Difference between revisions of "The Acoustic Nerve"

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[[Anatomy]] > [[Gray's Anatomy| Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body]] > IX. Neurology > 5h. The Acoustic Nerve  
 
[[Anatomy]] > [[Gray's Anatomy| Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body]] > IX. Neurology > 5h. The Acoustic Nerve  
  
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[[Henry Gray]] (1821–1865).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.  
 
[[Henry Gray]] (1821–1865).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.  
'''[[5h. The Acoustic Nerve]]'''
 
'''[[(Eighth Nerve)]]'''
 
  
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'''The Acoustic Nerve''' '''(Eighth Nerve)'''
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(Vestibulocochlear nerve)
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The '''acoustic nerve''' consists of two distinct sets of fibers which differ in their [[peripheral]] endings, central connections, functions, and time of [[medullation]]. It is soft in texture and devoid of [[neurilemma]]. 
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==='''Cochlear Nerve'''===
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The [[cochlear]] nerve or root, the '''nerve of [[hearing]]''' arises from [[Bipolar cell|bipolar]] cells in the spiral [[ganglion]] of the [[cochlea]], situated near the inner edge of the osseous spiral [[lamina]]. The [[peripheral]] fibers pass to the organ of [[Corti]]. The central ones pass down the [[modiolus]] and then through the foramina of the tractus spiralis foraminosus or through the foramen centrale into the lateral or outer end of the internal auditory [[meatus]].   
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The nerve passes along the internal auditory meatus with the [[vestibular]] nerve and across the [[subarachnoid]] space, just above the [[flocculus]], almost directly medialward toward the [[inferior]] [[peduncle]] to terminate in the [[cochlear]] [[nucleus]].   
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The cochlear nerve is placed [[lateral]] to the vestibular root. Its fibers end in two nuclei: one, the '''accessory nucleus''' lies immediately in front of the [[inferior]] peduncle; the other, the '''tuberculum acusticum''' somewhat lateral to it. 
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The '''striae medullares''' (''striae acusticae'') are the [[axons]] of the cells of the tuberculum acusticum. They pass over the inferior [[peduncle]], and across the rhomboid fossa to the median [[sulcus]]. Here they dip into the substance of the [[pons]], to end around the cells of the superior olivary nuclei of both sides. There are, however, other fibers, and these are both direct and crossed, which pass into the lateral [[lemniscus]]. 
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The cells of the accessory nucleus give origin to fibers which run transversely in the pons and constitute the [[trapezium]]. Of the trapezoid fibers some end around the cells of the superior olivary nucleus or of the trapezoid nucleus of the same or opposite side, while others, crossed or uncrossed, pass directly into the lateral lemniscus. 
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If the further connections of the [[cochlear]] nerve of one side, say the left, be considered, it is found that they lie lateral to the main sensory tract, the [[lemniscus]], and are therefore termed the '''lateral lemniscus''' The fibers comprising the left lateral lemniscus ''arise'' in the superior olivary and trapezoid nuclei of the same or opposite side, while others are the uninterrupted fibers already alluded to, and these are either crossed or uncrossed, the former being the axons of the cells of the right accessory nucleus or of the cells of the right [[tuberculum]] [[acusticum]], while the latter are derived from the cells of the left nuclei. 
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In the upper part of the lateral lemniscus there is a collection of nerve cells, the '''nucleus of the lateral lemniscus''' around the cells of which some of the fibers arborize and from the cells of which axons originate to continue upward the tract of the lateral lemniscus. The ultimate ending of the left lateral lemniscus is partly in the opposite medial geniculate body, and partly in the inferior [[colliculi]]. 
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From the cells of these bodies new fibers arise and ascend in the [[occipital]] part of the internal capsule to reach the posterior three-fifths of the left superior temporal [[gyrus]] and the transverse temporal gyri. 
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=== '''Vestibular Nerve''' ===
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The vestibular nerve or root, the '''nerve of [[equilibration]]''' arises from bipolar cells in the [[vestibular]] [[ganglion]], '''ganglion of Scarpa''' which is situated in the upper part of the outer end of the internal auditory [[meatus]]. 
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The [[peripheral]] fibers divide into three branches: the superior branch passes through the foramina in the area vestibularis superior and ends in the utricle and in the [[ampullae]] of the superior and lateral semicircular ducts; the fibers of the [[inferior]] branch traverse the foramina in the area vestibularis inferior and end in the [[saccule]]; the posterior branch runs through the foramen singulare and supplies the [[ampulla]] of the [[posterior]] semicircular duct.
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==Function==
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This is the [[nerve]] along which the sensory cells (the [[hair cells]]) of the [[inner ear]] transmit information to the [[brain]]. It consists of the [[cochlear nerve]], carrying information about [[hearing (sense)|hearing]], and the [[vestibular nerve]], carrying information about [[Sense of balance|balance]].
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It emerges from the [[brainstem|pontomedullary junction]] and exits the inner [[human skull|skull]] via the [[internal acoustic meatus]] (or [[internal auditory meatus]]) in the [[temporal bone]].
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The vestibulocochlear nerve carries axons of type SSA, special somatic afferent, which carry the modalities of hearing and equilibrium.
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==Additional images==
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<gallery>
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File:Cranial endobasis of a 19-20 weeks foetus.JPG|Vestibulocochlear nerve
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File:Gray689.png|Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Ventral view.
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File:Gray705.png|Dissection showing the projection fibers of the cerebellum.
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File:Gray719.png|Hind- and mid-brains; postero-lateral view.
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File:Gray792.png|Upper part of medulla spinalis and hind- and mid-brains; posterior aspect, exposed in situ.
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File:Gray922.png|Position of the right bony labyrinth of the ear in the skull, viewed from above.
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File:ThreeNeuronArc.png |[[Vestibulo-ocular reflex]]
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File:Slide5nnn.JPG|Vestibulocochlear nerve
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</gallery>
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==External links==
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{{Commons category|Nervus vestibulocochlearis}}
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* {{LoyolaMedEd|GrossAnatomy/h_n/cn/cn1/cn8.htm}}
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* {{NormanAnatomy|cranialnerves}} ({{NormanAnatomyFig|VIII}})
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{{Cranial nerves}}
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{{Auditory and vestibular pathways}}
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{{Authority control}}
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[[Category:Cranial nerves]]
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[[Category:Vestibulocochlear nerve| ]]
  
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{{grays}}
The '''[[acoustic nerve]]''' consists of two distinct sets of fibers which differ in their peripheral endings, central connections, functions, and time of medullation. It is soft in texture and devoid of neurilemma. 
 
'''[[Cochlear Nerve]]'''—The cochlear nerve or root, the '''[[nerve of hearing]]''' arises from bipolar cells in the spiral ganglion of the cochlea, situated near the inner edge of the osseous spiral lamina. The peripheral fibers pass to the organ of Corti. The central ones pass down the modiolus and then through the foramina of the tractus spiralis foraminosus or through the foramen centrale into the lateral or outer end of the internal auditory meatus. The nerve passes along the internal auditory meatus with the vestibular nerve and across the subarachnoid space, just above the flocculus, almost directly medialward toward the inferior peduncle to terminate in the cochlear nucleus. 
 
The cochlear nerve is placed lateral to the vestibular root. Its fibers end in two nuclei: one, the '''[[accessory nucleus]]''' lies immediately in front of the inferior peduncle; the other, the '''[[tuberculum acusticum]]''' somewhat lateral to it. 
 
The '''[[striæ medullares]]''' (''[[striæ acusticæ]]'') are the axons of the cells of the tuberculum acusticum. They pass over the inferior peduncle, and across the rhomboid fossa to the median sulcus. Here they dip into the substance of the pons, to end around the cells of the superior olivary nuclei of both sides. There are, however, other fibers, and these are both direct and crossed, which pass into the lateral lemniscus. The cells of the accessory nucleus give origin to fibers which run transversely in the pons and constitute the trapezium. Of the trapezoid fibers some end around the cells of the superior olivary nucleus or of the trapezoid nucleus of the same or opposite side, while others, crossed or uncrossed, pass directly into the lateral lemniscus. 
 
If the further connections of the cochlear nerve of one side, say the left, be considered, it is found that they lie lateral to the main sensory tract, the lemniscus, and are therefore termed the '''[[lateral lemniscus]]''' The fibers comprising the left lateral lemniscus ''[[arise]]'' in the superior olivary and trapezoid nuclei of the same or opposite side, while others are the uninterrupted fibers already alluded to, and these are either crossed or uncrossed, the former being the axons of the cells of the right accessory nucleus or of the cells of the right tuberculum acusticum, while the latter are derived from the cells of the left nuclei. In the upper part of the lateral lemniscus there is a collection of nerve cells, the '''[[nucleus of the lateral lemniscus]]''' around the cells of which some of the fibers arborize and from the cells of which axons originate to continue upward the tract of the lateral lemniscus. The ultimate ending of the left lateral lemniscus is partly in the opposite medial geniculate body, and partly in the inferior colliculi. From the cells of these bodies new fibers arise and ascend in the occipital part of the internal capsule to reach the posterior three-fifths of the left superior temporal gyrus and the transverse temporal gyri. 
 
'''[[Vestibular Nerve]]'''—The vestibular nerve or root, the '''[[nerve of equilibration]]''' arises from bipolar cells in the vestibular ganglion, '''[[ganglion of Scarpa]]''' which is situated in the upper part of the outer end of the internal auditory meatus. The peripheral fibers divide into three branches: the superior branch passes through the foramina in the area vestibularis superior and ends in the utricle and in the ampullæ of the superior and lateral semicircular ducts; the fibers of the inferior branch traverse the foramina in the area vestibularis inferior and end in the saccule; the posterior branch runs through the foramen singulare and supplies the ampulla of the posterior semicircular duct. 
 
[[grays]]
 
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Latest revision as of 13:06, 21 May 2020

Anatomy > Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body > IX. Neurology > 5h. The Acoustic Nerve


Henry Gray (1821–1865). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.

The Acoustic Nerve (Eighth Nerve)

(Vestibulocochlear nerve)

The acoustic nerve consists of two distinct sets of fibers which differ in their peripheral endings, central connections, functions, and time of medullation. It is soft in texture and devoid of neurilemma.

Cochlear Nerve

The cochlear nerve or root, the nerve of hearing arises from bipolar cells in the spiral ganglion of the cochlea, situated near the inner edge of the osseous spiral lamina. The peripheral fibers pass to the organ of Corti. The central ones pass down the modiolus and then through the foramina of the tractus spiralis foraminosus or through the foramen centrale into the lateral or outer end of the internal auditory meatus.

The nerve passes along the internal auditory meatus with the vestibular nerve and across the subarachnoid space, just above the flocculus, almost directly medialward toward the inferior peduncle to terminate in the cochlear nucleus.

The cochlear nerve is placed lateral to the vestibular root. Its fibers end in two nuclei: one, the accessory nucleus lies immediately in front of the inferior peduncle; the other, the tuberculum acusticum somewhat lateral to it.

The striae medullares (striae acusticae) are the axons of the cells of the tuberculum acusticum. They pass over the inferior peduncle, and across the rhomboid fossa to the median sulcus. Here they dip into the substance of the pons, to end around the cells of the superior olivary nuclei of both sides. There are, however, other fibers, and these are both direct and crossed, which pass into the lateral lemniscus.

The cells of the accessory nucleus give origin to fibers which run transversely in the pons and constitute the trapezium. Of the trapezoid fibers some end around the cells of the superior olivary nucleus or of the trapezoid nucleus of the same or opposite side, while others, crossed or uncrossed, pass directly into the lateral lemniscus.

If the further connections of the cochlear nerve of one side, say the left, be considered, it is found that they lie lateral to the main sensory tract, the lemniscus, and are therefore termed the lateral lemniscus The fibers comprising the left lateral lemniscus arise in the superior olivary and trapezoid nuclei of the same or opposite side, while others are the uninterrupted fibers already alluded to, and these are either crossed or uncrossed, the former being the axons of the cells of the right accessory nucleus or of the cells of the right tuberculum acusticum, while the latter are derived from the cells of the left nuclei.

In the upper part of the lateral lemniscus there is a collection of nerve cells, the nucleus of the lateral lemniscus around the cells of which some of the fibers arborize and from the cells of which axons originate to continue upward the tract of the lateral lemniscus. The ultimate ending of the left lateral lemniscus is partly in the opposite medial geniculate body, and partly in the inferior colliculi.

From the cells of these bodies new fibers arise and ascend in the occipital part of the internal capsule to reach the posterior three-fifths of the left superior temporal gyrus and the transverse temporal gyri.

Vestibular Nerve

The vestibular nerve or root, the nerve of equilibration arises from bipolar cells in the vestibular ganglion, ganglion of Scarpa which is situated in the upper part of the outer end of the internal auditory meatus.

The peripheral fibers divide into three branches: the superior branch passes through the foramina in the area vestibularis superior and ends in the utricle and in the ampullae of the superior and lateral semicircular ducts; the fibers of the inferior branch traverse the foramina in the area vestibularis inferior and end in the saccule; the posterior branch runs through the foramen singulare and supplies the ampulla of the posterior semicircular duct.

Function

This is the nerve along which the sensory cells (the hair cells) of the inner ear transmit information to the brain. It consists of the cochlear nerve, carrying information about hearing, and the vestibular nerve, carrying information about balance. It emerges from the pontomedullary junction and exits the inner skull via the internal acoustic meatus (or internal auditory meatus) in the temporal bone.

The vestibulocochlear nerve carries axons of type SSA, special somatic afferent, which carry the modalities of hearing and equilibrium.

Additional images

External links

  1. REDIRECT Template:Physiology of hearing and balance
  • From a page move: This is a redirect from a page that has been moved (renamed). This page was kept as a redirect to avoid breaking links, both internal and external, that may have been made to the old page name.

Gray's Anatomy


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