A stenosis (Template:IPAc-en; plural: stenoses, Template:IPAc-en) (from Ancient Greek στένωσις, "narrowing") is an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure. It is also sometimes called a stricture (as in urethral stricture). The term coarctation is a synonym, but is commonly used only in the context of aortic coarctation.
Restenosis is the recurrence of stenosis after a procedure.
Stenoses of the vascular type are often associated with unusual blood sounds resulting from turbulent flow over the narrowed blood vessel. This sound can be made audible by a stethoscope, but diagnosis is generally made or confirmed with some form of medical imaging.
- atherosclerosis causes stenotic lesions in arteries.
- birth defects
- iatrogenic, e.g. secondary to radiation therapy
- neoplasm – in such cases, the stenosis is often said to be "malignant" or "benign", although this attribute actually refers to the neoplasm itself.
The resulting syndrome depends on the structure affected.
Examples of vascular stenotic lesions include:
- Intermittent claudication (peripheral artery stenosis)
- Angina (coronary artery stenosis)
- Carotid artery stenosis which predispose to (strokes and transient ischaemic episodes)
- Renal artery stenosis
The types of stenoses in heart valves are:
- Pulmonary valve stenosis, which is the thickening of the pulmonary valve, therefore causing narrowing
- Mitral stenosis, which is the thickening of the mitral valve (of the left heart), therefore causing narrowing
- Tricuspid valve stenosis, which is the thickening of the tricuspid valve (of the right heart), therefore causing narrowing
- Aortic valve stenosis, which is the thickening of the aortic valve, therefore causing narrowing
Stenoses/strictures of other bodily structures/organs include:
- Pyloric stenosis (gastric outflow obstruction)
- Lumbar, cervical or thoracic spinal stenosis
- Subglottic stenosis (SGS)
- Tracheal stenosis
- Obstructive jaundice (biliary tract stenosis)
- Bowel obstruction
- Non-communicating hydrocephalus
- Stenosing tenosynovitis
- Read Wikipedia Stenosis
Affects one in three adults
Affecting about 35 percent of all adults in the United States according to the CDC, metabolic syndrome contributes to weight gain, by causing a state of internal starvation called metabolic starvation. This in turn leads to increases hunger, sugar cravings and increased portions leading to overeating and weight gain.
Cause and effect misunderstood
Since we traditionally thought that the portion control (which in turn was attributed wrongly to poor will power)is the cause of weight gain, rather than the effect of this metabolic starvation, all our traditional ideas about cause and effect of obesity were not only wrong but lead to the “blame the victim” attitude when it comes to obesity.
Secret of weight gain revealed
Secret of weight gain, and metabolic syndrome revealed - it has been recently proven that metabolic syndrome, and the weight gain itself are caused by a process called insulin resistance. Check your metabolic syndrome risk using the free Metabolic syndrome meter. Watch this amazing Ted Med video that reveals the secret of weight loss - Stop blaming the victim for obesity
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