The Veins of the Neck

From WikiMD free medical encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Prab-Tumpati-MD.jpg
Editor-In-Chief: Prab R. Tumpati M.D.. Founder, WikiMD and W8MD Weight Loss, Sleep and MedSpa Centers.

Dr. Tumpati is board certified physician practicing sleep medicine, obesity medicine, aesthetic medicine and internal medicine. Dr. Tumpati’s passion is prevention rather than cure. As a physician with fellowship training in Obesity Medicine, Dr. Tumpati has a unique approach to wellness, weight loss, aesthetics with a focus on prevention rather than cure. Dr. Tumpati believes in educating the public on the true science and art of medicine, nutrition, wellness and beauty.

WikiMD Resources for The Veins of the Neck

Articles

Most recent articles on The Veins of the Neck

Most cited articles on The Veins of the Neck

Review articles on The Veins of the Neck

Articles on The Veins of the Neck in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ

Media

Powerpoint slides on The Veins of the Neck

Images of The Veins of the Neck

Photos of The Veins of the Neck

Podcasts & MP3s on The Veins of the Neck

Videos on The Veins of the Neck

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on The Veins of the Neck

Bandolier on The Veins of the Neck

TRIP on The Veins of the Neck

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on The Veins of the Neck at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on The Veins of the Neck

Clinical Trials on The Veins of the Neck at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on The Veins of the Neck

NICE Guidance on The Veins of the Neck

NHS PRODIGY Guidance

FDA on The Veins of the Neck

CDC on The Veins of the Neck

Books

Books on The Veins of the Neck

News

The Veins of the Neck in the news

Be alerted to news on The Veins of the Neck

News trends on The Veins of the Neck

Commentary

Blogs on The Veins of the Neck

Definitions

Definitions of The Veins of the Neck

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on The Veins of the Neck

Discussion groups on The Veins of the Neck

Patient Handouts on The Veins of the Neck

Directions to Hospitals Treating The Veins of the Neck

Risk calculators and risk factors for The Veins of the Neck

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of The Veins of the Neck

Causes & Risk Factors for The Veins of the Neck

Diagnostic studies for The Veins of the Neck

Treatment of The Veins of the Neck

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on The Veins of the Neck

International

The Veins of the Neck en Espanol

The Veins of the Neck en Francais

Business

The Veins of the Neck in the Marketplace

Patents on The Veins of the Neck

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to The Veins of the Neck

Anatomy > Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body > VII. The Veins > 3b. 2. The Veins of the Neck

Henry Gray (1821–1865). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918. 3b. 2. The Veins of the Neck The veins of the neck (Fig. 558), which return the blood from the head and face, are:

  • External Jugular.
  • Anterior Jugular.
  • Posterior External Jugular.
  • Internal Jugular.
  • Vertebral.

The external jugular vein (v. jugularis externa) receives the greater part of the blood from the exterior of the cranium and the deep parts of the face, being formed by the junction of the posterior division of the posterior facial with the posterior auricular vein. It commences in the substance of the parotid gland, on a level with the angle of the mandible, and runs perpendicularly down the neck, in the direction of a line drawn from the angle of the mandible to the middle of the clavicle at the posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoideus. In its course it crosses the Sternocleidomastoideus obliquely, and in the subclavian triangle perforates the deep fascia, and ends in the subclavian vein, lateral to or in front of the Scalenus anterior. It is separated from the Sternocleidomastoideus by the investing layer of the deep cervical fascia, and is covered by the Platysma, the superficial fascia, and the integument; it crosses the cutaneous cervical nerve, and its upper half runs parallel with the great auricular nerve. The external jugular vein varies in size, bearing an inverse proportion to the other veins of the neck, it is occasionally double. It is provided with two pairs of valves, the lower pair being placed at its entrance into the subclavian vein, the upper in most cases about 4 cm. above the clavicle. The portion of vein between the two sets of valves is often dilated, and is termed the sinus These valves do not prevent the regurgitation of the blood, or the passage of injection from below upward. Tributaries—This vein receives the occipital occasionally, the posterior external jugular, and, near its termination, the transverse cervical, transverse scapular, and anterior jugular veins; in the substance of the parotid, a large branch of communication from the internal jugular joins it.


image558.gif


FIG. 558– The veins of the neck, viewed from in front. (Spalteholz.) (Picture From the Classic Gray's Anatomy) The posterior external jugular vein (v. jugularis posterior) begins in the occipital region and returns the blood from the skin and superficial muscles in the upper and back part of the neck, lying between the Splenius and Trapezius. It runs down the back part of the neck, and opens into the external jugular vein just below the middle of its course. The anterior jugular vein (v. jugularis anterior) begins near the hyoid bone by the confluence of several superficial veins from the submaxillary region. It descends between the median line and the anterior border of the Sternocleidomastoideus, and, at the lower part of the neck, passes beneath that muscle to open into the termination of the external jugular, or, in some instances, into the subclavian vein (Figs. 557, 558). It varies considerably in size, bearing usually an inverse proportion to the external jugular; most frequently there are two anterior jugulars, a right and left; but sometimes only one. Its tributaries are some laryngeal veins, and occasionally a small thyroid vein. Just above the sternum the two anterior jugular veins communicate by a transverse trunk, the venous jugular arch which receive tributaries from the inferior thyroid veins; each also communicates with the internal jugular. There are no valves in this vein. The internal jugular vein (v. jugularis interna) collects the blood from the brain, from the superficial parts of the face, and from the neck. It is directly continuous with the transverse sinus, and begins in the posterior compartment of the jugular foramen, at the base of the skull. At its origin it is somewhat dilated, and this dilatation is called the superior bulb It runs down the side of the neck in a vertical direction, lying at first lateral to the internal carotid artery, and then lateral to the common carotid, and at the root of the neck unites with the subclavian vein to form the innominate vein; a little above its termination is a second dilatation, the inferior bulb Above, it lies upon the Rectus capitis lateralis, behind the internal carotid artery and the nerves passing through the jugular foramen; lower down, the vein and artery lie upon the same plane, the glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal nerves passing forward between them; the vagus descends between and behind the vein and the artery in the same sheath, and the accessory runs obliquely backward, superficial or deep to the vein. At the root of the neck the right internal jugular vein is placed at a little distance from the common carotid artery, and crosses the first part of the subclavian artery, while the left internal jugular vein usually overlaps the common carotid artery. The left vein is generally smaller than the right, and each contains a pair of valves, which are placed about 2.5 cm. above the termination of the vessel.


image559.gif


FIG. 559– Veins of the tongue. The hypoglossal nerve has been displaced downward in this preparation. (Testut after Hirschfeld.) (Picture From the Classic Gray's Anatomy) Tributaries—This vein receives in its course the inferior petrosal sinus, the common facial, lingual, pharyngeal, superior and middle thyroid veins, and sometimes the occipital. The thoracic duct on the left side and the right lymphatic duct on the right side open into the angle of union of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. The Inferior Petrosal Sinus (sinus petrosus inferior) leaves the skull through the anterior part of the jugular foramen, and joins the superior bulb of the internal jugular vein. The Lingual Veins (vv. linguales) begin on the dorsum, sides, and under surface of the tongue, and, passing backward along the course of the lingual artery, end in the internal jugular vein. The vena comitans of the hypoglossal nerve (ranine vein), a branch of considerable size, begins below the tip of the tongue, and may join the lingual; generally, however, it passes backward on the Hyoglossus, and joins the common facial. The Pharyngeal Veins (vv. pharyngeæ) begin in the pharyngeal plexus on the outer surface of the pharynx, and, after receiving some posterior meningeal veins and the vein of the pterygoid canal, end in the internal jugular. They occasionally open into the facial, lingual, or superior thyroid vein. The Superior Thyroid Vein (v. thyreoidea superioris) (Fig. 560) begins in the substance and on the surface of the thyroid gland, by tributaries corresponding with the branches of the superior thyroid artery, and ends in the upper part of the internal jugular vein. It receives the superior laryngeal and cricothyroid veins. The Middle Thyroid Vein (Figs. 561, 562) collects the blood from the lower part of the thyroid gland, and after being joined by some veins from the larynx and trachea, ends in the lower part of the internal jugular vein. The common facial and occipital veins have been described. 13


image560.gif


FIG. 560– The veins of the thyroid gland. (Picture From the Classic Gray's Anatomy) The vertebral vein (v. vertebralis) is formed in the suboccipital triangle, from numerous small tributaries which spring from the internal vertebral venous plexuses and issue from the vertebral canal above the posterior arch of the atlas. They unite with small veins from the deep muscles at the upper part of the back of the neck, and form a vessel which enters the foramen in the transverse process of the atlas, and descends, forming a dense plexus around the vertebral artery, in the canal formed by the foramina transversaria of the cervical vertebræ. This plexus ends in a single trunk, which emerges from the foramen transversarium of the sixth cervical vertebra, and opens at the root of the neck into the back part of the innominate vein near its origin, its mouth being guarded by a pair of valves. On the right side, it crosses the first part of the subclavian artery. 14 Tributaries—The vertebral vein communicates with the transverse sinus by a vein which passes through the condyloid canal, when that canal exists. It receives branches from the occipital vein and from the prevertebral muscles, from the internal and external vertebral venous plexuses, from the anterior vertebral and the deep cervical veins; close to its termination it is sometimes joined by the first intercostal vein. 15


image561.gif


FIG. 561– Diagram showing common arrangement of thyroid veins. (Kocher.) (Picture From the Classic Gray's Anatomy)


image562.gif


FIG. 562– The fascia and middle thyroid veins. The veins here designated the inferior thyroid are called by Kocher the thyroidea ima. (Poirier and Charpy.) (Picture From the Classic Gray's Anatomy) The Anterior Vertebral Vein commences in a plexus around the transverse processes of the upper cervical vertebræ, descends in company with the ascending cervical artery between the Scalenus anterior and Longus capitis muscles, and opens into the terminal part of the vertebral vein. 16


image563.gif


FIG. 563– The vertebral vein. (Poirier and Charpy.) (Picture From the Classic Gray's Anatomy) The Deep Cervical Vein (v. cervicalis profunda; posterior vertebral or posterior deep cervical vein) accompanies its artery between the Semispinales capitis and colli. It begins in the suboccipital region by communicating branches from the occipital vein and by small veins from the deep muscles at the back of the neck. It receives tributaries from the plexuses around the spinous processes of the cervical vertebræ, and terminates in the lower part of the vertebral vein. 17

Gray's Anatomy Contents | Gray's Anatomy Subject Index

About Classic Gray's Anatomy

External Links

WikiMD Sponsors - W8MD Weight Loss, Sleep and MedSpa Centers

Pronounced weightMD, our state of the art W8MD weight loss, sleep, holistic IV nutrition and aesthetic medicine programs can help you not only to lose weight, and sleep better but also look your best! Since its inception in 2011, W8MD’s insurance physician weight loss program has successfully helped thousands of patients.

W8MD Weight Loss

W8MD’s Physician weight loss is unique in many ways with a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach to weight loss. Weight Loss Success Stories....

W8MD Sleep Services

Sleep medicine program uses state of the art technology to diagnose and treat over 80 different sleep disorders. W8MD Sleep Services…

W8MD Medical Aesthetic Services

Medical aesthetic program offers a wide variety of advanced laser skin treatments including oxygen super facials, photofacials and Affordable Botox. W8MD Aesthetic Services…

IM and IV nutrition therapy includes booster shots for B12, vitamin B complex, Vitamin C, Detox treatments and IV nutrition therapy. W8MD IV Nutrition…

W8MD weight loss | Philadelphia medical weight loss | NYC medical weight loss | NJ medical weight loss

W8MD Weight Loss, Sleep & Medical Aesthetics

Intro to W8MD Weight Loss, Sleep & Medical Aesthetics


Disclaimer: The entire contents of WIKIMD.ORG are for informational purposes only and do not render medical advice or professional services. If you have a medical emergency, you should CALL 911 immediately! Given the nature of the wiki, the information provided may not be accurate and or incorrect. Use the information on this wiki at your own risk! See full Disclaimers.WikiMD is supported by W8MD Weight loss, Poly-Tech Sleep & Medical Aesthetic Centers of America.