W8MD Diet | COVID-19 portal | Vitamin D | Vaccine | Keto

WikiMD is the world's largest medical encyclopedia with
312,668 pages, 4,239,227 edits & 44,166,673 views.

Free unbiased diet, health and wellness info!

Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome

From WikiMD's free health, diet & wellness encyclopedia
(Redirected from 4p- syndrome)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome
Other namesChromosome deletion Dillan 4p syndrome, Pitt–Rogers–Danks syndrome (PRDS) or Pitt syndrome,[1][2]
Mia - whs.jpg
Young girl with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome

Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), is a chromosomal deletion syndrome resulting from a partial deletion on the short arm of chromosome 4 (del(4p16.3)).[3] Features include a distinct craniofacial phenotype and intellectual disability.

Signs and symptoms

The most common characteristics include a distinct craniofacial phenotype (microcephaly, micrognathia, short philtrum, prominent glabella, ocular hypertelorism, dysplastic ears and periauricular tags), growth restriction, intellectual disability, muscle hypotonia, seizures, and congenital heart defects. [4]

Less common characteristics include hypospadias, colobomata of the iris, renal anomalies, and deafness.[5] Antibody deficiencies are also common, including common variable immunodeficiency and IgA deficiency. T-cell immunity is normal.[6]


Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome is a microdeletion syndrome caused by a deletion within HSA band 4p16.3 of the short arm of chromosome 4, particularly in the region of WHSC1 and WHSC2.[7]

About 87% of cases represent a de novo deletion, while about 13% are inherited from a parent with a chromosome translocation.[4] In the cases of familial transmission, there is a 2 to 1 excess of maternal transmission. Of the de novo cases, 80% are paternally derived.

Severity of symptoms and expressed phenotype differ based on the amount of genetic material deleted. The critical region for determining the phenotype is at 4p16.3 and can often be detected through genetic testing and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Genetic testing and genetic counseling is offered to affected families.


Initial diagnosis is based on distinct craniofacial phenotype after birth.[4] Diagnosis of WHS is confirmed by the detection of a deletion in the WHSCR. Chromosomal microarray and Cytogenetic analysis.D4S96 or D4Z1 chromosome band 4p16.3–specific probe (Wolf-Hirschhorn region, Vysis, Inc) is available for FISH study.[4]


The minimum birth incidence has been estimated as 1 in 50,000.[4]


Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome was first described in 1961 by the Austrian-born American pediatrician Kurt Hirschhorn and his colleagues.[8]

Thereafter, the syndrome gained worldwide attention after publications by the German geneticist Ulrich Wolf and his co-workers, specifically their articles in the German scientific magazine Humangenetik.[8][9]


External links

External resources

External links

Medicine icon
Medicine icon

This WikiMD article Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome is a stub. If you are familiar with the topic Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome, you can help us. Paid editors welcome!


Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome is part of WikiMD's free ^articles!

^Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome (article) is provided for informational purposes only. No expressed or implied warranties as to the validity of content.
WikiMD is not a substitute for professional advice. By accessing and using WikiMD you agree to the terms of use.
Templates etc. when imported from Wikipedia, are licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0. See full disclaimers.
W8MD weight loss logo

Ad. Tired of being overweight?. W8MD's physician weight loss program can HELP. Tele medicine available