duration of risk for mother-to-child transmission. Mothers should exclusively breastfeed their infants for the first 6 months of life; breastfeeding with complementary feeding should continue through at least 12 months of life up to 24 months of life. The first choice regimen for nursing mothers is tenofovir, efavirenz and either lamivudine or emtricitabine. If these drugs are unavailable, alternative regimens include: 1) zidovudine, lamivudine and efavirenz; 2) zidovudine, lamivudine and nevirapine; or 3) tenofovir, nevirapine and either lamivudine or emtricitabine. Exclusively breastfed infants should also receive 6 weeks of prophylaxis with nevirapine. Etravirine is excreted in breastmilk in concentrations exceeding the maternal plasma HIV inhibitory concentration.
  
blood protozoa
+
* '''[[Euphorbia and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T37.2X1]]''' Poisoning by antimalarials and drugs acting on other blood protozoa, accidental
+
* '''[[Evening Primrose and breast feeding]]'''  
  
(unintentional)
+
* '''[[Everolimus and breast feeding]]''' In one patient, everolimus was not detected in the colostrum of a mother taking everolimus; however, no information is available on the use of everolimus during breastfeeding. An alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
Poisoning by antimalarials and drugs acting on other blood protozoa NOS
 
  
*'''[[T37.2X2]]''' Poisoning by antimalarials and drugs acting on other blood protozoa, intentional self-
+
* '''[[Evolocumab and breast feeding]]'''  
  
harm
+
* '''[[Exemestane and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of exemestane during breastfeeding. Most sources consider breastfeeding to be contraindicated during maternal antineoplastic drug therapy. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during exemestane therapy and for 1 month after the last dose.
  
*'''[[T37.2X3]]''' Poisoning by antimalarials and drugs acting on other blood protozoa, assault
+
* '''[[Exenatide and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of exenatide during breastfeeding. Because exenatide is a large peptide molecule with a molecular weight of 4187 daltons, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. It has a short half-life, which might make it a better choice among drugs in this class for nursing mothers. Until more data become available, exenatide should be used with caution during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
*'''[[T37.2X4]]''' Poisoning by antimalarials and drugs acting on other blood protozoa, undetermined
 
*'''[[T37.2X5]]''' Adverse effect of antimalarials and drugs acting on other blood protozoa
 
*'''[[T37.2X6]]''' Underdosing of antimalarials and drugs acting on other blood protozoa
 
*'''[[T37.3]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of other antiprotozoal drugs
 
*'''[[T37.3X]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of other antiprotozoal drugs
 
*'''[[T37.3X1]]''' Poisoning by other antiprotozoal drugs, accidental (unintentional)
 
  
Poisoning by other antiprotozoal drugs NOS
+
* '''[[Ezetimibe and breast feeding]]''' No relevant published information exists on the use of ezetimibe during breastfeeding. Because of a concern with disruption of infant lipid metabolism, ezetimibe is best avoided during breastfeeding. An alternate drug is preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. Ezetimibe treatment in combination with a statin (e.g., atorvastatin, simvastatin) should be avoided in nursing mothers.
  
*'''[[T37.3X2]]''' Poisoning by other antiprotozoal drugs, intentional self-harm
+
* '''[[Ezogabine and breast feeding]]''' Because no information is available on use of ezogabine during breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. If ezogabine is required by the mother, it is not necessarily a reason to discontinue breastfeeding, but monitor the infant for drowsiness, agitation, adequate weight gain, and developmental milestones, especially in younger, exclusively breastfed infants and when using combinations of drugs.
*'''[[T37.3X3]]''' Poisoning by other antiprotozoal drugs, assault
 
*'''[[T37.3X4]]''' Poisoning by other antiprotozoal drugs, undetermined
 
*'''[[T37.3X5]]''' Adverse effect of other antiprotozoal drugs
 
*'''[[T37.3X6]]''' Underdosing of other antiprotozoal drugs
 
*'''[[T37.4]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of anthelminthics
 
*'''[[T37.4X]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of anthelminthics
 
*'''[[T37.4X1]]''' Poisoning by anthelminthics, accidental (unintentional)
 
  
Poisoning by anthelminthics NOS
 
  
*'''[[T37.4X2]]''' Poisoning by anthelminthics, intentional self-harm
+
* '''[[Factor Xa (recombinant), Inactivated-zhzo and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the clinical use of coagulation factor Xa during breastfeeding. Because it is a large protein molecule with a molecular weight of about 40,000, the amount in milk is likely to be very low and absorption is unlikely because it is probably destroyed in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. Until more data become available, coagulation factor X should be used with caution during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
*'''[[T37.4X3]]''' Poisoning by anthelminthics, assault
 
*'''[[T37.4X4]]''' Poisoning by anthelminthics, undetermined
 
*'''[[T37.4X5]]''' Adverse effect of anthelminthics
 
*'''[[T37.4X6]]''' Underdosing of anthelminthics
 
*'''[[T37.5]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of antiviral drugs
 
  
''Excludes1''  
+
* '''[[Famciclovir and breast feeding]]''' Because there is no published experience with famciclovir during breastfeeding, other agents may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
amantadine (T42.8-)
 
cytarabine (T45.1-)
 
  
*'''[[T37.5X]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of antiviral drugs
+
* '''[[Famotidine and breast feeding]]''' Famotidine is used in newborn infants in higher dosages than are transmitted in breastmilk. Famotidine would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. No special precautions are required.
*'''[[T37.5X1]]''' Poisoning by antiviral drugs, accidental (unintentional)
 
  
Poisoning by antiviral drugs NOS
+
* '''[[Fava Beans and breast feeding]]''' Fava beans contain the compounds vicine and convicine. These chemicals are metabolized to divicine and isouramil, which are potent oxidizing agents. In persons with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, these compounds cause hemolysis by disrupting the red cell wall. Many cases of hemolysis, and subsequent hyperbilirubinemia have been reported in breastfed infants after maternal fava bean intake. Most of the cases have been reported from around the Mediterranean and Middle East or in infants whose heritage was from this region. The prevalence of G6PD deficiency is relatively high in this geographic area, where perhaps more susceptible variants occur-at least 14 variants of G6PD deficiency are known. Most reports are of male infants, but some female infants have been affected. Favism via breastmilk can be quite severe. One breastfed infant developed renal cortical necrosis following maternal fava bean ingestion. The infant died of renal failure in the hospital 10 days after maternal fava bean ingestion. Mothers nursing a G6PD deficient infant should not consume fava beans.
  
*'''[[T37.5X2]]''' Poisoning by antiviral drugs, intentional self-harm
+
* '''[[Felbamate and breast feeding]]''' Because no information is available on the use of felbamate during breastfeeding, and because it can cause potentially fatal hematologic and hepatic toxicities, authors of authoritative reviews recommend that breastfeeding not be undertaken during maternal felbamate therapy until more safety data are available.
*'''[[T37.5X3]]''' Poisoning by antiviral drugs, assault
 
*'''[[T37.5X4]]''' Poisoning by antiviral drugs, undetermined
 
*'''[[T37.5X5]]''' Adverse effect of antiviral drugs
 
*'''[[T37.5X6]]''' Underdosing of antiviral drugs
 
*'''[[T37.8]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of other specified systemic anti-infectives and
 
  
antiparasitics
+
* '''[[Felodipine and breast feeding]]''' Because no information is available on the use of felodipine during breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred.
Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of hydroxyquinoline derivatives
 
''Excludes1''
 
antimalarial drugs (T37.2-)
 
  
*'''[[T37.8X]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of other specified systemic anti-infectives and
+
* '''[[Fennel and breast feeding]]'''  
  
antiparasitics
+
* '''[[Fenofibrate and breast feeding]]''' No relevant published information exists on the use of fenofibrate during breastfeeding. Because of a concern with disruption of infant lipid metabolism, fenofibrate is best avoided during breastfeeding. An alternate drug is preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be avoided during fenofibrate therapy and for 5 days after the final dose.
  
*'''[[T37.8X1]]''' Poisoning by other specified systemic anti-infectives and antiparasitics, accidental
+
* '''[[Fenoldopam and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of fenoldopam during breastfeeding. Because of its poor oral bioavailability and short half-life, any fenoldopam in milk is unlikely to adversely affect the breastfed infant. Also, fenoldopam can be given intravenously to infants. Unlike dopamine, it does not decrease serum prolactin concentrations and might not interfere with nursing.
  
(unintentional)
+
* '''[[Fenoprofen and breast feeding]]''' Some reviewers consider fenoprofen to be acceptable during breastfeeding. Because there is little published experience with fenoprofen during breastfeeding, other agents may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
Poisoning by other specified systemic anti-infectives and antiparasitics NOS
 
  
*'''[[T37.8X2]]''' Poisoning by other specified systemic anti-infectives and antiparasitics, intentional
+
* '''[[Fentanyl and breast feeding]]'''  
  
self-harm
+
* '''[[Fenugreek and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T37.8X3]]''' Poisoning by other specified systemic anti-infectives and antiparasitics, assault
+
* '''[[Ferric Carboxymaltose and breast feeding]]''' Intravenous iron carboxymaltose increases breastmilk iron in mothers with iron deficiency anemia. Breastfed neonates of these mothers appear to have no serious adverse reactions. Ferric carboxymaltose appears to be acceptable to use in nursing mothers with no special precautions required. Pasteurization of milk by the Holder method reduces the concentration of iron in milk by about 6.5%.
*'''[[T37.8X4]]''' Poisoning by other specified systemic anti-infectives and antiparasitics, undetermined
 
*'''[[T37.8X5]]''' Adverse effect of other specified systemic anti-infectives and antiparasitics
 
*'''[[T37.8X6]]''' Underdosing of other specified systemic anti-infectives and antiparasitics
 
*'''[[T37.9]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of unspecified systemic anti-infective and
 
  
antiparasitics
+
* '''[[Ferric Citrate and breast feeding]]''' Iron is a normal component of human milk. Studies on various forms of iron indicate that breastmilk levels are not increased greatly after exogenous administration. No special precautions are necessary. Pasteurization of milk by the Holder method reduces the concentration of iron in milk by about 6.5%.
  
*'''[[T37.91]]''' Poisoning by unspecified systemic anti-infective and antiparasitics, accidental (unintentional)
+
* '''[[Ferric Pyrophosphate Citrate and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of ferric pyrophosphate citrate during breastfeeding and the manufacturer recommends that it not be used during breastfeeding. An alternate intravenous drug with more published data available may be preferred. Pasteurization of milk by the Holder method reduces the concentration of iron in milk by about 6.5%.
  
Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of systemic anti-infective and antiparasitics NOS
+
* '''[[Ferumoxides and breast feeding]]''' Ferumoxides is a complex of iron oxide and dextran, similar to iron dextran. It is not expected to pose a toxic risk to a nursing infant. However, because there is no published experience with ferumoxides during breastfeeding, other agents may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
  
*'''[[T37.92]]''' Poisoning by unspecified systemic anti-infective and antiparasitics, intentional self-harm
+
* '''[[Ferumoxsil and breast feeding]]''' Ferumoxsil is not approved for marketing in the United States by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. No information is available on the clinical use of ferumoxsil during breastfeeding. If ferumoxsil is required by the mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding. However, since there is no published experience with ferumoxsil during breastfeeding, other agents may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.
*'''[[T37.93]]''' Poisoning by unspecified systemic anti-infective and antiparasitics, assault
 
*'''[[T37.94]]''' Poisoning by unspecified systemic anti-infective and antiparasitics, undetermined
 
*'''[[T37.95]]''' Adverse effect of unspecified systemic anti-infective and antiparasitic
 
*'''[[T37.96]]''' Underdosing of unspecified systemic anti-infectives and antiparasitics
 
*'''[[T38]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of hormones and their synthetic substitutes and
 
  
antagonists, not elsewhere classified
+
* '''[[Ferumoxytol and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of ferumoxytol during breastfeeding; however, the drug has been given safely to neonates intravenously. An alternate intravenous iron product with more published data on breastfeeding available may be preferred. Pasteurization of milk by the Holder method reduces the concentration of iron in milk by about 6.5%.
''Excludes1''  
 
mineralocorticoids and their antagonists (T50.0-)
 
oxytocic hormones (T48.0-)
 
parathyroid hormones and derivatives (T50.9-)
 
The appropriate 7th character is to be added to each code from category T38
 
A - initial encounter
 
D - subsequent encounter
 
S - sequela
 
  
*'''[[T38.0]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of glucocorticoids and synthetic analogues
+
* '''[[Fesoterodine and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of fesoterodine during breastfeeding. Long-term use of fesoterodine might reduce milk production or milk letdown. During long-term use, observe for signs of decreased lactation (e.g., insatiety, poor weight gain).
  
''Excludes1''  
+
* '''[[Feverfew and breast feeding]]'''  
glucocorticoids, topically used (T49.-)
 
  
*'''[[T38.0X]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of glucocorticoids and synthetic analogues
+
* '''[[Fexofenadine and breast feeding]]''' Because of its lack of sedation and low milk levels, maternal use of fexofenadine would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. Fexofenadine might have a negative effect on lactation, especially in combination with a sympathomimetic agent such as pseudoephedrine.
*'''[[T38.0X1]]''' Poisoning by glucocorticoids and synthetic analogues, accidental (unintentional)
 
  
Poisoning by glucocorticoids and synthetic analogues NOS
+
* '''[[Fidaxomicin and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of fidxomicin during breastfeeding. Because it is poorly absorbed orally, it is not likely to reach the bloodstream of the infant or cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants.
  
*'''[[T38.0X2]]''' Poisoning by glucocorticoids and synthetic analogues, intentional self-harm
+
* '''[[Filgrastim and breast feeding]]''' Filgrastim in the pharmaceutical name for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Pegfilgrastim is the long-acting form of filgrastim. The excretion of exogenous G-CSF into breastmilk or its effects on breastfed infants have not been well studied. Limited data indicate that filgrastim and a similar G-CSF product, lenograstim, are poorly excreted into breastmilk and are undetectable by 3 days after an injection. Some authors recommend withholding breastfeeding for this period of time. However, filgrastim has been safely given orally to neonates and is not orally absorbed by neonates, so any filgrastim that is excreted into milk is unlikely to adversely affect the breastfed infant.
*'''[[T38.0X3]]''' Poisoning by glucocorticoids and synthetic analogues, assault
 
*'''[[T38.0X4]]''' Poisoning by glucocorticoids and synthetic analogues, undetermined
 
*'''[[T38.0X5]]''' Adverse effect of glucocorticoids and synthetic analogues
 
*'''[[T38.0X6]]''' Underdosing of glucocorticoids and synthetic analogues
 
*'''[[T38.1]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of thyroid hormones and substitutes
 
*'''[[T38.1X]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of thyroid hormones and substitutes
 
*'''[[T38.1X1]]''' Poisoning by thyroid hormones and substitutes, accidental (unintentional)
 
  
Poisoning by thyroid hormones and substitutes NOS
+
* '''[[Fingolimod and breast feeding]]''' Although fingolimod and its active metabolite are highly bound in maternal plasma and unlikely to reach the breastmilk in large amounts, it is potentially toxic to the breastfed infant. Because there is no published experience with fingolimod during breastfeeding, expert opinion generally recommends that it should be avoided during breastfeeding, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. However, the manufacturer's labeling does not recommend against its use in breastfeeding.
  
*'''[[T38.1X2]]''' Poisoning by thyroid hormones and substitutes, intentional self-harm
+
* '''[[Flavoxate and breast feeding]]''' No information is available on the use of flavoxate during breastfeeding. Long-term use of trihexyphenidyl might reduce milk production or milk letdown, but a single dose is not likely to interfere with breastfeeding. During long-term use, observe for signs of decreased lactation (e.g., insatiety, poor weight gain).
*'''[[T38.1X3]]''' Poisoning by thyroid hormones and substitutes, assault
 
*'''[[T38.1X4]]''' Poisoning by thyroid hormones and substitutes, undetermined
 
*'''[[T38.1X5]]''' Adverse effect of thyroid hormones and substitutes
 
*'''[[T38.1X6]]''' Underdosing of thyroid hormones and substitutes
 
*'''[[T38.2]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of antithyroid drugs
 
*'''[[T38.2X]]''' Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of antithyroid drugs
 
*'''[[T38.2X1]]''' Poisoning by antithyroid drugs, accidental (unintentional)
 
  
Poisoning by antithyroid drugs NOS
+
* '''[[Flaxseed and breast feeding]]'''
  
*'''[[T38.2X2]]''' Poisoning by antithyroid drugs, intentional self-harm
+
* '''[[Flecainide and breast feeding]]''' Limited information indicates that maternal doses of flecainide up to 200 mg daily produce low levels in milk and would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants, especially if the infant is older than 2 months. Because of the relative lack of data concerning breastfeeding during maternal flecainide therapy, exclusively breastfed infants should be carefully monitored if this drug is used during lactation, possibly including measurement of serum levels to rule out toxicity if there is a concern.
*'''[[T38.2X3]]''' Poisoning by antithyroid drugs, assault
 
*'''[[T38.2X4]]''' Poisoning by antithyroid drugs, undetermined
 
*'''[[T38.2X5]]''' Adverse effect of antithyroid drugs
 
*'''[[T38.2X6]]''' Underdosing of antithyroid drugs