Symptom

From WikiMD free medical encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

{{#invoke:For|For}}

A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls",[1] from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, indicating the presence of disease or abnormality. A symptom is subjective,[2] observed by the patient,[3] and cannot be measured directly,[4] whereas a sign is objectively observable. For example, paresthesia is a symptom (only the person experiencing it can directly observe their own tingling feeling), whereas erythema is a sign (anyone can confirm that the skin is redder than usual). Symptoms and signs are often nonspecific, but often combinations of them are at least suggestive of certain diagnoses, helping to narrow down what may be wrong. In other cases they are specific even to the point of being pathognomonic.

The term is sometimes also applied to physiological states outside the context of disease, as for example when referring to "symptoms of pregnancy".

Types

Symptoms may be chronic, relapsing or remitting. Asymptomatic conditions also exist (e.g. subclinical infections and, sometimes, high blood pressure).

Constitutional or general symptoms are those related to the systemic effects of a disease (e.g., fever, malaise, anorexia, and weight loss). They affect the entire body rather than a specific organ or location.

The terms "chief complaint", "presenting symptom", "iatrotropic symptom", or "presenting complaint" are used to describe the initial concern which brings a patient to a doctor. The symptom that ultimately leads to a diagnosis is called a "cardinal symptom".

Non-specific symptoms are self-reported symptoms that do not indicate a specific disease process or involve an isolated body system. For example, fatigue is a feature of many acute and chronic medical conditions, whether physical or mental, and may be either a primary or secondary symptom. Fatigue is also a normal, healthy condition when experienced after exertion or at the end of a day.

Positive and negative

In describing mental disorders,[5][6] especially schizophrenia, symptoms can be divided into positive and negative symptoms.[7]

  • Positive symptoms are symptoms present in the disorder but not normally experienced by most individuals. It reflects an excess or distortion of normal functions (i.e., experiences and behaviours that have been added to a person’s normal way of functioning.[8] Examples are hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behavior.[5]
  • Negative symptoms are functions that are normally found in healthy persons, but that are diminished or not present in affected persons. Thus, it is something that has disappeared from a person’s normal way of functioning.[8] Examples are social withdrawal, apathy, inability to experience pleasure and defects in attention control.[6]

Possible causes

Some symptoms occur in a wide range of disease processes, whereas other symptoms are fairly specific for a narrow range of illnesses. For example, a sudden loss of sight in one eye has a significantly smaller number of possible causes than nausea does.

Some symptoms can be misleading to the patient or the medical practitioner caring for them. For example, inflammation of the gallbladder often gives rise to pain in the right shoulder, which may understandably lead the patient to attribute the pain to a non-abdominal cause such as muscle strain.

Symptom versus Sign

A symptom can more simply be defined as any feature which is noticed by the patient. A sign is noticed by other people. It is not necessarily the nature of the sign or symptom which defines it, but who observes it.

A feature might be a sign or a symptom - or both - depending on the observer(s). For example, a skin rash may be noticed by either a healthcare professional as a sign, or by the patient as a symptom. When it is noticed by both, then the feature is both a sign and a symptom.

Some features, such as pain, can only be symptoms, because they cannot be directly observed by other people. Other features can only be signs, such as a blood cell count measured in a medical laboratory.

See also

References

  1. Pathology - Glossary{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B=
    {{#if:|}}

    }}

  2. eMedicine/Stedman Medical Dictionary Lookup!{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B=
    {{#if:|}}

    }}

  3. 5.0 5.1
  4. 6.0 6.1 http://www.minddisorders.com/Kau-Nu/Negative-symptoms.html Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders: negative symptom
  5. 8.0 8.1 Understanding Psychosis, Mental Health Illness of Australia.

Template:Medical terms to describe disease conditions Template:Medical conditions Template:Symptoms and signs


WikiMD Resources for Symptom

Articles on Symptom

Govt. policies / Guidelines
  1. Most recent articles on Symptom
  2. Most cited articles on Symptom
  3. Review articles on Symptom
  4. Articles on Symptom in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ
  1. US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Symptom
  2. NICE Guidance on Symptom
  3. FDA on Symptom
  4. CDC on Symptom

Media articles Symptom

Patient Resources / Community
  1. Slides on Symptom
  2. Images of Symptom
  3. Podcasts & MP3s on Symptom
  4. Videos on Symptom
  5. Instagram on Symptom
  1. Patient resources
  2. Discussion groups
  3. Patient Handouts
  4. Doctors Symptom
  5. Risk calculators & risk factors

Evidence Based Medicine

Healthcare Provider Resources
  1. Cochrane Collaboration on Symptom
  2. Bandolier on Symptom
  3. TRIP on Symptom
  4. Edidence Based Medicine on Symptom
  1. Symptoms of Symptom
  2. Causes & Risk Factors for Symptom
  3. Diagnostic studies for Symptom
  4. Treatment of Symptom

Clinical Trials

News on Symptom
  1. Ongoing Trials on Symptom at Clinical Trials.gov
  2. Trial results on Symptom
  3. Clinical Trials on Symptom at Google
  1. Symptom in the news
  2. Be alerted to news on Symptom
  3. News trends on Symptom

Definition of Symptom

Flickr on Symptom
  1. Definitions of Symptom
  1. Flickr on Symptom

Books on the topic

Facebook and Tumblr posts Symptom
  1. Books on Symptom
  2. Amazon on Symptom
  1. Facebook posts related to Symptom
  2. Tumblr posts related to Symptom

Continuing medical education (CME)

Tweets about Symptom
  1. CME Programs on Symptom
  1. Twitter tweets related to Symptom
Pintest and Twitter #Symptom Commentary & BlogsSymptom
  1. Pintest on Symptom
  2. #Symptom
  1. Blogs on Symptom
  2. Commentary of Symptom
W8MD Weight Loss, Sleep and MedSpa Wellsness Topics A-Z
W8md-logo.jpg

A | B | C | D | E | F | G

H | I | J | K | L | M | N

O | P | Q | R | S | T | U

V | W | X | Y | Z



W8md2.jpg

World's largest food, health, weight loss, wellnesspedia and encyclopedia

If you are a medical professional or an expert in any field of medicine, please join us in building the world's largest weight loss and wellness encyclopedia created by experts in the field, not by the crowd. WikiMD is sponsored by W8MD weight loss, sleep and medical aesthetic centers


W8MD Weight Loss, Sleep & Medical Aesthetic Centers

Since its inception in 2011, W8MD’s insurance physician weight loss program has successfully helped thousands of patients succeed in not only losing weight but also keep it off with an ongoing maintenance plan.

FANTASTIC PROGRAM. TRULY A LIFE CHANGER. D.M. LOST 100 LBS^^

weight loss success stories

^^Individual results may vary.

Weight-loss.jpg

W8MD weight loss, sleep and medical spa blogs


Support our sponsors

W8MD weight loss, sleep and medspa centers sponsors WikiMD.

W8MD's Locations for losing weight, sleeping better and looking your best

Philadelphia

weight loss Philadelphia | Sleep center Philadelphia

King of Prussia

Lose weight King of Prussia | sleep doctor King of Prussia

New York

Weight loss NYC | Fast weight loss NYC | Lose weight NYC | Sleep apnea NYC

New Jersey

New Jersey Weight Loss, Sleep and Medical Spa Cherry Hill NJ

Other W8MD blogs

Lorcaserin weight loss | Qsymia weight loss | Phentermine weight loss | Weight loss blog | Free weight loss | Saxenda weight loss | Contrave weight loss

Portions of content adapted from Wikipedias article on Symptom licensed under GNU FDL.

WikiMD Sponsors - W8MD Weight Loss, Sleep and MedSpa Centers

Pronounced weightMD, our state of the art W8MD weight loss, sleep, holistic IV nutrition and aesthetic medicine programs can help you not only to lose weight, and sleep better but also look your best! Since its inception in 2011, W8MD’s insurance physician weight loss program has successfully helped thousands of patients.

W8MD Weight Loss

W8MD’s Physician weight loss is unique in many ways with a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach to weight loss. Weight Loss Success Stories....

W8MD Sleep Services

Sleep medicine program uses state of the art technology to diagnose and treat over 80 different sleep disorders. W8MD Sleep Services…

W8MD Medical Aesthetic Services

Medical aesthetic program offers a wide variety of advanced laser skin treatments including oxygen super facials, photofacials and Affordable Botox. W8MD Aesthetic Services…

IM and IV nutrition therapy includes booster shots for B12, vitamin B complex, Vitamin C, Detox treatments and IV nutrition therapy. W8MD IV Nutrition…

W8MD weight loss | Philadelphia medical weight loss | NYC medical weight loss | NJ medical weight loss

W8MD Weight Loss, Sleep & Medical Aesthetics

Intro to W8MD Weight Loss, Sleep & Medical Aesthetics


Disclaimer: The entire contents of WIKIMD.ORG are for informational purposes only and do not render medical advice or professional services. If you have a medical emergency, you should CALL 911 immediately! Given the nature of the wiki, the information provided may not be accurate and or incorrect. Use the information on this wiki at your own risk! See full Disclaimers.WikiMD is supported by W8MD Weight loss, Poly-Tech Sleep & Medical Aesthetic Centers of America.