Difference between revisions of "Glossary of food safety"

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==A==
 
==A==
  
* [[Absorbent Packing]]  
+
* '''[[Absorbent Packing]]'''
  
 
Material within a package which absorbs liquids from product; pad in meat trays is made from paper and has a plastic liner.
 
Material within a package which absorbs liquids from product; pad in meat trays is made from paper and has a plastic liner.
  
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* '''[[Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI)]]'''
* [[Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI)]]  
 
  
 
An estimate by the Joint Food and Agricultural Organization (United Nations)/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) of the amount of a veterinary drug, expressed on a body weight basis, that can be ingested daily over a lifetime without appreciable health risk (standard man=60 kg).
 
An estimate by the Joint Food and Agricultural Organization (United Nations)/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) of the amount of a veterinary drug, expressed on a body weight basis, that can be ingested daily over a lifetime without appreciable health risk (standard man=60 kg).
  
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* '''[[Accredited Laboratory Program (ALP)]]'''
  
* [[Accredited Laboratory Program (ALP)]]
+
The Accredited Laboratory Program accredits nonfederal analytical chemistry laboratories to analyze meat and poultry food products for moisture, protein, fat, and salt (MPFS) content, and/or certain specific classes of chemical residues. Currently the specific chemical residues are chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), sulfonamides, nitrosamines, and arsenic.
  
The Accredited Laboratory Program accredits nonfederal analytical chemistry laboratories to analyze meat and poultry food products for moisture, protein, fat, and salt (MPFS) content, and/or certain specific classes of chemical residues. Currently the specific chemical residues are chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), sulfonamides, nitrosamines, and arsenic.
 
  
  
* [[Acronyms]]  
+
* '''[[Acronyms]]'''
  
 
A list of popular acronyms used widely by and within FSIS.
 
A list of popular acronyms used widely by and within FSIS.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Advanced Meat Recovery (AMR)]]'''
* [[Advanced Meat Recovery (AMR)]]  
 
  
 
Product derived from AMR systems is defined as “meat.” AMR is a process that uses machinery to separate edible meat from bones by scraping, shaving, or pressing the meat from the bone. AMR machinery is not permitted to break, grind, crush, or pulverize bones to separate meat, and bones must emerge intact and in natural physical conformation. Meat produced using this method is comparable in appearance, texture, and composition to meat trimmings and similar meat products derived by hand trimming of bones. Product derived from AMR systems cannot contain spinal cord tissue. FSIS verifies that establishments using AMR systems do not incorporate spinal cord tissue into the products as a consequence of the pressure used to force meat tissue from the bone. Questionable products may be sampled by FSIS for analytical testing for the presence of spinal cord.
 
Product derived from AMR systems is defined as “meat.” AMR is a process that uses machinery to separate edible meat from bones by scraping, shaving, or pressing the meat from the bone. AMR machinery is not permitted to break, grind, crush, or pulverize bones to separate meat, and bones must emerge intact and in natural physical conformation. Meat produced using this method is comparable in appearance, texture, and composition to meat trimmings and similar meat products derived by hand trimming of bones. Product derived from AMR systems cannot contain spinal cord tissue. FSIS verifies that establishments using AMR systems do not incorporate spinal cord tissue into the products as a consequence of the pressure used to force meat tissue from the bone. Questionable products may be sampled by FSIS for analytical testing for the presence of spinal cord.
  
 +
  
 
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* '''[[Adulterated Food]]'''
* [[Adulterated Food]]  
 
  
 
Generally, impure, unsafe, or unwholesome; however, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the Federal Meat Inspection Act, the Poultry Products Inspection Act, and the Egg Products Inspection Act contain separate language defining in very specific (and lengthy) terms how the term “adulterated” will be applied to the foods each of these laws regulates. Products found to be adulterated under these laws cannot enter into commerce for human food use.
 
Generally, impure, unsafe, or unwholesome; however, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the Federal Meat Inspection Act, the Poultry Products Inspection Act, and the Egg Products Inspection Act contain separate language defining in very specific (and lengthy) terms how the term “adulterated” will be applied to the foods each of these laws regulates. Products found to be adulterated under these laws cannot enter into commerce for human food use.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Aged]]'''
* [[Aged]]  
 
  
 
see Dry Aged.
 
see Dry Aged.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS)]]'''
* [[Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS)]]  
 
  
 
USDA agency that establishes standards for grades of cotton, tobacco, meat, dairy products, eggs, fruits, and vegetables. It also operates inspection, grading, and market news services, and provides supervisory administration for federal marketing orders.
 
USDA agency that establishes standards for grades of cotton, tobacco, meat, dairy products, eggs, fruits, and vegetables. It also operates inspection, grading, and market news services, and provides supervisory administration for federal marketing orders.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Agricultural Research Service (ARS)]]'''
* [[Agricultural Research Service (ARS)]]  
 
  
 
USDA agency employing federal scientists to conduct basic,applied, and developmental research in the following fields: livestock; plants; soil, water and air quality; energy; food safety and quality; nutrition; food processing, storage, and distribution efficiency; non-food agricultural products; and international development.
 
USDA agency employing federal scientists to conduct basic,applied, and developmental research in the following fields: livestock; plants; soil, water and air quality; energy; food safety and quality; nutrition; food processing, storage, and distribution efficiency; non-food agricultural products; and international development.
  
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* '''[[Amenable]]'''
* [[Amenable]]  
 
  
 
Animals subject to the Federal Meat Inspection Act or the Poultry Products Inspection Act’s mandatory inspection requirements. USDA exempts from its inspection foods containing three percent or less raw (or less than two percent cooked) red meat or other edible portions of a carcass, or products which historically have not been considered by consumers as products of the meat industry. For poultry products, see 9 CFR §381.15.
 
Animals subject to the Federal Meat Inspection Act or the Poultry Products Inspection Act’s mandatory inspection requirements. USDA exempts from its inspection foods containing three percent or less raw (or less than two percent cooked) red meat or other edible portions of a carcass, or products which historically have not been considered by consumers as products of the meat industry. For poultry products, see 9 CFR §381.15.
  
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+
* '''[[Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)]]'''
* [[Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)]]  
 
  
 
USDA agency established to conduct inspections and regulatory and control programs to protect animal and plant health. It utilizes border inspections to prevent international transmission of pests and disease, administers quarantine and eradication programs, and certifies that U.S. exports meet importing countries’ animal and plant health standards.
 
USDA agency established to conduct inspections and regulatory and control programs to protect animal and plant health. It utilizes border inspections to prevent international transmission of pests and disease, administers quarantine and eradication programs, and certifies that U.S. exports meet importing countries’ animal and plant health standards.
  
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+
* '''[[Animal Disposition Reporting System (ADRS)]]'''
* [[Animal Disposition Reporting System (ADRS)]]  
 
  
 
The Animal Disposition Reporting System contains slaughter totals and disposition summaries for federally inspected livestock and poultry slaughter establishments. Each animal carcass is inspected for diseases and other conditions, which if present, may result in the animal being condemned as unfit for human consumption. If a carcass is condemned, the reason for condemnation, also referred to as the disposition, is recorded in the ADRS database.
 
The Animal Disposition Reporting System contains slaughter totals and disposition summaries for federally inspected livestock and poultry slaughter establishments. Each animal carcass is inspected for diseases and other conditions, which if present, may result in the animal being condemned as unfit for human consumption. If a carcass is condemned, the reason for condemnation, also referred to as the disposition, is recorded in the ADRS database.
  
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* '''[[Animal (Veterinary) Drugs]]'''
* [[Animal (Veterinary) Drugs]]  
 
  
 
Drugs intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in animals. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the broad mandate under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act to assure the safety and effectiveness of animal drugs and their use in all animals, including farm animals. Before FDA formally approves an animal drug, the sponsor or manufacturer of the drug must show in its premarket approval application that the drug is “safe and effective” in scientific testing. Such testing data, included with the application, must demonstrate a methodology to detect and measure any residue left in edible animal products and show that edible animal products when ready-to-eat are free from unsafe residues. Farmers and veterinarians treating farm animals must adhere to any restrictions about withdrawal times, or any warning or use constraints stated on the drug label.
 
Drugs intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in animals. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the broad mandate under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act to assure the safety and effectiveness of animal drugs and their use in all animals, including farm animals. Before FDA formally approves an animal drug, the sponsor or manufacturer of the drug must show in its premarket approval application that the drug is “safe and effective” in scientific testing. Such testing data, included with the application, must demonstrate a methodology to detect and measure any residue left in edible animal products and show that edible animal products when ready-to-eat are free from unsafe residues. Farmers and veterinarians treating farm animals must adhere to any restrictions about withdrawal times, or any warning or use constraints stated on the drug label.
  
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* '''[[Animal Food]]'''
* [[Animal Food]]  
 
  
 
Any article intended for use as food for dogs, cats, or other animals derived wholly, or in part, from the carcass or parts or products of the carcass of any livestock, except that the term animal food as used herein does not include:
 
Any article intended for use as food for dogs, cats, or other animals derived wholly, or in part, from the carcass or parts or products of the carcass of any livestock, except that the term animal food as used herein does not include:
  
 
Processed dry animal food or
 
Processed dry animal food or
 +
 
Livestock or poultry feeds manufactured from processed livestock byproducts (such as meatmeal tankage, meat and bonemeal, bloodmeal, and feed grade animal fat).
 
Livestock or poultry feeds manufactured from processed livestock byproducts (such as meatmeal tankage, meat and bonemeal, bloodmeal, and feed grade animal fat).
  
  
* [[Animal Food Manufacturer]]  
+
 
 +
* '''[[Animal Food Manufacturer]]'''
  
 
Any person engaged in the business of manufacturing or processing animal food.
 
Any person engaged in the business of manufacturing or processing animal food.
  
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+
* '''[[Animal Identification and Traceback]]'''
* [[Animal Identification and Traceback]]  
 
  
 
Currently, the private marketing system, assisted by computerization of records, generally can trace products back to their original suppliers, although not necessarily all the way to the farm. It has been suggested that a type of traceback program might be formalized to monitor and contain outbreaks of foodborne illness better. USDA has called “animal identification” an important element of any traceback system. Many livestock producers currently identify their animals using backtags, ear tags, tattoos, and other devices, so incorporating animal identification into a traceback program might not be difficult.
 
Currently, the private marketing system, assisted by computerization of records, generally can trace products back to their original suppliers, although not necessarily all the way to the farm. It has been suggested that a type of traceback program might be formalized to monitor and contain outbreaks of foodborne illness better. USDA has called “animal identification” an important element of any traceback system. Many livestock producers currently identify their animals using backtags, ear tags, tattoos, and other devices, so incorporating animal identification into a traceback program might not be difficult.
  
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+
* '''[[ANPR]]'''
* [[ANPR]]  
 
  
 
Advance notice of proposed rulemaking.
 
Advance notice of proposed rulemaking.
  
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+
* '''[[Antemortem Inspection]]'''
* [[Antemortem Inspection]]  
 
  
 
As used in the meat and poultry inspection program, the term refers to the examination that USDA meat and poultry inspectors are required to conduct of all live animals prior to slaughter.
 
As used in the meat and poultry inspection program, the term refers to the examination that USDA meat and poultry inspectors are required to conduct of all live animals prior to slaughter.
  
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* '''[[Anthrax]]'''
  
* [[Anthrax]]
+
A disease of mammals and humans caused by a spore-forming bacterium called Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax has an almost worldwide distribution and is a zoonotic disease, meaning it may spread from animals to humans. All mammals appear to be susceptible to anthrax to some degree, but ruminants such as cattle, sheep, and goats are the most susceptible and commonly affected, followed by horses, and then swine.
  
A disease of mammals and humans caused by a spore-forming bacterium called Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax has an almost worldwide distribution and is a zoonotic disease, meaning it may spread from animals to humans. All mammals appear to be susceptible to anthrax to some degree, but ruminants such as cattle, sheep, and goats are the most susceptible and commonly affected, followed by horses, and then swine.
+
  
 
+
* '''[[Antibiotics]]'''
 
 
* [[Antibiotics]]  
 
  
 
Chemical substances produced by microorganisms or synthetically that inhibit the growth of, or destroy, bacteria. Rules guiding the use of veterinary drugs and medicated animal feeds, including tolerance levels for drug residues in meats for human consumption, are set by the Center for Veterinary Medicine of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) enforces the FDA rules through a sampling and testing program that is part of its overall meat and poultry inspection program.
 
Chemical substances produced by microorganisms or synthetically that inhibit the growth of, or destroy, bacteria. Rules guiding the use of veterinary drugs and medicated animal feeds, including tolerance levels for drug residues in meats for human consumption, are set by the Center for Veterinary Medicine of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) enforces the FDA rules through a sampling and testing program that is part of its overall meat and poultry inspection program.
  
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+
* '''[[Antibiotic Resistance Action Plan]]'''
* [[Antibiotic Resistance Action Plan]]  
 
  
 
Public health action plan developed by an Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance that was created in 1999 to combat antimicrobial resistance. The task force is co-chaired by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Food and Drug Administration, National Institutes of Health, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Department of Defense, Department of Veterans Affairs, Environmental Protection Agency, and Health Resources and Services Administration.
 
Public health action plan developed by an Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance that was created in 1999 to combat antimicrobial resistance. The task force is co-chaired by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Food and Drug Administration, National Institutes of Health, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Department of Defense, Department of Veterans Affairs, Environmental Protection Agency, and Health Resources and Services Administration.
  
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+
* '''[[Antimicrobial Resistance]]'''
* [[Antimicrobial Resistance]]  
 
  
 
Bacteria and other disease-causing organisms have a remarkable ability to mutate and acquire resistance genes from other organisms and thereby develop resistance to antimicrobial drugs. When an antimicrobial drug is used, the selective pressure exerted by the drug favors the growth of organisms that are resistant to the drug's action.
 
Bacteria and other disease-causing organisms have a remarkable ability to mutate and acquire resistance genes from other organisms and thereby develop resistance to antimicrobial drugs. When an antimicrobial drug is used, the selective pressure exerted by the drug favors the growth of organisms that are resistant to the drug's action.
  
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+
* '''[[Antioxidant]]'''
* [[Antioxidant]]  
 
  
 
Substance added to food to prevent the oxygen present in the air from causing undesirable changes in flavor color. BHA, BHT, and tocopherols are examples of antioxidants.
 
Substance added to food to prevent the oxygen present in the air from causing undesirable changes in flavor color. BHA, BHT, and tocopherols are examples of antioxidants.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Artificial Coloring]]'''
* [[Artificial Coloring]]  
 
  
 
A coloring containing any dye or pigment manufactured by a process of synthesis or other similar artifice, or a coloring which was manufactured by extracting naturally produced dyes or pigments from a plant or other material.
 
A coloring containing any dye or pigment manufactured by a process of synthesis or other similar artifice, or a coloring which was manufactured by extracting naturally produced dyes or pigments from a plant or other material.
  
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+
* '''[[Artificial Flavoring]]'''
* [[Artificial Flavoring]]  
 
  
 
Artificial flavors are restricted to an ingredient which was manufactured by a process of synthesis or similar process. The principal components of artificial flavors usually are esters, ketones, and aldehyde groups. These ingredients are declared in the ingredients statement as “Artificial Flavors” without naming the individual components. See 9 CFR 317.2(j)(3) and 381.119.
 
Artificial flavors are restricted to an ingredient which was manufactured by a process of synthesis or similar process. The principal components of artificial flavors usually are esters, ketones, and aldehyde groups. These ingredients are declared in the ingredients statement as “Artificial Flavors” without naming the individual components. See 9 CFR 317.2(j)(3) and 381.119.
  
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* '''[[Aseptic Packaging]]'''
* [[Aseptic Packaging]]  
 
  
 
Technique for creating a shelf-stable container by placing a commercially sterile product into a commercially sterile container in a commercially sterile environment. The sealed container is designed to maintain product sterility until the seal is broken.
 
Technique for creating a shelf-stable container by placing a commercially sterile product into a commercially sterile container in a commercially sterile environment. The sealed container is designed to maintain product sterility until the seal is broken.
  
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* '''[[Automated Import Information System (AIIS)]]'''
* [[Automated Import Information System (AIIS)]]  
 
  
 
A centralized FSIS database that stores inspection results and provides a record of how each exporting country maintains inspection controls.
 
A centralized FSIS database that stores inspection results and provides a record of how each exporting country maintains inspection controls.
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* [[Bacon]]  
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 +
* '''[[Bacon]]'''
  
 
The cured belly of a swine carcass. If meat from other portions of the carcass is used, the product name must be qualified to identify the portions, e.g., “Pork Shoulder Bacon.” “Certified” refers to products that have been treated for trichinae.
 
The cured belly of a swine carcass. If meat from other portions of the carcass is used, the product name must be qualified to identify the portions, e.g., “Pork Shoulder Bacon.” “Certified” refers to products that have been treated for trichinae.
  
* [[Bacteria]]  
+
* '''[[Bacteria]]'''
  
 
Living single-cell organisms. Bacteria can be carried by water, wind, insects, plants, animals, and people and survive well on skin and clothes and in human hair. They also thrive in scabs, scars, the mouth, nose, throat, intestines, and room-temperature foods. Often bacteria are maligned as the causes of human and animal disease, but there are certain types which are beneficial for all types of living matter.
 
Living single-cell organisms. Bacteria can be carried by water, wind, insects, plants, animals, and people and survive well on skin and clothes and in human hair. They also thrive in scabs, scars, the mouth, nose, throat, intestines, and room-temperature foods. Often bacteria are maligned as the causes of human and animal disease, but there are certain types which are beneficial for all types of living matter.
  
* [[Baste]]  
+
* '''[[Baste]]'''
  
 
To moisten meat or other food while cooking. Melted butter or other fat, meat drippings, or liquid such as stock is spooned or brushed on food as it cooks to moisten it.
 
To moisten meat or other food while cooking. Melted butter or other fat, meat drippings, or liquid such as stock is spooned or brushed on food as it cooks to moisten it.
  
* [[Basted or Self Basted]]  
+
* '''[[Basted or Self Basted]]'''
  
 
Bone-in poultry products that are injected or marinated with a solution containing butter or other edible fat, broth, stock or water plus spices, flavor enhancers and other approved substances must be labeled as basted or self basted. The maximum added weight of approximately 3% solution before processing is included in the net weight on the label. Label must include a statement identifying the total quantity and common or usual name of all ingredients in the solution, e.g., “Injected with approximately 3% of a solution of ____________ (list of ingredients).” Use of terms “basted” or “self-basted” on boneless poultry products is limited to 8% of the weight of the raw poultry before processing.
 
Bone-in poultry products that are injected or marinated with a solution containing butter or other edible fat, broth, stock or water plus spices, flavor enhancers and other approved substances must be labeled as basted or self basted. The maximum added weight of approximately 3% solution before processing is included in the net weight on the label. Label must include a statement identifying the total quantity and common or usual name of all ingredients in the solution, e.g., “Injected with approximately 3% of a solution of ____________ (list of ingredients).” Use of terms “basted” or “self-basted” on boneless poultry products is limited to 8% of the weight of the raw poultry before processing.
  
* [[Beef]]  
+
* '''[[Beef]]'''
  
 
Meat from full-grown cattle about two years old. “Baby beef” and “calf” are interchangeable terms used to describe young cattle weighing about 700 pounds that have been raised mainly on milk and grass.
 
Meat from full-grown cattle about two years old. “Baby beef” and “calf” are interchangeable terms used to describe young cattle weighing about 700 pounds that have been raised mainly on milk and grass.
  
* [[Beef Patties]]  
+
* '''[[Beef Patties]]'''
  
 
“Beef Patties” shall consist of chopped fresh and/or frozen beef with or without the addition of beef fat and/or seasonings.
 
“Beef Patties” shall consist of chopped fresh and/or frozen beef with or without the addition of beef fat and/or seasonings.
  
* [[Beef Suet]]  
+
* '''[[Beef Suet]]'''
  
 
Hard fat from kidneys and loin, mainly used for tallow. May be labeled as “Beef Fat” or “Beef Suet.”
 
Hard fat from kidneys and loin, mainly used for tallow. May be labeled as “Beef Fat” or “Beef Suet.”
  
* [[Biosecurity]]  
+
* '''[[Biosecurity]]'''
  
 
Biosecurity refers to policies and measures taken to protect this nation’s food supply and agricultural resources from both accidental contamination and deliberate attacks of bioterrorism. Now viewed as an emerging threat, bioterrorism might include such acts as introducing pests intended to kill U.S. food crops; spreading a virulent disease among animal production facilities; and poisoning air, water, food, and blood supplies. The federal government is now increasing its efforts to improve biosecurity to lessen the vulnerabilities to bioterrorism threats.
 
Biosecurity refers to policies and measures taken to protect this nation’s food supply and agricultural resources from both accidental contamination and deliberate attacks of bioterrorism. Now viewed as an emerging threat, bioterrorism might include such acts as introducing pests intended to kill U.S. food crops; spreading a virulent disease among animal production facilities; and poisoning air, water, food, and blood supplies. The federal government is now increasing its efforts to improve biosecurity to lessen the vulnerabilities to bioterrorism threats.
  
* [[Biotechnology]]  
+
* '''[[Biotechnology]]'''
  
 
Agricultural biotechnology is a collection of scientific techniques, including genetic engineering, that are used to create, improve, or modify plants, animals, and microorganisms. Using conventional techniques, such as selective breeding, scientists have been working to improve plants and animals for human benefit for hundreds of years. Modern techniques now enable scientists to move genes (and therefore desirable traits) in ways they could not before - and with greater ease and precision.
 
Agricultural biotechnology is a collection of scientific techniques, including genetic engineering, that are used to create, improve, or modify plants, animals, and microorganisms. Using conventional techniques, such as selective breeding, scientists have been working to improve plants and animals for human benefit for hundreds of years. Modern techniques now enable scientists to move genes (and therefore desirable traits) in ways they could not before - and with greater ease and precision.
  
* [[Bioterrorism]]  
+
* '''[[Bioterrorism]]'''
  
 
Intentional use of biological agents or toxins to cause a public health emergency or to threaten the integrity of the food and agricultural system.
 
Intentional use of biological agents or toxins to cause a public health emergency or to threaten the integrity of the food and agricultural system.
  
* [[Bison]]  
+
* '''[[Bison]]'''
  
 
The National Bison Association encourages the name bison to differentiate the American buffalo from the Asian Water buffalo and African Cape buffalo. The American buffalo is not a true buffalo. Its scientific name is Bison and it belongs to the bovine family along with domestic cattle.
 
The National Bison Association encourages the name bison to differentiate the American buffalo from the Asian Water buffalo and African Cape buffalo. The American buffalo is not a true buffalo. Its scientific name is Bison and it belongs to the bovine family along with domestic cattle.
  
* [[Botulism]]  
+
* '''[[Botulism]]'''
  
 
A rare but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. There are three main kinds of botulism, one of which is foodborne botulism caused by eating foods that contain the botulism toxin. Foodborne botulism can be especially dangerous because many people can be poisoned by eating a contaminated food. All forms of botulism can be fatal and are considered medical emergencies. Good supportive care in a hospital is the mainstay of therapy for all forms of botulism.
 
A rare but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. There are three main kinds of botulism, one of which is foodborne botulism caused by eating foods that contain the botulism toxin. Foodborne botulism can be especially dangerous because many people can be poisoned by eating a contaminated food. All forms of botulism can be fatal and are considered medical emergencies. Good supportive care in a hospital is the mainstay of therapy for all forms of botulism.
  
* [[Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)]]  
+
* '''[[Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)]]'''
  
 
Commonly known as “mad cow disease,” BSE is a slowly progressive, incurable disease affecting the central nervous system of cattle, first diagnosed in the United Kingdom in 1986. BSE belongs to a family of diseases known as the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Consumption by cattle of animal feed containing TSE-contaminated ruminant protein has been cited as one possible means of transmission. Scientific evidence supports a causal relationship between BSE outbreaks in Europe and more than 120 recent European cases of a human TSE, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD). TSE animal diseases are found in the United States, including scrapie in sheep and goats and chronic wasting disease in deer and elk. Since 1989, USDA has prohibited the importation of live ruminants from countries where BSE is known to exist in native cattle. In 1997, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prohibited the use of most mammalian protein in ruminant feeds.
 
Commonly known as “mad cow disease,” BSE is a slowly progressive, incurable disease affecting the central nervous system of cattle, first diagnosed in the United Kingdom in 1986. BSE belongs to a family of diseases known as the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Consumption by cattle of animal feed containing TSE-contaminated ruminant protein has been cited as one possible means of transmission. Scientific evidence supports a causal relationship between BSE outbreaks in Europe and more than 120 recent European cases of a human TSE, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD). TSE animal diseases are found in the United States, including scrapie in sheep and goats and chronic wasting disease in deer and elk. Since 1989, USDA has prohibited the importation of live ruminants from countries where BSE is known to exist in native cattle. In 1997, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prohibited the use of most mammalian protein in ruminant feeds.
  
* [[Brine]]  
+
* '''[[Brine]]'''
  
 
(Verb) To treat with or steep in brine. (Noun) A strong solution of water and salt, and a sweetener such as sugar, molasses, honey, or corn syrup may be added to the solution for flavor and to improve browning.
 
(Verb) To treat with or steep in brine. (Noun) A strong solution of water and salt, and a sweetener such as sugar, molasses, honey, or corn syrup may be added to the solution for flavor and to improve browning.
  
* [[Brine Curing]]  
+
* '''[[Brine Curing]]'''
  
 
Brine curing (or wet curing) is the most popular way of producing hams. It is a wet cure whereby fresh meat is injected with a curing solution before cooking. Brining ingredients can be salt, sugar, sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate, sodium erythorbate, sodium phosphate, potassium chloride, water and flavorings. Smoke flavoring (liquid smoke) may also be injected with brine solution. Cooking may occur during this process.
 
Brine curing (or wet curing) is the most popular way of producing hams. It is a wet cure whereby fresh meat is injected with a curing solution before cooking. Brining ingredients can be salt, sugar, sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate, sodium erythorbate, sodium phosphate, potassium chloride, water and flavorings. Smoke flavoring (liquid smoke) may also be injected with brine solution. Cooking may occur during this process.
  
* [[Broiler or Fryer]]  
+
* '''[[Broiler or Fryer]]'''
  
 
A broiler or fryer is a young chicken, usually under 13 weeks of age, of either sex, that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin and flexible breastbone cartilage.
 
A broiler or fryer is a young chicken, usually under 13 weeks of age, of either sex, that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin and flexible breastbone cartilage.
  
* [[Byproduct]]  
+
* '''[[Byproduct]]'''
  
 
See Meat Byproduct.
 
See Meat Byproduct.
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* [[Campylobacter ]]
 
 
Campylobacter is a bacterium that is commonly found in the intestinal tracts of cats, dogs, poultry, cattle, swine, rodents, monkeys, wild birds, and some humans. The bacteria pass through feces to cycle through the environment and are also in untreated water.  Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni), the strain associated with most reported human infections, may be present in the body without causing illness.
 
  
 +
* '''[[Campylobacter ]]'''
  
 +
Campylobacter is a bacterium that is commonly found in the intestinal tracts of cats, dogs, poultry, cattle, swine, rodents, monkeys, wild birds, and some humans. The bacteria pass through feces to cycle through the environment and are also in untreated water.  Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni), the strain associated with most reported human infections, may be present in the body without causing illness.
  
* [[Campylobacteriosis]]
+
  
A diarrheal disease often caused by the type of bacteria known as Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) associated with poultry, raw milk, and water. There are an estimated 2.5 million cases annually in the United States with 200 to 730 deaths. Campylobacteriosis has been linked to Guillain-Barre syndrome (a disease which paralyzes limbs and breathing muscles) as well as Epstein-Barr, Cytomegalovirus, and other viruses. USDA has estimated that this disease costs the United States between $1.2 to $1.4 billion annually in medical costs, productivity losses, and residential care.
+
* '''[[Campylobacteriosis]]'''
  
 +
A diarrheal disease often caused by the type of bacteria known as Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) associated with poultry, raw milk, and water. There are an estimated 2.5 million cases annually in the United States with 200 to 730 deaths. Campylobacteriosis has been linked to Guillain-Barre syndrome (a disease which paralyzes limbs and breathing muscles) as well as Epstein-Barr, Cytomegalovirus, and other viruses. USDA has estimated that this disease costs the United States between $1.2 to $1.4 billion annually in medical costs, productivity losses, and residential care.
  
 +
  
* [[Can]]  
+
* '''[[Can]]'''
  
 
A receptacle generally having less than 10 gallon capacity (consumer or institutional sizes); also means to pack a product in a can or a wide-mouth glass container for processing, shipping or storage.
 
A receptacle generally having less than 10 gallon capacity (consumer or institutional sizes); also means to pack a product in a can or a wide-mouth glass container for processing, shipping or storage.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Capacolla]]'''
* [[Capacolla]]  
 
  
 
Boneless pork shoulder butts which are dry cured; not necessarily cooked.
 
Boneless pork shoulder butts which are dry cured; not necessarily cooked.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Capon]]'''
* [[Capon]]  
 
  
 
A surgically unsexed male chicken, usually under eight months of age, that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin.
 
A surgically unsexed male chicken, usually under eight months of age, that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Captive Bolt]]'''
* [[Captive Bolt]]  
 
  
 
An instrument used to stun cattle prior to slaughter. The bolt is driven into the animal’s brain, rendering it unconscious.
 
An instrument used to stun cattle prior to slaughter. The bolt is driven into the animal’s brain, rendering it unconscious.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Carcass]]'''
* [[Carcass]]  
 
  
 
All parts of any slaughtered livestock.
 
All parts of any slaughtered livestock.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Casing]]'''
* [[Casing]]  
 
  
 
A membranous case for processed meat.
 
A membranous case for processed meat.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)]]'''
* [[Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)]]  
 
  
 
The agency within the Food and Drug Administration responsible for developing and overseeing enforcement of food safety and quality regulations. CFSAN coordinates surveillance and compliance with FDA and other states’ surveillance and compliance programs. FDA's roughly 800 field inspectors (located administratively within FDA's Office of Regulatory Affairs)enforce CFSAN's food safety regulations at 53,000 processing facilities.
 
The agency within the Food and Drug Administration responsible for developing and overseeing enforcement of food safety and quality regulations. CFSAN coordinates surveillance and compliance with FDA and other states’ surveillance and compliance programs. FDA's roughly 800 field inspectors (located administratively within FDA's Office of Regulatory Affairs)enforce CFSAN's food safety regulations at 53,000 processing facilities.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM)]]'''
* [[Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM)]]  
 
  
 
An agency within the Food and Drug Administration that is responsible for assuring that all animal drugs, feeds (including pet foods), and veterinary devices are safe for animals, properly labeled, and produce no human health hazards when used in food-producing animals.
 
An agency within the Food and Drug Administration that is responsible for assuring that all animal drugs, feeds (including pet foods), and veterinary devices are safe for animals, properly labeled, and produce no human health hazards when used in food-producing animals.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention]]'''
* [[Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention]]  
 
  
 
An agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that monitors and investigates food borne disease outbreaks and compiles baseline data against which to measure the success of changes in food safety programs.
 
An agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that monitors and investigates food borne disease outbreaks and compiles baseline data against which to measure the success of changes in food safety programs.
  
 +
  
 +
* '''[[Certified]]'''
  
* [[Certified]]
+
The term “certified” implies that the USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service and the Agriculture Marketing Service have officially evaluated a meat product for class, grade, or other quality characteristics (e.g., “Certified Angus Beef”). When used under other circumstances, the term must be closely associated with the name of the organization responsible for the “certification”process, e.g., “XYZ Company’s Certified Beef.”
 
 
The term “certified” implies that the USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service and the Agriculture Marketing Service have officially evaluated a meat product for class, grade, or other quality characteristics (e.g., “Certified Angus Beef”). When used under other circumstances, the term must be closely associated with the name of the organization responsible for the “certification”process, e.g., “XYZ Company’s Certified Beef.”
 
 
 
  
 +
  
* [[Chronic Wasting Disease]]  
+
* '''[[Chronic Wasting Disease]]'''
  
 
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of deer and elk. To date, this disease has been found only in cervids (members of the deer family) in North America. First recognized as a clinical "wasting" syndrome in 1967 in mule deer in a wildlife research facility in northern Colorado, it was identified as a TSE in 1978. CWD is typified by chronic weight loss leading to death. There is no known relationship between CWD and any other TSE of animals or people.
 
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of deer and elk. To date, this disease has been found only in cervids (members of the deer family) in North America. First recognized as a clinical "wasting" syndrome in 1967 in mule deer in a wildlife research facility in northern Colorado, it was identified as a TSE in 1978. CWD is typified by chronic weight loss leading to death. There is no known relationship between CWD and any other TSE of animals or people.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Chemical Preservative]]'''
* [[Chemical Preservative]]  
 
  
 
Any chemical that, when added to a meat or meat food product, tends to prevent or retard deterioration thereof, but does not include common salt, sugars, vinegars, spices, or oils extracted from spices or substances added to meat and meat food products by exposure to wood smoke.
 
Any chemical that, when added to a meat or meat food product, tends to prevent or retard deterioration thereof, but does not include common salt, sugars, vinegars, spices, or oils extracted from spices or substances added to meat and meat food products by exposure to wood smoke.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Chevon (FR)]]'''
* [[Chevon (FR)]]  
 
  
 
Goat meat used for food.
 
Goat meat used for food.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Chub]]'''
* [[Chub]]  
 
  
 
An acceptable name to denote a short, usually plump meat food product, unsliced in casing.
 
An acceptable name to denote a short, usually plump meat food product, unsliced in casing.
  
 +
  
 +
* '''[[Clostridium botulinum ]]'''
  
* [[Clostridium botulinum ]]
+
The name of a group of bacteria commonly found in soil. These rod-shaped organisms grow best in low oxygen conditions. The bacteria form spores which allow them to survive in a dormant state until exposed to conditions that can support their growth. Clostridium botulinum is the bacterium that produces the nerve toxin that causes botulism.
  
The name of a group of bacteria commonly found in soil. These rod-shaped organisms grow best in low oxygen conditions. The bacteria form spores which allow them to survive in a dormant state until exposed to conditions that can support their growth. Clostridium botulinum is the bacterium that produces the nerve toxin that causes botulism.
+
  
 
+
* '''[[Cock or Rooster]]'''
 
 
* [[Cock or Rooster]]  
 
  
 
A mature male chicken with coarse skin, toughened and darkened meat, and hardened breastbone tip.
 
A mature male chicken with coarse skin, toughened and darkened meat, and hardened breastbone tip.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)]]'''
* [[Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)]]  
 
  
 
The codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the Executive departments and agencies of the federal government. The Code is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to regulation. Most regulations directly related to agriculture are in Title 7. Each title is divided into chapters that usually bear the name of the issuing agency, followed by subdivisions into parts covering specific regulatory areas. Title 9, Chapter III covers the Food Safety and Inspection Service.
 
The codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the Executive departments and agencies of the federal government. The Code is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to regulation. Most regulations directly related to agriculture are in Title 7. Each title is divided into chapters that usually bear the name of the issuing agency, followed by subdivisions into parts covering specific regulatory areas. Title 9, Chapter III covers the Food Safety and Inspection Service.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Codex Alimentarius Commission]]'''
* [[Codex Alimentarius Commission]]  
 
  
 
A joint commission of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization, comprised of some 146 member countries, created in 1962 to ensure consumer food safety, establish fair practices in food trade, and promote the development of international food standards. The Commission drafts nonbinding standards for food additives, veterinary drugs, pesticide residues, and other substances that affect consumer food safety. It publishes these standards in a listing called the “Codex Alimentarius.”
 
A joint commission of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization, comprised of some 146 member countries, created in 1962 to ensure consumer food safety, establish fair practices in food trade, and promote the development of international food standards. The Commission drafts nonbinding standards for food additives, veterinary drugs, pesticide residues, and other substances that affect consumer food safety. It publishes these standards in a listing called the “Codex Alimentarius.”
  
 +
  
 +
* '''[[Consumer Safety Officer]]'''
  
* [[Consumer Safety Officer]]
+
The Consumer Safety Officer (CSO), a professional position created by FSIS in 2001, serves as a representative of a district office within the agency. The CSO’s duties include focusing on in-plant inspection activities, serving on in-depth verification reviews, investigations, and other Agency reviews to assess the effectiveness of a plant’s food safety control systems. In addition, a key responsibility of the CSO will be to assist with activities associated with the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA) which supports in-plant food safety inspection activities and helps small and very small establishments identify resources for the design and implementation of HACCP plans, SSOPs, E. colitesting plans, and microbiological control strategies.
  
The Consumer Safety Officer (CSO), a professional position created by FSIS in 2001, serves as a representative of a district office within the agency. The CSO’s duties include focusing on in-plant inspection activities, serving on in-depth verification reviews, investigations, and other Agency reviews to assess the effectiveness of a plant’s food safety control systems. In addition, a key responsibility of the CSO will be to assist with activities associated with the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA) which supports in-plant food safety inspection activities and helps small and very small establishments identify resources for the design and implementation of HACCP plans, SSOPs, E. colitesting plans, and microbiological control strategies.
+
  
 
+
* '''[[Continuous Inspection]]'''
 
 
* [[Continuous Inspection]]  
 
  
 
USDA's meat and poultry inspection system is often called “continuous” because no animal destined for human food may be slaughtered or dressed unless an inspector is present to examine it before slaughter (antemortem inspection), and its carcass and parts after slaughter (postmortem inspection). In processing plants, as opposed to slaughter plants, inspectors need not be present at all times, but they do visit at least once daily. Processing inspection is also considered continuous.
 
USDA's meat and poultry inspection system is often called “continuous” because no animal destined for human food may be slaughtered or dressed unless an inspector is present to examine it before slaughter (antemortem inspection), and its carcass and parts after slaughter (postmortem inspection). In processing plants, as opposed to slaughter plants, inspectors need not be present at all times, but they do visit at least once daily. Processing inspection is also considered continuous.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Controlled Atmosphere Packaging (CAP)]]'''
* [[Controlled Atmosphere Packaging (CAP)]]  
 
  
 
Packaging method in which selected atmospheric concentrations of gases are maintained throughout storage in order to extend product shelf life. Gas may either be evacuated or introduced to achieve the desired atmosphere. Normally used for fruits and vegetables, not meat products.
 
Packaging method in which selected atmospheric concentrations of gases are maintained throughout storage in order to extend product shelf life. Gas may either be evacuated or introduced to achieve the desired atmosphere. Normally used for fruits and vegetables, not meat products.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Corned Beef]]'''
* [[Corned Beef]]  
 
  
 
Corning is a form of curing one of the several less-tender cuts of beef like the brisket, rump or round. It has nothing to do with corn. The name comes from Anglo-Saxon times before refrigeration. In those days, the meat was dry-cured in coarse “corns” of salt. Pellets of salt, some the size of kernels of corn, were rubbed into the beef to keep it from spoiling and to preserve it. Today, brining has replaced the dry salt cure, but the name “corned beef” is still used, rather than “brined” or “pickled” beef. Commonly used spices that give corned beef its distinctive flavor are peppercorns and bay leaf.
 
Corning is a form of curing one of the several less-tender cuts of beef like the brisket, rump or round. It has nothing to do with corn. The name comes from Anglo-Saxon times before refrigeration. In those days, the meat was dry-cured in coarse “corns” of salt. Pellets of salt, some the size of kernels of corn, were rubbed into the beef to keep it from spoiling and to preserve it. Today, brining has replaced the dry salt cure, but the name “corned beef” is still used, rather than “brined” or “pickled” beef. Commonly used spices that give corned beef its distinctive flavor are peppercorns and bay leaf.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[(Rock) Cornish Game Hen]]'''
* [[(Rock) Cornish Game Hen]]  
 
  
 
A Rock Cornish game hen or Cornish game hen is a young immature chicken (usually five to six weeks of age) weighing not more than two pounds ready-to-cook weight, which was prepared from a Cornish chicken or the progeny of a Cornish chicken crossed with another breed of chicken.
 
A Rock Cornish game hen or Cornish game hen is a young immature chicken (usually five to six weeks of age) weighing not more than two pounds ready-to-cook weight, which was prepared from a Cornish chicken or the progeny of a Cornish chicken crossed with another breed of chicken.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[(Rock) Cornish Fryer, Roaster, or Hen]]'''
* [[(Rock) Cornish Fryer, Roaster, or Hen]]  
 
  
 
A Rock Cornish fryer, roaster, or hen is the progeny of a cross between a purebred Cornish and a purebred Rock chicken, without regard to the weight of the carcass involved; however, the term “fryer,” “roaster,” or “hen” shall apply only if the carcasses are from birds with ages and characteristics of a “broiler or fryer” or “roaster or roasting chicken.”
 
A Rock Cornish fryer, roaster, or hen is the progeny of a cross between a purebred Cornish and a purebred Rock chicken, without regard to the weight of the carcass involved; however, the term “fryer,” “roaster,” or “hen” shall apply only if the carcasses are from birds with ages and characteristics of a “broiler or fryer” or “roaster or roasting chicken.”
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Cottage Ham]]'''
* [[Cottage Ham]]  
 
  
 
A ham made from the shoulder butt end.
 
A ham made from the shoulder butt end.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Country Ham]]'''
* [[Country Ham]]  
 
  
 
Uncooked, cured, dried, smoked-or-unsmoked meat products made from a single piece of meat from the hind leg of a hog or from a single piece of meat from a pork shoulder.
 
Uncooked, cured, dried, smoked-or-unsmoked meat products made from a single piece of meat from the hind leg of a hog or from a single piece of meat from a pork shoulder.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Country-of-origin Labeling]]'''
* [[Country-of-origin Labeling]]  
 
  
 
Under Section 304 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, most products entering the United States must be clearly marked so that the “ultimate purchaser” can identify the country of origin. Imported meat products are subject to this requirement: imported carcasses and parts of carcasses must be labeled, and individual retail (consumer-ready) packages also must be labeled. Imported carcasses or parts generally go to U.S. plants for further processing. The labeling policy considers these plants as the “ultimate purchasers.” Therefore, any products these plants make from the imported meat (for example, ground beef patties made in the United States from beef that originated in Canada or elsewhere) do not have to bear country-of-origin labels. A number of other agricultural articles are exempt from the basic country-of-origin labeling requirements: eggs, livestock and other animals, live or dead; and other “natural products” such as fruits, vegetables, nuts and berries. (However, the outermost containers used to bring these articles into the United States must indicate the country of origin.) On May 13, 2002, President Bush signed into law the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, which requires beef, lamb, pork, farm-raised fish, wild fish, perishable agricultural commodities, and peanuts to bear Country-of-origin labeling at the point of retail sale.
 
Under Section 304 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, most products entering the United States must be clearly marked so that the “ultimate purchaser” can identify the country of origin. Imported meat products are subject to this requirement: imported carcasses and parts of carcasses must be labeled, and individual retail (consumer-ready) packages also must be labeled. Imported carcasses or parts generally go to U.S. plants for further processing. The labeling policy considers these plants as the “ultimate purchasers.” Therefore, any products these plants make from the imported meat (for example, ground beef patties made in the United States from beef that originated in Canada or elsewhere) do not have to bear country-of-origin labels. A number of other agricultural articles are exempt from the basic country-of-origin labeling requirements: eggs, livestock and other animals, live or dead; and other “natural products” such as fruits, vegetables, nuts and berries. (However, the outermost containers used to bring these articles into the United States must indicate the country of origin.) On May 13, 2002, President Bush signed into law the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, which requires beef, lamb, pork, farm-raised fish, wild fish, perishable agricultural commodities, and peanuts to bear Country-of-origin labeling at the point of retail sale.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease (CJD)]]'''
* [[Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease (CJD)]]  
 
  
 
A sporadic and rare, but fatal human disease that usually strikes people over 65. It occurs worldwide at an estimated rate of one case per million population. About 10-15% of CJD cases are inherited. A small number of cases occurred as the result of various medical treatments or procedures which inadvertently transferred the CJD agent. In March 1996, the British government announced a possible link between bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and CJD. The announcement was prompted by the discovery of several atypical cases of CJD in Great Britain.
 
A sporadic and rare, but fatal human disease that usually strikes people over 65. It occurs worldwide at an estimated rate of one case per million population. About 10-15% of CJD cases are inherited. A small number of cases occurred as the result of various medical treatments or procedures which inadvertently transferred the CJD agent. In March 1996, the British government announced a possible link between bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and CJD. The announcement was prompted by the discovery of several atypical cases of CJD in Great Britain.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Critical Control Point]]'''
* [[Critical Control Point]]  
 
  
 
An operation (practice, procedure, process, or location) at or by which preventive or control measures can be exercised that will eliminate, prevent, or minimize one or more hazards. Critical control points are fundamental to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems.
 
An operation (practice, procedure, process, or location) at or by which preventive or control measures can be exercised that will eliminate, prevent, or minimize one or more hazards. Critical control points are fundamental to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems.
  
 +
  
 +
* '''[[Cross-contamination]]'''
  
* [[Cross-contamination]]
+
The transfer of harmful substances or disease-causing microorganisms to food by hands, food-contact surfaces, sponges, cloth towels and utensils that touch raw food, are not cleaned, and then touch ready-to-eat foods. Cross contamination can also occur when raw food touches or drips onto cooked or ready-to-eat foods.
  
The transfer of harmful substances or disease-causing microorganisms to food by hands, food-contact surfaces, sponges, cloth towels and utensils that touch raw food, are not cleaned, and then touch ready-to-eat foods. Cross contamination can also occur when raw food touches or drips onto cooked or ready-to-eat foods. 
+
  
 
+
* '''[[Cure]]'''
 
 
* [[Cure]]  
 
  
 
A chemical agent placed in or on meat or poultry for use in preservation, flavor, or color.
 
A chemical agent placed in or on meat or poultry for use in preservation, flavor, or color.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Curing]]'''
* [[Curing]]  
 
  
 
Curing is the addition of salt, sodium nitrate (or saltpeter), nitrites and sometimes sugars, seasonings, phosphates and ascorbates to pork for preservation, color development and flavor enhancement.
 
Curing is the addition of salt, sodium nitrate (or saltpeter), nitrites and sometimes sugars, seasonings, phosphates and ascorbates to pork for preservation, color development and flavor enhancement.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Custom Exempt]]'''
* [[Custom Exempt]]  
 
  
 
Custom exempt establishments are slaughter and processing establishments which are not subject to the routine inspection requirements of the Federal Meat Inspection Act and Poultry Products Inspection Act, provided the specified operations meet the exemption requirements of Section 23 of the FMIA and section 15 of the PIA.
 
Custom exempt establishments are slaughter and processing establishments which are not subject to the routine inspection requirements of the Federal Meat Inspection Act and Poultry Products Inspection Act, provided the specified operations meet the exemption requirements of Section 23 of the FMIA and section 15 of the PIA.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Cutting Up]]'''
* [[Cutting Up]]  
 
  
 
Any division of any carcass or part thereof, except that the trimming of carcasses or parts thereof to remove surface contaminants is not considered as cutting up.
 
Any division of any carcass or part thereof, except that the trimming of carcasses or parts thereof to remove surface contaminants is not considered as cutting up.
Line 464: Line 469:
 
==D==
 
==D==
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Dead Livestock]]'''
* [[Dead Livestock]]  
 
  
 
The body (cadaver) of livestock which has died otherwise than by slaughter.
 
The body (cadaver) of livestock which has died otherwise than by slaughter.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Delaney Clause]]'''
* [[Delaney Clause]]  
 
  
 
The Delaney Clause in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) states that no additive shall be deemed to be safe for human food if it is found to induce cancer in man or animals. It is an example of the zero tolerance concept in food safety policy. The Delaney prohibition appears in three separate parts of the FFDCA: Section 409 on food additives; Section 512, relating to animal drugs in meat and poultry; and Section 721 on color additives. The Section 409 prohibition applied to many pesticide residues until enactment of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-170, August 3, 1996). This legislation removed pesticide residue tolerances from Delaney Clause constraints.
 
The Delaney Clause in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) states that no additive shall be deemed to be safe for human food if it is found to induce cancer in man or animals. It is an example of the zero tolerance concept in food safety policy. The Delaney prohibition appears in three separate parts of the FFDCA: Section 409 on food additives; Section 512, relating to animal drugs in meat and poultry; and Section 721 on color additives. The Section 409 prohibition applied to many pesticide residues until enactment of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-170, August 3, 1996). This legislation removed pesticide residue tolerances from Delaney Clause constraints.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Deli or Delicatessen Style]]'''
* [[Deli or Delicatessen Style]]  
 
  
 
This terminology has been permitted on labeling for ready-to-eat meat food products that consumers would normally expect to find in a delicatessen.
 
This terminology has been permitted on labeling for ready-to-eat meat food products that consumers would normally expect to find in a delicatessen.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Diglycerides, Monoglycerides]]'''
* [[Diglycerides, Monoglycerides]]  
 
  
 
Emulsifying agents for rendered fats.
 
Emulsifying agents for rendered fats.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Dioxins]]'''
* [[Dioxins]]  
 
  
 
A group of chemical compounds that share certain similar chemical structures and biological characteristics. Dioxins are present in the environment all over the world. Within animals, dioxins tend to accumulate in fat. About 95% of the average person's exposure to dioxins occurs through consumption of food, especially food containing animal fat. Scientists and health experts are concerned about dioxins because studies have shown that exposure may cause a number of adverse health effects.
 
A group of chemical compounds that share certain similar chemical structures and biological characteristics. Dioxins are present in the environment all over the world. Within animals, dioxins tend to accumulate in fat. About 95% of the average person's exposure to dioxins occurs through consumption of food, especially food containing animal fat. Scientists and health experts are concerned about dioxins because studies have shown that exposure may cause a number of adverse health effects.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Disposition]]'''
* [[Disposition]]  
 
  
 
A food manufacturer's action to correct a situation leading to a recall such as relabeling, reworking, or destroying product.
 
A food manufacturer's action to correct a situation leading to a recall such as relabeling, reworking, or destroying product.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Downer (or downed animals)]]'''
* [[Downer (or downed animals)]]  
 
  
 
Commonly used term for an animal that is unable to rise and walk.
 
Commonly used term for an animal that is unable to rise and walk.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Dry Aged]]'''
* [[Dry Aged]]  
 
  
 
Fresh Meat is held (without vacuum packing) for various periods of time (usually 10 days to 6 weeks) under controlled temperatures (34°F to 38°F), humidity, and airflow to avoid spoilage and ensure flavor enhancement, tenderness, and palatability.
 
Fresh Meat is held (without vacuum packing) for various periods of time (usually 10 days to 6 weeks) under controlled temperatures (34°F to 38°F), humidity, and airflow to avoid spoilage and ensure flavor enhancement, tenderness, and palatability.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Dry Curing]]'''
* [[Dry Curing]]  
 
  
 
Dry curing is the process used to make country hams and prosciutto. Fresh meat is rubbed with a dry cure mixture of salt and other ingredients. Dry curing produces a salty product. In 1992, FSIS approved a trichina treatment method that permits substituting up to half of the sodium chloride with potassium chloride to result in lower sodium levels. Since dry curing draws out moisture, it reduces ham weight by at least 18% — usually 20 to 25%; this results in a more concentrated ham flavor.
 
Dry curing is the process used to make country hams and prosciutto. Fresh meat is rubbed with a dry cure mixture of salt and other ingredients. Dry curing produces a salty product. In 1992, FSIS approved a trichina treatment method that permits substituting up to half of the sodium chloride with potassium chloride to result in lower sodium levels. Since dry curing draws out moisture, it reduces ham weight by at least 18% — usually 20 to 25%; this results in a more concentrated ham flavor.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Dying, Diseased, or Disabled Livestock]]'''
* [[Dying, Diseased, or Disabled Livestock]]  
 
  
 
Livestock which has or displays symptoms of having any of the following:
 
Livestock which has or displays symptoms of having any of the following:
  
 
Central nervous system disorder;
 
Central nervous system disorder;
 +
 
Abnormal temperature (high or low);
 
Abnormal temperature (high or low);
 +
 
Difficult breathing;
 
Difficult breathing;
 +
 
Abnormal swellings;
 
Abnormal swellings;
 +
 
Lack of muscular coordination;
 
Lack of muscular coordination;
 +
 
Inability to walk normally or stand;
 
Inability to walk normally or stand;
 +
 
Any of the conditions for which livestock is required to be condemned on ante-mortem inspection in accordance with the regulations.
 
Any of the conditions for which livestock is required to be condemned on ante-mortem inspection in accordance with the regulations.
 +
 
{{catz}}
 
{{catz}}
  
 
==E==
 
==E==
  
 +
  
 +
* '''[[E. coli O157:H7 ( Escherichia Coli O157:H7) ]]'''
  
* [[E. coli O157:H7 ( Escherichia Coli O157:H7) ]]
+
A bacterium that lives harmlessly in the intestines of animals such as cattle, reptiles, and birds. However, in humans the bacterium, which can be transmitted by foods, animal contact, and drinking water, can cause bloody diarrhea, and also lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a life threatening disease. Although other generic strains of E. coli are thought to be harmless to humans, the O157:H7 strain is particularly virulent and dangerous. USDA began an E. coli O157:H7 testing plan in 1994. As part of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) rule,all meat and poultry slaughter plants are required to test carcasses regularly for generic E. coli in order to verify that their sanitary systems are effectively controlling fecal contamination.
 
 
A bacterium that lives harmlessly in the intestines of animals such as cattle, reptiles, and birds. However, in humans the bacterium, which can be transmitted by foods, animal contact, and drinking water, can cause bloody diarrhea, and also lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a life threatening disease. Although other generic strains of E. coli are thought to be harmless to humans, the O157:H7 strain is particularly virulent and dangerous. USDA began an E. coli O157:H7 testing plan in 1994. As part of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) rule,all meat and poultry slaughter plants are required to test carcasses regularly for generic E. coli in order to verify that their sanitary systems are effectively controlling fecal contamination.
 
 
 
  
 +
  
* [[Economic Research Service (ERS)]]  
+
* '''[[Economic Research Service (ERS)]]'''
  
 
The Economic Research Service (ERS) is the main source of economic information and research from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The mission of ERS is to inform and enhance public and private decision making on economic and policy issues related to agriculture, food, natural resources, and rural development. To accomplish this mission, highly trained economists and social scientists develop and distribute a broad range of economic and other social science information and analyses.
 
The Economic Research Service (ERS) is the main source of economic information and research from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The mission of ERS is to inform and enhance public and private decision making on economic and policy issues related to agriculture, food, natural resources, and rural development. To accomplish this mission, highly trained economists and social scientists develop and distribute a broad range of economic and other social science information and analyses.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Edible]]'''
* [[Edible]]  
 
  
 
Intended for use as human food.
 
Intended for use as human food.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Egg Products]]'''
* [[Egg Products]]  
 
  
 
Eggs that are removed from their shells for processing. The processing of egg products includes breaking eggs, filtering, mixing, stabilizing, blending, pasteurizing, cooling, freezing or drying, and packaging. Egg products include whole eggs, whites, yolks and various blends with or without non-egg ingredients that are processed and pasteurized and may be available in liquid, frozen, and dried forms. FSIS is responsible for inspecting egg products and enforcing the Egg Products Inspection Act (EPIA).
 
Eggs that are removed from their shells for processing. The processing of egg products includes breaking eggs, filtering, mixing, stabilizing, blending, pasteurizing, cooling, freezing or drying, and packaging. Egg products include whole eggs, whites, yolks and various blends with or without non-egg ingredients that are processed and pasteurized and may be available in liquid, frozen, and dried forms. FSIS is responsible for inspecting egg products and enforcing the Egg Products Inspection Act (EPIA).
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Egg Products Inspection Act (EPIA)]]'''
* [[Egg Products Inspection Act (EPIA)]]  
 
  
 
The Egg Products Inspection Act (EPIA), passed by Congress in 1970, provides for the mandatory continuous inspection of the processing of liquid, frozen, and dried egg products.
 
The Egg Products Inspection Act (EPIA), passed by Congress in 1970, provides for the mandatory continuous inspection of the processing of liquid, frozen, and dried egg products.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Emulsifier]]'''
* [[Emulsifier]]  
 
  
 
A substance added to products, such as meat spreads, to prevent separation of product components to ensure consistency. Examples of these types of additives include lecithin, and mono- and diglycerides.
 
A substance added to products, such as meat spreads, to prevent separation of product components to ensure consistency. Examples of these types of additives include lecithin, and mono- and diglycerides.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)]]'''
* [[Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)]]  
 
  
 
The Federal Agency whose mission is to protect human health and to safeguard the natural environment &151; air, water, and land &151; upon which life depends. EPA provides leadership in the nation's environmental science, research, education and assessment efforts. EPA works closely with other federal agencies, state and local governments, and Indian tribes to develop and enforce regulations under existing environmental laws. EPA is responsible for researching and setting national standards for a variety of environmental programs and delegates to states and tribes responsibility for issuing permits, and monitoring and enforcing compliance.
 
The Federal Agency whose mission is to protect human health and to safeguard the natural environment &151; air, water, and land &151; upon which life depends. EPA provides leadership in the nation's environmental science, research, education and assessment efforts. EPA works closely with other federal agencies, state and local governments, and Indian tribes to develop and enforce regulations under existing environmental laws. EPA is responsible for researching and setting national standards for a variety of environmental programs and delegates to states and tribes responsibility for issuing permits, and monitoring and enforcing compliance.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Epidemiology]]'''
* [[Epidemiology]]  
 
  
 
Study of the distribution of disease, or other health-related conditions and events in human or animal populations, in order to identify health problems and possible causes.
 
Study of the distribution of disease, or other health-related conditions and events in human or animal populations, in order to identify health problems and possible causes.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Equivalence]]'''
* [[Equivalence]]  
 
  
 
A term applied by the Uruguay Round Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Measures. WTO Member countries shall accord acceptance to the SPS measures of other countries (even if those measures differ from their own or from those used by other Member countries trading in the same product) if the exporting country demonstrates to the importing country that its measures achieve the importer's appropriate level of sanitary and phytosanitary protection.
 
A term applied by the Uruguay Round Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Measures. WTO Member countries shall accord acceptance to the SPS measures of other countries (even if those measures differ from their own or from those used by other Member countries trading in the same product) if the exporting country demonstrates to the importing country that its measures achieve the importer's appropriate level of sanitary and phytosanitary protection.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Establishment or Official Establishment]]'''
* [[Establishment or Official Establishment]]  
 
  
 
Any slaughtering, cutting, boning, meat canning, curing, smoking, salting, packing, rendering, or similar facility at which inspection is maintained under regulations of the Federal Meat Inspection Act, Poultry Products Inspection Act, Egg Products Inspection Act, and the Humane Methods of Slaughter Act.
 
Any slaughtering, cutting, boning, meat canning, curing, smoking, salting, packing, rendering, or similar facility at which inspection is maintained under regulations of the Federal Meat Inspection Act, Poultry Products Inspection Act, Egg Products Inspection Act, and the Humane Methods of Slaughter Act.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Exotic Newcastle Disease]]'''
* [[Exotic Newcastle Disease]]  
 
  
 
A contagious and fatal viral disease affecting all species of birds. Exotic Newcastle disease is one of the most infectious diseases of poultry in the world. A death rate of almost 100 percent can occur in unvaccinated poultry flocks.
 
A contagious and fatal viral disease affecting all species of birds. Exotic Newcastle disease is one of the most infectious diseases of poultry in the world. A death rate of almost 100 percent can occur in unvaccinated poultry flocks.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Experimental Animal]]'''
* [[Experimental Animal]]  
 
  
 
Any animal used in any research investigation involving the feeding or other administration of, or subjection to, an experimental biological product, drug, or chemical or any nonexperimental biological product, drug, or chemical used in a manner for which it was not intended.
 
Any animal used in any research investigation involving the feeding or other administration of, or subjection to, an experimental biological product, drug, or chemical or any nonexperimental biological product, drug, or chemical used in a manner for which it was not intended.
  
 {{catz}}
+
{{catz}}
  
 
==F==
 
==F==
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Fabricated Steak]]'''
* [[Fabricated Steak]]  
 
  
 
Fabricated beef steaks, veal steaks, beef and veal steaks, or veal and beef steaks, and similar products, such as those labeled “Beef Steak, Chopped, Shaped, Frozen,” “Minute Steak, Formed, Wafer Sliced, Frozen,” “Veal Steaks, Beef Added, Chopped-Molded-Cubed-Fro-Flavoring” shall be prepared by comminuting and forming the product from fresh and/or frozen meat, with or without added fat, of the species indicated on the label. Such products shall not contain more than 30 percent fat and shall not contain added water, binders or extenders.
 
Fabricated beef steaks, veal steaks, beef and veal steaks, or veal and beef steaks, and similar products, such as those labeled “Beef Steak, Chopped, Shaped, Frozen,” “Minute Steak, Formed, Wafer Sliced, Frozen,” “Veal Steaks, Beef Added, Chopped-Molded-Cubed-Fro-Flavoring” shall be prepared by comminuting and forming the product from fresh and/or frozen meat, with or without added fat, of the species indicated on the label. Such products shall not contain more than 30 percent fat and shall not contain added water, binders or extenders.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Farm Bill]]'''
* [[Farm Bill]]  
 
  
 
A phrase that refers to a multi-year, multi-commodity federal support law. It usually amends some and suspends many provisions of permanent law, reauthorizes, amends, or repeals provisions of preceding temporary agricultural acts, and puts forth new policy provisions for a limited time into the future. Beginning in 1973, farms bills have included titles on commodity programs, trade, rural development, farm credit, conservation, agricultural research, food and nutrition programs, marketing, etc. These are referred to as omnibus farm bills. The following is a generally agreed chronological list of farm bills: (1) Food and Agriculture Act of 1965, P.L. 89-321; (2) Agricultural Act of 1970, P.L. 91-524; (3) Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973, P.L. 93-86; (4) Food and Agriculture Act of 1977, P.L. 95-113; (5) Agriculture and Food Act of 1981, P.L. 97-98; (6) Food Security Act of 1985, P.L. 99-198; (7) Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, P.L. 101-624; (8) Federal Agricultural Improvement and Reform Act of 1996, P.L. 104-127, Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.
 
A phrase that refers to a multi-year, multi-commodity federal support law. It usually amends some and suspends many provisions of permanent law, reauthorizes, amends, or repeals provisions of preceding temporary agricultural acts, and puts forth new policy provisions for a limited time into the future. Beginning in 1973, farms bills have included titles on commodity programs, trade, rural development, farm credit, conservation, agricultural research, food and nutrition programs, marketing, etc. These are referred to as omnibus farm bills. The following is a generally agreed chronological list of farm bills: (1) Food and Agriculture Act of 1965, P.L. 89-321; (2) Agricultural Act of 1970, P.L. 91-524; (3) Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973, P.L. 93-86; (4) Food and Agriculture Act of 1977, P.L. 95-113; (5) Agriculture and Food Act of 1981, P.L. 97-98; (6) Food Security Act of 1985, P.L. 99-198; (7) Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, P.L. 101-624; (8) Federal Agricultural Improvement and Reform Act of 1996, P.L. 104-127, Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Farm-to-Table Continuum]]'''
* [[Farm-to-Table Continuum]]  
 
  
 
A multi-step journey that food travels before it is consumed.
 
A multi-step journey that food travels before it is consumed.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) of 1938]]'''
* [[Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) of 1938]]  
 
  
 
P.L. 75-717 (June 25, 1938) is the basic authority intended to ensure that foods are pure and wholesome, safe to eat, and produced under sanitary conditions; that drugs and devices are safe and effective for their intended uses; that cosmetics are safe and made from appropriate ingredients; and that all labeling and packaging is truthful, informative, and not deceptive. The Food and Drug Administration is primarily responsible for enforcing the FFDCA, although USDA also has some enforcement responsibility. The Environmental Protection Agency establishes limits for concentrations of pesticide residues on food under this Act.
 
P.L. 75-717 (June 25, 1938) is the basic authority intended to ensure that foods are pure and wholesome, safe to eat, and produced under sanitary conditions; that drugs and devices are safe and effective for their intended uses; that cosmetics are safe and made from appropriate ingredients; and that all labeling and packaging is truthful, informative, and not deceptive. The Food and Drug Administration is primarily responsible for enforcing the FFDCA, although USDA also has some enforcement responsibility. The Environmental Protection Agency establishes limits for concentrations of pesticide residues on food under this Act.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906 (FMIA)]]'''
* [[Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906 (FMIA)]]  
 
  
 
Enacted June 30, 1906, as chapter 3913, 34 Stat. 674, and substantially amended by the Wholesome Meat Act 1967 (P.L. 90-201), requires USDA to inspect all cattle, sheep, swine, goats, and horses when slaughtered and processed into products for human consumption. The primary goals of the law are to prevent adulterated or misbranded livestock and products from being sold as food, and to ensure that meat and meat products are slaughtered and processed under sanitary conditions. These requirements apply to animals and their products produced and sold within states as well as to imports, which must be inspected under equivalent foreign standards. The Food and Drug Administration is responsible for all meats considered “exotic” at this time, including venison and buffalo.
 
Enacted June 30, 1906, as chapter 3913, 34 Stat. 674, and substantially amended by the Wholesome Meat Act 1967 (P.L. 90-201), requires USDA to inspect all cattle, sheep, swine, goats, and horses when slaughtered and processed into products for human consumption. The primary goals of the law are to prevent adulterated or misbranded livestock and products from being sold as food, and to ensure that meat and meat products are slaughtered and processed under sanitary conditions. These requirements apply to animals and their products produced and sold within states as well as to imports, which must be inspected under equivalent foreign standards. The Food and Drug Administration is responsible for all meats considered “exotic” at this time, including venison and buffalo.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Federal Register]]'''
* [[Federal Register]]  
 
  
 
A federal document containing current Presidential orders or directives, agency regulations, proposed agency rules, notices and other documents that are required by statute to be published for wide public distribution. The Federal Register is published each federal working day. USDA publishes its rules, notices and other documents in the Federal Register. Final regulations are organized by agency and programs in the Code of Federal Regulations.
 
A federal document containing current Presidential orders or directives, agency regulations, proposed agency rules, notices and other documents that are required by statute to be published for wide public distribution. The Federal Register is published each federal working day. USDA publishes its rules, notices and other documents in the Federal Register. Final regulations are organized by agency and programs in the Code of Federal Regulations.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Fight Bac!® Campaign]]'''
* [[Fight Bac!® Campaign]]  
 
  
 
A national public education project by the Partnership for Food Safety Education, which bring together industry, government, and consumer groups to educate Americans about the importance of using safe food-handling practices. The campaign focuses on the “4 Cs” of food safety the four simple steps people can take to fight foodborne bacteria and reduce the risk of foodborne illness. The four simple steps are Clean, Cook, Separate, and Chill.
 
A national public education project by the Partnership for Food Safety Education, which bring together industry, government, and consumer groups to educate Americans about the importance of using safe food-handling practices. The campaign focuses on the “4 Cs” of food safety the four simple steps people can take to fight foodborne bacteria and reduce the risk of foodborne illness. The four simple steps are Clean, Cook, Separate, and Chill.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Flash Pasteurization]]'''
* [[Flash Pasteurization]]  
 
  
 
A pasteurization process which involves a high temperature, short-time treatment in which pourable products, such as juices, are heated for three to 15 seconds to a temperature that destroys harmful micro-organisms.
 
A pasteurization process which involves a high temperature, short-time treatment in which pourable products, such as juices, are heated for three to 15 seconds to a temperature that destroys harmful micro-organisms.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Food Additive]]'''
* [[Food Additive]]  
 
  
 
Any substance or mixture of substances other than the basic foodstuff present in a food as a result of any phase of production, processing, packaging, storage, transport or handling. USDA allows food additives in meat, poultry and egg products only after they have received Food and Drug Administration safety approval. Food additives are regulated under the authority of the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act and are subject to the Delaney Clause.
 
Any substance or mixture of substances other than the basic foodstuff present in a food as a result of any phase of production, processing, packaging, storage, transport or handling. USDA allows food additives in meat, poultry and egg products only after they have received Food and Drug Administration safety approval. Food additives are regulated under the authority of the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act and are subject to the Delaney Clause.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)]]'''
* [[Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)]]  
 
  
 
A UN organization, founded in 1945, that collects and disseminates information about world agriculture. FAO also provides technical assistance to developing countries in agricultural production and distribution, food processing, nutrition, fisheries, and forestry.
 
A UN organization, founded in 1945, that collects and disseminates information about world agriculture. FAO also provides technical assistance to developing countries in agricultural production and distribution, food processing, nutrition, fisheries, and forestry.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Food and Drug Administration (FDA)]]'''
* [[Food and Drug Administration (FDA)]]  
 
  
 
An agency within the Public Health Service of the Department of Health and Human Services. FDA is a public health agency, charged with protecting consumers by enforcing the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and several related public health laws. Importantly for agriculture, a major FDA mission is to protect the safety and wholesomeness of food. In this regard, its scientists test samples to see if any substances, such as pesticide residues, are present in unacceptable amounts, it sets food labeling standards, and it sees that medicated feeds and other drugs given to animals raised for food are not threatening to the consumer's health.
 
An agency within the Public Health Service of the Department of Health and Human Services. FDA is a public health agency, charged with protecting consumers by enforcing the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and several related public health laws. Importantly for agriculture, a major FDA mission is to protect the safety and wholesomeness of food. In this regard, its scientists test samples to see if any substances, such as pesticide residues, are present in unacceptable amounts, it sets food labeling standards, and it sees that medicated feeds and other drugs given to animals raised for food are not threatening to the consumer's health.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Food and Nutrition Service (FNS)]]'''
* [[Food and Nutrition Service (FNS)]]  
 
  
 
The USDA agency whose goals are to provide needy people with access to a more nutritious diet, to improve the eating habits of the nation’s children, and to stabilize farm prices through the distribution of surplus foods. It administers 15 domestic food assistance programs (including the food stamp program, child nutrition programs [e.g., school feeding programs], and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children [WIC]). FNS works in partnership with the states and reimburses most of the administrative costs the states incur for carrying out local program administration.
 
The USDA agency whose goals are to provide needy people with access to a more nutritious diet, to improve the eating habits of the nation’s children, and to stabilize farm prices through the distribution of surplus foods. It administers 15 domestic food assistance programs (including the food stamp program, child nutrition programs [e.g., school feeding programs], and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children [WIC]). FNS works in partnership with the states and reimburses most of the administrative costs the states incur for carrying out local program administration.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Food Biosecurity Action Team (F-BAT)]]'''
* [[Food Biosecurity Action Team (F-BAT)]]  
 
  
 
The USDA Under Secretary for Food Safety formed the Food Biosecurity Action Team (F-BAT) to coordinate and facilitate all activities pertaining to biosecurity, countering terrorism, and emergency preparedness with FSIS. F-BAT also serves as FSIS’ voice with other governmental agencies and internal and external constituents on biosecurity issues.
 
The USDA Under Secretary for Food Safety formed the Food Biosecurity Action Team (F-BAT) to coordinate and facilitate all activities pertaining to biosecurity, countering terrorism, and emergency preparedness with FSIS. F-BAT also serves as FSIS’ voice with other governmental agencies and internal and external constituents on biosecurity issues.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Food Code]]'''
* [[Food Code]]  
 
  
 
The code, published by the Food and Drug Administration, consists of model requirements for safeguarding public health that may be adopted and used by various parts of local, state, and federal governments, if desired. It is used by officials who have compliance responsibilities for food service, retail food stores, or food vending operations.
 
The code, published by the Food and Drug Administration, consists of model requirements for safeguarding public health that may be adopted and used by various parts of local, state, and federal governments, if desired. It is used by officials who have compliance responsibilities for food service, retail food stores, or food vending operations.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Food Isolate]]'''
* [[Food Isolate]]  
 
  
 
A microorganism that is derived from food for the purpose of identifying or characterizing it.
 
A microorganism that is derived from food for the purpose of identifying or characterizing it.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)]]'''
* [[Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)]]  
 
  
 
The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is the public health agency in the U.S. Department of Agriculture responsible for ensuring that the nation's commercial supply of meat, poultry, and egg products is safe, wholesome, and correctly labeled and packaged, as required by the Federal Meat Inspection Act, the Poultry Products Inspection Act, and the Egg Products Inspection Act.
 
The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is the public health agency in the U.S. Department of Agriculture responsible for ensuring that the nation's commercial supply of meat, poultry, and egg products is safe, wholesome, and correctly labeled and packaged, as required by the Federal Meat Inspection Act, the Poultry Products Inspection Act, and the Egg Products Inspection Act.
  
 +
  
 +
* '''[[The Food Safety Educator ]]'''
  
* [[The Food Safety Educator ]]
+
The Food Safety Educator was a free quarterly newsletter published by FSIS’ Food Safety Education Staff that reports on new food safety educational programs and materials as well as emerging science concerning food safety risks. (It is no longer published.)
  
The Food Safety Educator was a free quarterly newsletter published by FSIS’ Food Safety Education Staff that reports on new food safety educational programs and materials as well as emerging science concerning food safety risks. (It is no longer published.)
+
  
 
+
* '''[[(National) Food Safety Initiative]]'''
 
 
* [[(National) Food Safety Initiative]]  
 
  
 
A 1997 interagency initiative among the Food and Drug Administration, Center for Disease Control, Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Agriculture to implement a series of coordinated efforts to reduce the annual incidence of foodborne illness and resultant economic losses to consumers and industry by enhancing the safety of the U.S. food supply.
 
A 1997 interagency initiative among the Food and Drug Administration, Center for Disease Control, Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Agriculture to implement a series of coordinated efforts to reduce the annual incidence of foodborne illness and resultant economic losses to consumers and industry by enhancing the safety of the U.S. food supply.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Food Security]]'''
* [[Food Security]]  
 
  
 
Access by all people at all times to enough food for an active healthy life. Food security at a minimum includes the ready availability of nutritionally adequate and safe food, and an assured ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways, that is, without having to resort to emergency food supplies, scavenging, stealing, or other coping strategies. Causes of food insecurity may include poverty, civil conflict, governmental corruption, environmental degradation, and natural disasters.
 
Access by all people at all times to enough food for an active healthy life. Food security at a minimum includes the ready availability of nutritionally adequate and safe food, and an assured ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways, that is, without having to resort to emergency food supplies, scavenging, stealing, or other coping strategies. Causes of food insecurity may include poverty, civil conflict, governmental corruption, environmental degradation, and natural disasters.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Food Thermometer]]'''
* [[Food Thermometer]]  
 
  
 
A special device that measures the internal temperature of cooked foods, such as meat, poultry, and any combination dishes to ensure that a safe food temperature is reached.
 
A special device that measures the internal temperature of cooked foods, such as meat, poultry, and any combination dishes to ensure that a safe food temperature is reached.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Food Threat Preparedness Network]]'''
* [[Food Threat Preparedness Network]]  
 
  
 
See PrepNet.
 
See PrepNet.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Foodborne Illnesses]]'''
* [[Foodborne Illnesses]]  
 
  
 
Illnesses caused by pathogens that enter the human body through foods.
 
Illnesses caused by pathogens that enter the human body through foods.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Foodborne Outbreak]]'''
* [[Foodborne Outbreak]]  
 
  
 
The occurrence of two or more people experiencing the same illness after eating the same food.
 
The occurrence of two or more people experiencing the same illness after eating the same food.
  
 +
  
 +
* '''[[Foodborne Pathogens]]'''
  
* [[Foodborne Pathogens]]
+
Disease-causing microorganisms found in food, usually bacteria, fungi, parasites, protozoans, and viruses. The top ten pathogens are: Salmonella; Staphylococcus Aureus; Campylobacter jejuni; Yersinia enerocolitica; Listeria monocytogenes; Vibro cholerae non-01; Vibrio Parahemolyticus; Bacillus cereus; Escherichia coli - enteropathogenic ; and Shigella. Many of these pathogens may be found in contaminated meat, poultry, shell eggs, dairy products, and seafood.
 
 
Disease-causing microorganisms found in food, usually bacteria, fungi, parasites, protozoans, and viruses. The top ten pathogens are: Salmonella; Staphylococcus Aureus; Campylobacter jejuni; Yersinia enerocolitica; Listeria monocytogenes; Vibro cholerae non-01; Vibrio Parahemolyticus; Bacillus cereus; Escherichia coli - enteropathogenic ; and Shigella. Many of these pathogens may be found in contaminated meat, poultry, shell eggs, dairy products, and seafood.
 
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)]]'''
* [[Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)]]  
 
  
 
a highly contagious viral disease of cattle and swine, as well as sheep, goats, deer, and other cloven-hoofed ruminants. Although rarely transmissible to humans, FMD is devastating to livestock and has critical economic consequences with potentially severe losses in the production and marketing of meat and milk.
 
a highly contagious viral disease of cattle and swine, as well as sheep, goats, deer, and other cloven-hoofed ruminants. Although rarely transmissible to humans, FMD is devastating to livestock and has critical economic consequences with potentially severe losses in the production and marketing of meat and milk.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[FoodNet]]'''
* [[FoodNet]]  
 
  
 
The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) is the principal foodborne disease component of CDC's Emerging Infections Program (EIP). FoodNet is a collaborative project of the CDC, nine EIP sites (California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, New York, Maryland, Minnesota, Oregon and Tennessee), the USDA, and the FDA. The project consists of active surveillance for foodborne diseases and related epidemiologic studies designed to help public health officials better understand the epidemiology of foodborne diseases in the United States. FoodNet provides a network for responding to new and emerging foodborne diseases of national importance, monitoring the burden of foodborne diseases, and identifying the sources of specific foodborne diseases.
 
The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) is the principal foodborne disease component of CDC's Emerging Infections Program (EIP). FoodNet is a collaborative project of the CDC, nine EIP sites (California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, New York, Maryland, Minnesota, Oregon and Tennessee), the USDA, and the FDA. The project consists of active surveillance for foodborne diseases and related epidemiologic studies designed to help public health officials better understand the epidemiology of foodborne diseases in the United States. FoodNet provides a network for responding to new and emerging foodborne diseases of national importance, monitoring the burden of foodborne diseases, and identifying the sources of specific foodborne diseases.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS)]]'''
* [[Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS)]]  
 
  
 
USDA agency that administers agricultural export and food aid programs. FAS is also responsible for formulating agricultural trade policy, negotiating to reduce foreign agricultural trade barriers, and carrying out programs of international cooperation and technical assistance. The agency maintains a global network of agricultural officers (counselors and attaches) as well as a Washington-based staff to analyze and disseminate information on world agricultural trade policy interests of U.S. producers in multilateral forums.
 
USDA agency that administers agricultural export and food aid programs. FAS is also responsible for formulating agricultural trade policy, negotiating to reduce foreign agricultural trade barriers, and carrying out programs of international cooperation and technical assistance. The agency maintains a global network of agricultural officers (counselors and attaches) as well as a Washington-based staff to analyze and disseminate information on world agricultural trade policy interests of U.S. producers in multilateral forums.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Frankfurters (a.k.a., hot dogs, wieners, or bologna)]]'''
* [[Frankfurters (a.k.a., hot dogs, wieners, or bologna)]]  
 
  
 
Cooked and/or smoked sausages prepared according to the Federal standards of identity. Federal standards of identity describe the requirements for processors to follow in formulating and marketing meat, poultry, and egg products produced in the United States for sale in this country and in foreign commerce. The standard also requires that they be comminuted (reduced to minute particles), semisolid products made from one or more kinds of raw skeletal muscle from livestock (like beef or pork)and may contain poultry meat. Smoking and curing ingredients contribute to flavor, color, and preservation of the product. They are link-shaped and come in all sizes -- short, long, thin, and chubby.
 
Cooked and/or smoked sausages prepared according to the Federal standards of identity. Federal standards of identity describe the requirements for processors to follow in formulating and marketing meat, poultry, and egg products produced in the United States for sale in this country and in foreign commerce. The standard also requires that they be comminuted (reduced to minute particles), semisolid products made from one or more kinds of raw skeletal muscle from livestock (like beef or pork)and may contain poultry meat. Smoking and curing ingredients contribute to flavor, color, and preservation of the product. They are link-shaped and come in all sizes -- short, long, thin, and chubby.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Free Range or Free Roaming]]'''
* [[Free Range or Free Roaming]]  
 
  
 
Livestock or poultry has been allowed access to the outside.
 
Livestock or poultry has been allowed access to the outside.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Fresh (Poultry)]]'''
* [[Fresh (Poultry)]]  
 
  
 
Poultry whose internal temperature has never been below 26°F.
 
Poultry whose internal temperature has never been below 26°F.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Fresh Ham]]'''
* [[Fresh Ham]]  
 
  
 
The uncured leg of pork. Since the meat is not cured or smoked, it has the flavor of a fresh pork loin roast or pork chops. Its raw color is pinkish red and after cooking, greyish white.
 
The uncured leg of pork. Since the meat is not cured or smoked, it has the flavor of a fresh pork loin roast or pork chops. Its raw color is pinkish red and after cooking, greyish white.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Fryer-Roaster Turkey]]'''
* [[Fryer-Roaster Turkey]]  
 
  
 
A young immature turkey, usually under 16 weeks of age, of either sex, that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin, and flexible breastbone cartilage.
 
A young immature turkey, usually under 16 weeks of age, of either sex, that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin, and flexible breastbone cartilage.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Fully Cooked]]'''
* [[Fully Cooked]]  
 
  
 
Fully cooked product needs no further cooking. The product is fully cooked in the plant, and it can be reheated or eaten directly from the package. Also known as ready-to-eat.
 
Fully cooked product needs no further cooking. The product is fully cooked in the plant, and it can be reheated or eaten directly from the package. Also known as ready-to-eat.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Further Processing]]'''
* [[Further Processing]]  
 
  
 
Smoking, cooking, canning, curing, refining, or rendering in an official establishment of product previously prepared in official establishments.
 
Smoking, cooking, canning, curing, refining, or rendering in an official establishment of product previously prepared in official establishments.
Line 819: Line 831:
 
==G==
 
==G==
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Gelatin]]'''
* [[Gelatin]]  
 
  
 
Thickener from collagen which is derived from the skin, tendons, ligaments, or bones of livestock. It may be used in canned hams or jellied meat products, as well as non-food products such as photography and medicine.
 
Thickener from collagen which is derived from the skin, tendons, ligaments, or bones of livestock. It may be used in canned hams or jellied meat products, as well as non-food products such as photography and medicine.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Giblets]]'''
* [[Giblets]]  
 
  
 
Giblets are the heart, liver, and gizzard of a poultry carcass. Although often packaged with them, the neck of the bird is not a giblet. Giblets are not packaged with the original bird; however, they are inspected by FSIS inspectors.
 
Giblets are the heart, liver, and gizzard of a poultry carcass. Although often packaged with them, the neck of the bird is not a giblet. Giblets are not packaged with the original bird; however, they are inspected by FSIS inspectors.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Gizzard]]'''
* [[Gizzard]]  
 
  
 
The gizzard is the mechanical “stomach” of a bird. It is located just after the true or glandular stomach in the gastrointestinal system. Since poultry have no teeth and swallow feed whole, this muscular organ, sometimes called “hen's teeth,” mechanically grinds and mixes the bird's feed.
 
The gizzard is the mechanical “stomach” of a bird. It is located just after the true or glandular stomach in the gastrointestinal system. Since poultry have no teeth and swallow feed whole, this muscular organ, sometimes called “hen's teeth,” mechanically grinds and mixes the bird's feed.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Grade, Grading]]'''
* [[Grade, Grading]]  
 
  
 
The inspection and grading of meat and poultry are two separate programs within the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Inspection for wholesomeness is mandatory and is paid for out of tax dollars. Grading for quality is voluntary, and the service is requested and paid for by meat and poultry producers/processors.
 
The inspection and grading of meat and poultry are two separate programs within the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Inspection for wholesomeness is mandatory and is paid for out of tax dollars. Grading for quality is voluntary, and the service is requested and paid for by meat and poultry producers/processors.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Ground Beef]]'''
* [[Ground Beef]]  
 
  
 
“Ground Beef” or “Chopped Beef” shall consist of chopped fresh and/or frozen beef with or without seasoning and without the addition of beef fat as such, shall not contain more than 30 percent fat, and shall not contain added water, phosphates, binders, or extenders.
 
“Ground Beef” or “Chopped Beef” shall consist of chopped fresh and/or frozen beef with or without seasoning and without the addition of beef fat as such, shall not contain more than 30 percent fat, and shall not contain added water, phosphates, binders, or extenders.
Line 853: Line 865:
 
==H==
 
==H==
  
 +
  
 +
* '''[[Halal and Zabiah Halal]]'''
  
* [[Halal and Zabiah Halal]]
+
Products prepared by federally inspected meat packing plants identified with labels bearing references to “Halal” or “Zabiah Halal” must be handled according to Islamic law and under Islamic authority.
  
Products prepared by federally inspected meat packing plants identified with labels bearing references to “Halal” or “Zabiah Halal” must be handled according to Islamic law and under Islamic authority.
+
  
 
+
* '''[[Ham]]'''
 
 
* [[Ham]]  
 
  
 
Ham means pork which comes from the hind leg of a hog. Ham made from the front leg of a hog will be labeled “pork shoulder picnic.” Hams may be fresh, cured, or cured-and-smoked. The usual color for cured ham is deep rose or pink; fresh ham (which is not cured) has the pale pink or beige color of fresh pork roast; country hams and prosciutto (which are dry cured) range from pink to mahogany color. “Turkey ham” must be made from the thigh meat of turkey.
 
Ham means pork which comes from the hind leg of a hog. Ham made from the front leg of a hog will be labeled “pork shoulder picnic.” Hams may be fresh, cured, or cured-and-smoked. The usual color for cured ham is deep rose or pink; fresh ham (which is not cured) has the pale pink or beige color of fresh pork roast; country hams and prosciutto (which are dry cured) range from pink to mahogany color. “Turkey ham” must be made from the thigh meat of turkey.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Ham Steak]]'''
* [[Ham Steak]]  
 
  
 
Another name for center cut ham slices.
 
Another name for center cut ham slices.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Hamburger]]'''
* [[Hamburger]]  
 
  
 
“Hamburger” shall consist of chopped fresh and/or frozen beef with or without the addition of beef fat as such and/or seasoning, shall not contain more than 30 percent fat, and shall not contain added water, phosphates, binders, or extenders.
 
“Hamburger” shall consist of chopped fresh and/or frozen beef with or without the addition of beef fat as such and/or seasoning, shall not contain more than 30 percent fat, and shall not contain added water, phosphates, binders, or extenders.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Hazard]]'''
* [[Hazard]]  
 
  
 
A biological, physical, or chemical property that may cause a food to be unsafe for human consumption.
 
A biological, physical, or chemical property that may cause a food to be unsafe for human consumption.
  
 +
  
 +
* '''[[Hazard Analysis And Critical Control Points (HACCP)]]'''
  
* [[Hazard Analysis And Critical Control Points (HACCP)]]
+
A production quality control system now being adopted throughout much of the food industry as a method for minimizing the entry of foodborne pathogens into the food supply in order to protect human health. Under a HACCP (pronounced Ha-sip) system, potential hazards are identified and risks are analyzed in each phase of production; critical control points for preventing such hazards are identified and constantly monitored; and corrective actions are taken when necessary. Record keeping and verification procedures are used to ensure that the system is working. HACCP is one of the major elements of regulations, issued by USDA in July 1996 to control pathogens in meat and poultry products. Under the rules, all meat and poultry slaughter and processing plants with 500 or more employees had to develop and implement, by January 1998, a USDA-approved HACCP plan for each of their processes and products. Plants with 10 to 500 employees implemented HACCP by January 1999, and plants with less than 10 employees implemented the system by January 2000. Under separate rules issued by the Food and Drug Administration on December 5, 1995, seafood processors and importers also were required to implement HACCP plans and be in full compliance by December 1997.
  
A production quality control system now being adopted throughout much of the food industry as a method for minimizing the entry of foodborne pathogens into the food supply in order to protect human health. Under a HACCP (pronounced Ha-sip) system, potential hazards are identified and risks are analyzed in each phase of production; critical control points for preventing such hazards are identified and constantly monitored; and corrective actions are taken when necessary. Record keeping and verification procedures are used to ensure that the system is working. HACCP is one of the major elements of regulations, issued by USDA in July 1996 to control pathogens in meat and poultry products. Under the rules, all meat and poultry slaughter and processing plants with 500 or more employees had to develop and implement, by January 1998, a USDA-approved HACCP plan for each of their processes and products. Plants with 10 to 500 employees implemented HACCP by January 1999, and plants with less than 10 employees implemented the system by January 2000. Under separate rules issued by the Food and Drug Administration on December 5, 1995, seafood processors and importers also were required to implement HACCP plans and be in full compliance by December 1997.
+
  
 
+
* '''[[Headcheese]]'''
 
 
* [[Headcheese]]  
 
  
 
A jellied product consisting predominantly of pork byproducts and seasoning ingredients. It must contain some product from the head.
 
A jellied product consisting predominantly of pork byproducts and seasoning ingredients. It must contain some product from the head.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Hen, Fowl (Baking or Stewing)]]'''
* [[Hen, Fowl (Baking or Stewing)]]  
 
  
 
A bird of this class is a mature female chicken, usually more than 10 months of age, with meat less tender than that of a roaster, or roasting chicken and nonflexible breastbone tip.
 
A bird of this class is a mature female chicken, usually more than 10 months of age, with meat less tender than that of a roaster, or roasting chicken and nonflexible breastbone tip.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Hickory-Smoked Ham]]'''
* [[Hickory-Smoked Ham]]  
 
  
 
A cured ham which has been smoked by hanging over burning hickory wood chips in a smokehouse. The ham may not be labeled “hickory smoked” unless hickory wood has been used.
 
A cured ham which has been smoked by hanging over burning hickory wood chips in a smokehouse. The ham may not be labeled “hickory smoked” unless hickory wood has been used.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[HIMP or HACCP-Based Inspection Models Project]]'''
* [[HIMP or HACCP-Based Inspection Models Project]]  
 
  
 
HIMP is an effort to determine how FSIS can improve the use of its online slaughter inspectors and continue to ensure the reduction and/or elimination of defects that pass through traditional inspection. Under this project, FSIS has established performance standards for food safety and non-food safety defects (also known as “other consumer protections” or OCP) found in young chickens, hogs, and turkeys. The food safety performance standards are set at zero to protect consumers from conditions that may be harmful. The OCP performance standards are more stringent than current standards and thus require improved plant performance. Participating plants must revise their HACCP systems to meet these food safety performance standards and establish process control systems to address the OCP concerns. Under this project, FSIS conducts continuous inspection with verification to ensure that performance standards are met.
 
HIMP is an effort to determine how FSIS can improve the use of its online slaughter inspectors and continue to ensure the reduction and/or elimination of defects that pass through traditional inspection. Under this project, FSIS has established performance standards for food safety and non-food safety defects (also known as “other consumer protections” or OCP) found in young chickens, hogs, and turkeys. The food safety performance standards are set at zero to protect consumers from conditions that may be harmful. The OCP performance standards are more stringent than current standards and thus require improved plant performance. Participating plants must revise their HACCP systems to meet these food safety performance standards and establish process control systems to address the OCP concerns. Under this project, FSIS conducts continuous inspection with verification to ensure that performance standards are met.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Honey-Cured]]'''
* [[Honey-Cured]]  
 
  
 
Honey-cured may be shown on the labeling of a cured product if honey is the only sweetening ingredient or is at least half the sweetening ingredients used, and if the honey is used in an amount sufficient to flavor and/or affect the appearance of the finished product.
 
Honey-cured may be shown on the labeling of a cured product if honey is the only sweetening ingredient or is at least half the sweetening ingredients used, and if the honey is used in an amount sufficient to flavor and/or affect the appearance of the finished product.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Humane Methods of Slaughter Act]]'''
* [[Humane Methods of Slaughter Act]]  
 
  
 
This Act amended the FMIA by requiring that all meat inspected at Federal establishments by FSIS for use as human food be produced from livestock slaughtered by humane methods in accordance with the Humane Slaughter Act of 1958. The 1958 Act required all livestock in the United States be slaughtered humanely, except for Kosher, Halal, and other religious slaughter.
 
This Act amended the FMIA by requiring that all meat inspected at Federal establishments by FSIS for use as human food be produced from livestock slaughtered by humane methods in accordance with the Humane Slaughter Act of 1958. The 1958 Act required all livestock in the United States be slaughtered humanely, except for Kosher, Halal, and other religious slaughter.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Humectant]]'''
* [[Humectant]]  
 
  
 
A substance added to foods to help retain moisture and soft texture. An example is glycerine, which may be used in dried meat snacks.
 
A substance added to foods to help retain moisture and soft texture. An example is glycerine, which may be used in dried meat snacks.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Hydrolyzed (Source) Protein]]'''
* [[Hydrolyzed (Source) Protein]]  
 
  
 
Flavor enhancers that can be used in meat and poultry products. They are made from protein obtained from a plant source such as soy or wheat, or from an animal source, such as milk. The source used must be identified on the label.
 
Flavor enhancers that can be used in meat and poultry products. They are made from protein obtained from a plant source such as soy or wheat, or from an animal source, such as milk. The source used must be identified on the label.
Line 939: Line 951:
 
==I==
 
==I==
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Incidental Additives]]'''
* [[Incidental Additives]]  
 
  
 
As defined in the Food and Drug Administration regulations (21 CFR 101.100(a)(3)), incidental additives are substances present in foods at insignificant levels that do not serve a technical or functional effect in that food.
 
As defined in the Food and Drug Administration regulations (21 CFR 101.100(a)(3)), incidental additives are substances present in foods at insignificant levels that do not serve a technical or functional effect in that food.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Inedible]]'''
* [[Inedible]]  
 
  
 
Adulterated, uninspected, or not intended for use as human food.
 
Adulterated, uninspected, or not intended for use as human food.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Inhumane Slaughter]]'''
* [[Inhumane Slaughter]]  
 
  
 
Slaughter of livestock that is not in accordance with the Humane Methods of Slaughter Act of 1978 and FSIS regulations promulgated to enforce the Act. Inadequate methods to prevent pain and suffering of animals presented for slaughter.
 
Slaughter of livestock that is not in accordance with the Humane Methods of Slaughter Act of 1978 and FSIS regulations promulgated to enforce the Act. Inadequate methods to prevent pain and suffering of animals presented for slaughter.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[“Inspected and Passed” or “U.S. Inspected and Passed” or “U.S. Inspected and Passed by Department of Agriculture” (or any authorized abbreviation thereof)]]'''
* [[“Inspected and Passed” or “U.S. Inspected and Passed” or “U.S. Inspected and Passed by Department of Agriculture” (or any authorized abbreviation thereof)]]  
 
  
 
This term means that the product so identified has been inspected and passed under the regulations in CFR, and at the time it was inspected, passed, and identified, it was found to be not adulterated.
 
This term means that the product so identified has been inspected and passed under the regulations in CFR, and at the time it was inspected, passed, and identified, it was found to be not adulterated.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Inspector]]'''
* [[Inspector]]  
 
  
 
An inspector of the Program.
 
An inspector of the Program.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Inspector in Charge]]'''
* [[Inspector in Charge]]  
 
  
 
A designated program employee who is in charge of one or more official establishments within a circuit and is responsible to the circuit supervisor or his/her designee.
 
A designated program employee who is in charge of one or more official establishments within a circuit and is responsible to the circuit supervisor or his/her designee.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Internal Temperature]]'''
* [[Internal Temperature]]  
 
  
 
The temperature of the internal portion of a food product.
 
The temperature of the internal portion of a food product.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Irradiation]]'''
* [[Irradiation]]  
 
  
 
The process where foods, such as poultry, red meat, spices, and fruits and vegetables, are subjected to small amounts of radiant energy including gamma rays, electron beams, and x-rays in amounts approved by the Food and Drug Administration. USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service oversees the irradiation of meat and poultry.
 
The process where foods, such as poultry, red meat, spices, and fruits and vegetables, are subjected to small amounts of radiant energy including gamma rays, electron beams, and x-rays in amounts approved by the Food and Drug Administration. USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service oversees the irradiation of meat and poultry.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[ISO Accreditation]]'''
* [[ISO Accreditation]]  
 
  
 
Accreditation by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which develops international agreements on standards for various industries.
 
Accreditation by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which develops international agreements on standards for various industries.
Line 997: Line 1,009:
 
==J==
 
==J==
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Jerky]]'''
* [[Jerky]]  
 
  
 
This product is a nutrient-dense meat that has been made lightweight by drying. Products may be cured or uncured, dried, and may be smoked or unsmoked, air or oven dried.
 
This product is a nutrient-dense meat that has been made lightweight by drying. Products may be cured or uncured, dried, and may be smoked or unsmoked, air or oven dried.
Line 1,005: Line 1,017:
 
==K==
 
==K==
  
 +
  
 +
* '''[[Kosher]]'''
  
* [[Kosher]]
+
Kosher may be used only on the labels of meat and poultry products prepared under Rabbinical supervision.
 
 
Kosher may be used only on the labels of meat and poultry products prepared under Rabbinical supervision.
 
  
 
==L==
 
==L==
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Label]]'''
* [[Label]]  
 
  
 
A display of written, printed, or graphic matter upon the immediate container (not including package liners) of any food product.
 
A display of written, printed, or graphic matter upon the immediate container (not including package liners) of any food product.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Lamb]]'''
* [[Lamb]]  
 
  
 
Meat from sheep less than one year old. If the phrase “Spring Lamb” is on a meat label, it means the lamb was produced between March and October.
 
Meat from sheep less than one year old. If the phrase “Spring Lamb” is on a meat label, it means the lamb was produced between March and October.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Lard]]'''
* [[Lard]]  
 
  
 
Lard is the fat rendered from clean and sound edible tissues from swine.
 
Lard is the fat rendered from clean and sound edible tissues from swine.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Listeria ]]'''
* [[Listeria ]]  
 
  
 
Listeria monocytogenes, a pathogenic bacterium that can be carried in a variety of foods such as dairy products, red meat, poultry, seafood, and vegetables.
 
Listeria monocytogenes, a pathogenic bacterium that can be carried in a variety of foods such as dairy products, red meat, poultry, seafood, and vegetables.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Livestock]]'''
* [[Livestock]]  
 
  
 
Cattle, sheep, swine, goat, horse, mule, or other equine.
 
Cattle, sheep, swine, goat, horse, mule, or other equine.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Log Reduction]]'''
* [[Log Reduction]]  
 
  
 
“Log” stands for logarithm, which is the exponent of 10. For example, log2 represents 102 or 10 x 10 or 100. Log reduction stands for a 10-fold or one decimal or 90% reduction in numbers of recoverable bacteria in a test food vehicle. Another way to look at it is: 1 log reduction would reduce the number of bacteria 90%. This means, for example, that 100 bacteria would be reduced to 10 or 10 reduced to 1.
 
“Log” stands for logarithm, which is the exponent of 10. For example, log2 represents 102 or 10 x 10 or 100. Log reduction stands for a 10-fold or one decimal or 90% reduction in numbers of recoverable bacteria in a test food vehicle. Another way to look at it is: 1 log reduction would reduce the number of bacteria 90%. This means, for example, that 100 bacteria would be reduced to 10 or 10 reduced to 1.
Line 1,053: Line 1,065:
 
==M==
 
==M==
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Mad Cow Disease]]'''
* [[Mad Cow Disease]]  
 
  
 
The common term used for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).
 
The common term used for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Market Withdrawal]]'''
* [[Market Withdrawal]]  
 
  
 
A firm's removal or correction by its own volition of a distributed product that involves a minor infraction that would not warrant legal action by FSIS, or that involves no violation of the FMIA or the PPIA, or no health hazard.
 
A firm's removal or correction by its own volition of a distributed product that involves a minor infraction that would not warrant legal action by FSIS, or that involves no violation of the FMIA or the PPIA, or no health hazard.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Marinate]]'''
* [[Marinate]]  
 
  
 
To steep food in a marinade.
 
To steep food in a marinade.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Marinade]]'''
* [[Marinade]]  
 
  
 
A savory acidic sauce in which a food is soaked to enrich its flavor or to tenderize it. Marinade consists of a cooking oil, an acid (vinegar, lemon juice, wine), and spices. As the food stands in the mixture, the acid and the oil impart the savory flavors of the spices to the food. The acid also has a tenderizing action.
 
A savory acidic sauce in which a food is soaked to enrich its flavor or to tenderize it. Marinade consists of a cooking oil, an acid (vinegar, lemon juice, wine), and spices. As the food stands in the mixture, the acid and the oil impart the savory flavors of the spices to the food. The acid also has a tenderizing action.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[MDM]]'''
* [[MDM]]  
 
  
 
Mechanically deboned meat.
 
Mechanically deboned meat.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Meat]]'''
* [[Meat]]  
 
  
 
The flesh of animals used as food including the dressed flesh of cattle, swine, sheep, or goats and other edible animals, except fish, poultry, and wild game animals.
 
The flesh of animals used as food including the dressed flesh of cattle, swine, sheep, or goats and other edible animals, except fish, poultry, and wild game animals.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Meat Base]]'''
* [[Meat Base]]  
 
  
 
A granular, paste-like product which is shelf-stable primarily because of its high salt content (30-40%).
 
A granular, paste-like product which is shelf-stable primarily because of its high salt content (30-40%).
  
 
Beef Base - 15% beef or 10.5% cooked beef.
 
Beef Base - 15% beef or 10.5% cooked beef.
 +
 
Pork Base - 15% pork or 10.5% cooked pork.
 
Pork Base - 15% pork or 10.5% cooked pork.
 +
 
Ham Base - 18% ham.
 
Ham Base - 18% ham.
  
  
* [[Meat Broker]]  
+
 
 +
* '''[[Meat Broker]]'''
  
 
Any person engaged in the business of buying or selling carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat or meat food products of livestock on commission, or otherwise negotiating purchases or sales of such articles other than for his/her own account or as an employee of another person.
 
Any person engaged in the business of buying or selling carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat or meat food products of livestock on commission, or otherwise negotiating purchases or sales of such articles other than for his/her own account or as an employee of another person.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Meat Byproduct]]'''
* [[Meat Byproduct]]  
 
  
 
Any part capable of use as human food, other than meat, which has been derived from one or more cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. This term, as applied to products of equines, shall have a meaning comparable to that provided in this paragraph with respect to cattle, sheep, swine, and goats.
 
Any part capable of use as human food, other than meat, which has been derived from one or more cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. This term, as applied to products of equines, shall have a meaning comparable to that provided in this paragraph with respect to cattle, sheep, swine, and goats.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Mechanically Separated Poultry]]'''
* [[Mechanically Separated Poultry]]  
 
  
 
Mechanically separated poultry (i.e., chicken, turkey) is a paste-like and batter-like product produced by forcing the bones and attached edible tissue through a sieve or similar device to separate the bone from the edible poultry tissue. This product is intended for use in the formulation of other poultry products. During this process, it is possible for bones to be crushed or pulverized, resulting in a limited amount of bone particles. Because it may contain some bone particles, any product that has been produced using the mechanical separation process cannot, by definition, be labeled as “poultry.” Instead, it must be labeled appropriately as “mechanically separated chicken” (or turkey) on the product's label. Mechanically separated chicken and turkey are used in products such as chicken and turkey franks, bologna, nuggets, and patties.
 
Mechanically separated poultry (i.e., chicken, turkey) is a paste-like and batter-like product produced by forcing the bones and attached edible tissue through a sieve or similar device to separate the bone from the edible poultry tissue. This product is intended for use in the formulation of other poultry products. During this process, it is possible for bones to be crushed or pulverized, resulting in a limited amount of bone particles. Because it may contain some bone particles, any product that has been produced using the mechanical separation process cannot, by definition, be labeled as “poultry.” Instead, it must be labeled appropriately as “mechanically separated chicken” (or turkey) on the product's label. Mechanically separated chicken and turkey are used in products such as chicken and turkey franks, bologna, nuggets, and patties.
  
 +
  
 +
* '''[[Mechanically Separated (Species)]]'''
  
* [[Mechanically Separated (Species)]]
+
Mechanically separated meat (i.e., beef, veal, pork, lamb)
  
Mechanically separated meat (i.e., beef, veal, pork, lamb)
 
 
also known as mechanically separated (species) or MS(S)
 
also known as mechanically separated (species) or MS(S)
 +
 
is a paste-like and batter-like product produced by forcing the bones and attached edible tissue through a sieve or similar device to separate the bone from the edible meat tissue. This product is intended for use in the formulation of other meat products. During this process, it is possible for bones to be crushed or pulverized, resulting in a limited amount of bone particles. Because it may contain some bone particles, any product that has been produced using the mechanical separation process cannot, by definition, be labeled as “meat.” Instead, it must be labeled appropriately as “mechanically separated beef” (or other species). The manufacture and sale of mechanically separated beef, veal, pork, or lamb in the United States is not common, but a small amount is exported.
 
is a paste-like and batter-like product produced by forcing the bones and attached edible tissue through a sieve or similar device to separate the bone from the edible meat tissue. This product is intended for use in the formulation of other meat products. During this process, it is possible for bones to be crushed or pulverized, resulting in a limited amount of bone particles. Because it may contain some bone particles, any product that has been produced using the mechanical separation process cannot, by definition, be labeled as “meat.” Instead, it must be labeled appropriately as “mechanically separated beef” (or other species). The manufacture and sale of mechanically separated beef, veal, pork, or lamb in the United States is not common, but a small amount is exported.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Memorandum of Agreement (MOA)]]'''
* [[Memorandum of Agreement (MOA)]]  
 
  
 
An agreement between federal agencies, or divisions/units within an agency or department, or between federal and state agencies, which delineate tasks, jurisdiction, standard operating procedures or other matters which the agencies or units are duly authorized and directed to conduct. Sometimes referred to as a memorandum of understanding (MOU).
 
An agreement between federal agencies, or divisions/units within an agency or department, or between federal and state agencies, which delineate tasks, jurisdiction, standard operating procedures or other matters which the agencies or units are duly authorized and directed to conduct. Sometimes referred to as a memorandum of understanding (MOU).
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Microorganism]]'''
* [[Microorganism]]  
 
  
 
A form of life that can be seen only with a microscope; including bacteria, viruses, yeast, and single-celled animals.
 
A form of life that can be seen only with a microscope; including bacteria, viruses, yeast, and single-celled animals.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Migration]]'''
* [[Migration]]  
 
  
 
Transfer of a component of a packaging material into the product contained, or loss of a component of the product into the packaging material.
 
Transfer of a component of a packaging material into the product contained, or loss of a component of the product into the packaging material.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Misbranded]]'''
* [[Misbranded]]  
 
  
 
This term applies to any carcass, part thereof, meat or meat food product under one or more of the following circumstances: 1) If its labeling is false or misleading in any particular; 2) If it is offered for sale under the name of another food; 3) If it is an imitation of another food, unless its label bears, in type of uniform size and prominence, the word “imitation” and immediately thereafter, the name of the food imitated; 4) If its container is so made, formed, or filled as to be misleading; 5) If in a package or other container unless it bears a label showing: a.) the name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor; and b.) an accurate statement of the quantity of the contents in terms of weight, measure, or numerical count; except as otherwise provided.
 
This term applies to any carcass, part thereof, meat or meat food product under one or more of the following circumstances: 1) If its labeling is false or misleading in any particular; 2) If it is offered for sale under the name of another food; 3) If it is an imitation of another food, unless its label bears, in type of uniform size and prominence, the word “imitation” and immediately thereafter, the name of the food imitated; 4) If its container is so made, formed, or filled as to be misleading; 5) If in a package or other container unless it bears a label showing: a.) the name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor; and b.) an accurate statement of the quantity of the contents in terms of weight, measure, or numerical count; except as otherwise provided.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP)]]'''
* [[Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP)]]  
 
  
 
Packaging method in which a combination of gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen is introduced into the package at the time of closure. The purpose is to extend shelf life of the product packaged.
 
Packaging method in which a combination of gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen is introduced into the package at the time of closure. The purpose is to extend shelf life of the product packaged.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Modified Food Starch]]'''
* [[Modified Food Starch]]  
 
  
 
Starch that has been chemically altered to improve its thickening properties. Before the starch is modified, it is separated from the protein through isolation techniques; therefore, the source of the starch used is not required on the label.
 
Starch that has been chemically altered to improve its thickening properties. Before the starch is modified, it is separated from the protein through isolation techniques; therefore, the source of the starch used is not required on the label.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)]]'''
* [[Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)]]  
 
  
 
MSG is a flavor enhancer. It comes from a common amino acid, glutamic acid, and must be declared as monosodium glutamate on meat and poultry labels.
 
MSG is a flavor enhancer. It comes from a common amino acid, glutamic acid, and must be declared as monosodium glutamate on meat and poultry labels.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[MOU]]'''
* [[MOU]]  
 
  
 
Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), the same as a memorandum of agreement (MOA).
 
Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), the same as a memorandum of agreement (MOA).
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Mutton]]'''
* [[Mutton]]  
 
  
 
Meat from sheep more than one year old.
 
Meat from sheep more than one year old.
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==N==
 
==N==
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[NACMCF]]'''
* [[NACMCF]]  
 
  
 
National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods. The purpose of the Committee is to provide impartial, scientific advice to Federal food safety agencies for use in the development of an integrated national food safety systems approach from farm to final consumption to assure the safety of domestic, imported, and exported foods.
 
National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods. The purpose of the Committee is to provide impartial, scientific advice to Federal food safety agencies for use in the development of an integrated national food safety systems approach from farm to final consumption to assure the safety of domestic, imported, and exported foods.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[NACMPI]]'''
* [[NACMPI]]  
 
  
 
National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection. Congress established the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection in 1971 under authority of the Federal Meat and Inspection Act (FMIA) and the Poultry Products Inspection Acts (PPIA). Both acts require the Secretary of Agriculture to consult with an advisory committee before issuing product standards and labeling changes or any matters affecting federal and state program activities. Membership in the committee includes representatives from industry, consumer interests, and state agencies.
 
National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection. Congress established the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection in 1971 under authority of the Federal Meat and Inspection Act (FMIA) and the Poultry Products Inspection Acts (PPIA). Both acts require the Secretary of Agriculture to consult with an advisory committee before issuing product standards and labeling changes or any matters affecting federal and state program activities. Membership in the committee includes representatives from industry, consumer interests, and state agencies.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[National Academy of Sciences (NAS)]]'''
* [[National Academy of Sciences (NAS)]]  
 
  
 
An institution created by Congress in 1863 to provide science-based advice to the government. The sister organizations associated with the Academy are the National Academy of Engineers, Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council. The Academies and the Institute are honorary societies that elect new members to their ranks each year. The bulk of the institutions’ science-policy and technical work is conducted by the National Research Council (NRC), created expressly for that purpose. The NRC's Board on Agriculture addresses issues confronting agriculture, food, and related environmental topics.
 
An institution created by Congress in 1863 to provide science-based advice to the government. The sister organizations associated with the Academy are the National Academy of Engineers, Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council. The Academies and the Institute are honorary societies that elect new members to their ranks each year. The bulk of the institutions’ science-policy and technical work is conducted by the National Research Council (NRC), created expressly for that purpose. The NRC's Board on Agriculture addresses issues confronting agriculture, food, and related environmental topics.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS)]]'''
* [[National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS)]]  
 
  
 
A collaborative agreement established in 1996 with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food and Drug Administration, and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The NARMS program is a national surveillance program that monitors changes in susceptibilities of human and animal enteric bacteria to 17 antimicrobial drugs. The program provides baseline information on prevalence of resistance, allows for detection of small decreases in susceptibility, and predicts trends in time to allow for mitigation.
 
A collaborative agreement established in 1996 with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food and Drug Administration, and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The NARMS program is a national surveillance program that monitors changes in susceptibilities of human and animal enteric bacteria to 17 antimicrobial drugs. The program provides baseline information on prevalence of resistance, allows for detection of small decreases in susceptibility, and predicts trends in time to allow for mitigation.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[National Agricultural Library (NAL)]]'''
* [[National Agricultural Library (NAL)]]  
 
  
 
A national depository of scientific and popular agricultural information located at the Agricultural Research Service's research center in Beltsville, Maryland. NAL's administration was merged with ARS in 1994.
 
A national depository of scientific and popular agricultural information located at the Agricultural Research Service's research center in Beltsville, Maryland. NAL's administration was merged with ARS in 1994.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS)]]'''
* [[National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS)]]  
 
  
 
USDA agency that collects and publishes statistics on the U.S. food and fiber system, with offices located in each state’s department of agriculture.
 
USDA agency that collects and publishes statistics on the U.S. food and fiber system, with offices located in each state’s department of agriculture.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[National Early Warning System]]'''
* [[National Early Warning System]]  
 
  
 
A program run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to increase federal support to state health departments to detect foodborne diseases by increasing the number of scientists available to investigate food borne outbreaks and by enhancing laboratory-based surveillance of important foodborne pathogens.
 
A program run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to increase federal support to state health departments to detect foodborne diseases by increasing the number of scientists available to investigate food borne outbreaks and by enhancing laboratory-based surveillance of important foodborne pathogens.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Natural]]'''
* [[Natural]]  
 
  
 
A product containing no artificial ingredient or added color that is only minimally processed (a process which does not fundamentally alter the raw product) may be labeled natural. The label must explain the use of the term natural (such as no added colorings or artificial ingredients; minimally processed.)
 
A product containing no artificial ingredient or added color that is only minimally processed (a process which does not fundamentally alter the raw product) may be labeled natural. The label must explain the use of the term natural (such as no added colorings or artificial ingredients; minimally processed.)
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Netting (plastic)]]'''
* [[Netting (plastic)]]  
 
  
 
Continuous extruded net of flexible plastic material, most commonly polyethylene, which can be made into bags, sleeves or wraps (example: net over a frozen turkey package).
 
Continuous extruded net of flexible plastic material, most commonly polyethylene, which can be made into bags, sleeves or wraps (example: net over a frozen turkey package).
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Nitrite]]'''
* [[Nitrite]]  
 
  
 
See Sodium Nitrite.
 
See Sodium Nitrite.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[No Roll]]'''
* [[No Roll]]  
 
  
 
The term “No Roll” is permitted on marking devices and labels for single ingredient red meats (carcasses, primal and retail cuts) provided the term is not accompanied with an official grade name (e.g., “No Roll Choice”).
 
The term “No Roll” is permitted on marking devices and labels for single ingredient red meats (carcasses, primal and retail cuts) provided the term is not accompanied with an official grade name (e.g., “No Roll Choice”).
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Nutrition Labeling]]'''
* [[Nutrition Labeling]]  
 
  
 
Identification of the nutritional components of a food product. The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 required nutrition labeling of most foods regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. On January 6, 1993, FSIS published final regulations requiring comparable nutrition labeling requirements, with certain exemptions, for multi-ingredient and heat processed meat and poultry products such as hot dogs and luncheon meats. FSIS also established guidelines for voluntary nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw meat and poultry products, including those that are ground and chopped. Retailers and manufacturers voluntarily provide nutrition information on the labels of these products or at their point-of-purchase.
 
Identification of the nutritional components of a food product. The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 required nutrition labeling of most foods regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. On January 6, 1993, FSIS published final regulations requiring comparable nutrition labeling requirements, with certain exemptions, for multi-ingredient and heat processed meat and poultry products such as hot dogs and luncheon meats. FSIS also established guidelines for voluntary nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw meat and poultry products, including those that are ground and chopped. Retailers and manufacturers voluntarily provide nutrition information on the labels of these products or at their point-of-purchase.
Line 1,258: Line 1,275:
 
==O==
 
==O==
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)]]'''
* [[Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)]]  
 
  
 
The U.S. Department of Labor agency responsible for administering the Occupational Safety and Health Act (P.L. 91-596). According to OSHA, farming is the nation’s most hazardous occupation. Agriculture is the largest occupational group in the United States, with some 10 to 20 million people depending upon one’s criteria of “agriculture.” The intrinsically seasoned nature of many segments of agriculture not only causes the size of this workforce to vary temporally and often geographically via migrant work groups, but usually also has major effects on the nature and intensity of the work itself. OSHA has issued safety standards relating to agricultural operations.
 
The U.S. Department of Labor agency responsible for administering the Occupational Safety and Health Act (P.L. 91-596). According to OSHA, farming is the nation’s most hazardous occupation. Agriculture is the largest occupational group in the United States, with some 10 to 20 million people depending upon one’s criteria of “agriculture.” The intrinsically seasoned nature of many segments of agriculture not only causes the size of this workforce to vary temporally and often geographically via migrant work groups, but usually also has major effects on the nature and intensity of the work itself. OSHA has issued safety standards relating to agricultural operations.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Office of Homeland Security]]'''
* [[Office of Homeland Security]]  
 
  
 
The Office of Homeland Security was established on October 8, 2001 by President George W. Bush to develop and coordinate the implementation of a comprehensive national strategy to secure the United States from terrorist threats or attacks. The Office coordinates the executive branch's efforts to detect, prepare for, prevent, protect against, respond to, and recover from terrorist attacks within the United States. These efforts include working with executive departments and agencies, State and local governments, and private entities to ensure the adequacy of the national strategy.
 
The Office of Homeland Security was established on October 8, 2001 by President George W. Bush to develop and coordinate the implementation of a comprehensive national strategy to secure the United States from terrorist threats or attacks. The Office coordinates the executive branch's efforts to detect, prepare for, prevent, protect against, respond to, and recover from terrorist attacks within the United States. These efforts include working with executive departments and agencies, State and local governments, and private entities to ensure the adequacy of the national strategy.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Official Mark]]'''
* [[Official Mark]]  
 
  
 
The official inspection legend or any other symbol prescribed by FSIS regulations to identify the status of any article or animal under the Federal Meat Inspection Act.
 
The official inspection legend or any other symbol prescribed by FSIS regulations to identify the status of any article or animal under the Federal Meat Inspection Act.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Organic]]'''
* [[Organic]]  
 
  
 
Chemically, a compound or molecule containing carbon bound to hydrogen. Organic compounds make up all living matter. The term organic frequently is used to distinguish “natural” products or processes from man-made “synthetic” ones. Thus natural fertilizers include manures or rock phosphate, as opposed to fertilizers synthesized from chemical feedstocks. Likewise, in organic farming pests are controlled by cultivation techniques and the use of pesticides derived from natural sources (e.g., rotenone and pyrethrins, both from plants) and the use of natural fertilizers (e.g., manure and compost). Some consumers, alleging risks from synthetic chemicals, prefer organic food products. The FACT Act of 1990 required USDA to define organic foods for marketing purposes and implement a National Organic Program.
 
Chemically, a compound or molecule containing carbon bound to hydrogen. Organic compounds make up all living matter. The term organic frequently is used to distinguish “natural” products or processes from man-made “synthetic” ones. Thus natural fertilizers include manures or rock phosphate, as opposed to fertilizers synthesized from chemical feedstocks. Likewise, in organic farming pests are controlled by cultivation techniques and the use of pesticides derived from natural sources (e.g., rotenone and pyrethrins, both from plants) and the use of natural fertilizers (e.g., manure and compost). Some consumers, alleging risks from synthetic chemicals, prefer organic food products. The FACT Act of 1990 required USDA to define organic foods for marketing purposes and implement a National Organic Program.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Organic Farming]]'''
* [[Organic Farming]]  
 
  
 
An approach to farming based on biological methods that avoid the use of synthetic crop or livestock production inputs; also a broadly defined philosophical approach to farming that puts value on ecological harmony, resource efficiency, and non-intensive animal husbandry practices. Farmers who wish to have their operations certified as organic so that they can label their products as organically produced currently follow standards and submit to inspection by private or state certification organizations.
 
An approach to farming based on biological methods that avoid the use of synthetic crop or livestock production inputs; also a broadly defined philosophical approach to farming that puts value on ecological harmony, resource efficiency, and non-intensive animal husbandry practices. Farmers who wish to have their operations certified as organic so that they can label their products as organically produced currently follow standards and submit to inspection by private or state certification organizations.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Organic Foods]]'''
* [[Organic Foods]]  
 
  
 
Food products produced by organic farming practices and handled or processed under organic handling and manufacturing processes as defined by several private and state organic certifying agencies.
 
Food products produced by organic farming practices and handled or processed under organic handling and manufacturing processes as defined by several private and state organic certifying agencies.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Organoleptic]]'''
* [[Organoleptic]]  
 
  
 
Related to or perceived by a sensory organ.
 
Related to or perceived by a sensory organ.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Oven Ready]]'''
* [[Oven Ready]]  
 
  
 
Product is ready to cook.
 
Product is ready to cook.
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==P==
 
==P==
  
 +
  
 +
* '''[[Parasites]]'''
  
* [[Parasites]]
+
Organisms that derive nourishment and protection from other living organisms known as hosts. They may be transmitted from animals to humans, from humans to humans, or from humans to animals. Several parasites have emerged as significant causes of foodborne and waterborne disease. These organisms live and reproduce within the tissues and organs of infected human and animal hosts, and are often excreted in feces. Some common parasites are Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spiralis, Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm), and Taenia solium (pork tapeworm).
 
 
Organisms that derive nourishment and protection from other living organisms known as hosts. They may be transmitted from animals to humans, from humans to humans, or from humans to animals. Several parasites have emerged as significant causes of foodborne and waterborne disease. These organisms live and reproduce within the tissues and organs of infected human and animal hosts, and are often excreted in feces. Some common parasites are Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spiralis, Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm), and Taenia solium (pork tapeworm).
 
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Parma Ham]]'''
* [[Parma Ham]]  
 
  
 
Parma Ham is prosciutto from the Parma locale in Italy. These hams tend to be larger than the U.S. produced product, as Italian hogs are larger at slaughter.
 
Parma Ham is prosciutto from the Parma locale in Italy. These hams tend to be larger than the U.S. produced product, as Italian hogs are larger at slaughter.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Partially Defatted (Beef or Pork) Fatty Tissue]]'''
* [[Partially Defatted (Beef or Pork) Fatty Tissue]]  
 
  
 
These are byproducts produced from fatty trimmings containing less than 12% lean meat. These ingredients may be used in meat products in which byproducts are acceptable.
 
These are byproducts produced from fatty trimmings containing less than 12% lean meat. These ingredients may be used in meat products in which byproducts are acceptable.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Partnership for Food Safety Education]]'''
* [[Partnership for Food Safety Education]]  
 
  
 
A public-private coalition formed in 1977, which is dedicated to educating the public about safe food handling to help reduce foodborne illnesses. The partnership is comprised of industry, government and consumer groups and has developed a far-reaching, ambitious and consumer-friendly public education campaign focused on safe food handling.
 
A public-private coalition formed in 1977, which is dedicated to educating the public about safe food handling to help reduce foodborne illnesses. The partnership is comprised of industry, government and consumer groups and has developed a far-reaching, ambitious and consumer-friendly public education campaign focused on safe food handling.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Pasteurization]]'''
* [[Pasteurization]]  
 
  
 
The process of destroying microorganisms that could disease. This is usually done by applying heat to food. Three processes used to pasteurize foods are flash pasteurization, steam pasteurization, and irradiation pasteurization.
 
The process of destroying microorganisms that could disease. This is usually done by applying heat to food. Three processes used to pasteurize foods are flash pasteurization, steam pasteurization, and irradiation pasteurization.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Pathogen]]'''
* [[Pathogen]]  
 
  
 
A microorganism (bacteria, parasites, viruses, or fungi) that is infectious and causes disease.
 
A microorganism (bacteria, parasites, viruses, or fungi) that is infectious and causes disease.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Performance Based Inspection System (PBIS)]]'''
* [[Performance Based Inspection System (PBIS)]]  
 
  
 
A computer-based system used by USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service. The system organizes inspection requirements, schedules inspection activities, and maintains records of findings for meat and poultry processing operations under federal inspection.
 
A computer-based system used by USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service. The system organizes inspection requirements, schedules inspection activities, and maintains records of findings for meat and poultry processing operations under federal inspection.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Perishable]]'''
* [[Perishable]]  
 
  
 
Food that is subject to decay, spoilage, or bacteria unless it is properly refrigerated or frozen.
 
Food that is subject to decay, spoilage, or bacteria unless it is properly refrigerated or frozen.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Pesticide]]'''
* [[Pesticide]]  
 
  
 
A substance used to kill, control, repel, or mitigate any pest. Insecticides, fungicides, rodenticides, herbicides, and germicides are all pesticides. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates pesticides under authority of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). In addition, under FIFRA, a substance used as a plant regulator, defoliant, desiccant is defined as a pesticide and regulated accordingly. All pesticides must be registered and carry a label approved by EPA.
 
A substance used to kill, control, repel, or mitigate any pest. Insecticides, fungicides, rodenticides, herbicides, and germicides are all pesticides. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates pesticides under authority of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). In addition, under FIFRA, a substance used as a plant regulator, defoliant, desiccant is defined as a pesticide and regulated accordingly. All pesticides must be registered and carry a label approved by EPA.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Pesticide Data Program (PDP)]]'''
* [[Pesticide Data Program (PDP)]]  
 
  
 
A program initiated in 1991 by the Agricultural Marketing Service to collect pesticide residue data on selected food commodities, primarily fruits and vegetables. PDP data are used by the Environmental Protection Agency to support its dietary risk assessment process and pesticide registration process, by the Food and Drug Administration to refine sampling for enforcement of tolerances, by the Foreign Agricultural Service, to support export of U.S. commodities in a competitive global market, by the Economic Research Service to evaluate pesticide alternatives, and by the public sector to address food safety issues.
 
A program initiated in 1991 by the Agricultural Marketing Service to collect pesticide residue data on selected food commodities, primarily fruits and vegetables. PDP data are used by the Environmental Protection Agency to support its dietary risk assessment process and pesticide registration process, by the Food and Drug Administration to refine sampling for enforcement of tolerances, by the Foreign Agricultural Service, to support export of U.S. commodities in a competitive global market, by the Economic Research Service to evaluate pesticide alternatives, and by the public sector to address food safety issues.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[PFF]]'''
* [[PFF]]  
 
  
 
Protein Fat Free.
 
Protein Fat Free.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Plasticizer]]'''
* [[Plasticizer]]  
 
  
 
Material added during the manufacturing process to increase flexibility; for example, the plasticizer ATBC (acetyl tributyl citrate), used in such DowBrands™ as Saran™ and Handiwrap™, is made from citric acid which is commonly present in citrus fruit.
 
Material added during the manufacturing process to increase flexibility; for example, the plasticizer ATBC (acetyl tributyl citrate), used in such DowBrands™ as Saran™ and Handiwrap™, is made from citric acid which is commonly present in citrus fruit.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Pork]]'''
* [[Pork]]  
 
  
 
The meat from hogs, or domestic swine. Much of a hog is cured and made into ham, bacon, and sausage. Uncured meat is called “fresh pork.”
 
The meat from hogs, or domestic swine. Much of a hog is cured and made into ham, bacon, and sausage. Uncured meat is called “fresh pork.”
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Pork Bellies]]'''
* [[Pork Bellies]]  
 
  
 
One of the major cuts of the hog carcass that, when cured, becomes bacon.
 
One of the major cuts of the hog carcass that, when cured, becomes bacon.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Pork Shoulder Picnic]]'''
* [[Pork Shoulder Picnic]]  
 
  
 
A front shoulder cut of pork which has been cured in the same manner as ham.
 
A front shoulder cut of pork which has been cured in the same manner as ham.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Postmortem Inspection]]'''
* [[Postmortem Inspection]]  
 
  
 
As used in the meat and poultry inspection program, the phrase refers to the inspection that Food Safety and Inspection Service inspectors are required to conduct of all animal carcasses immediately after they are killed.
 
As used in the meat and poultry inspection program, the phrase refers to the inspection that Food Safety and Inspection Service inspectors are required to conduct of all animal carcasses immediately after they are killed.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Potentially Hazardous Foods]]'''
* [[Potentially Hazardous Foods]]  
 
  
 
A food that is natural or synthetic and that requires temperature control because it is in a form capable of supporting the rapid and progressive growth of infectious or toxigenic microorganisms.
 
A food that is natural or synthetic and that requires temperature control because it is in a form capable of supporting the rapid and progressive growth of infectious or toxigenic microorganisms.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Poultry Products Inspection Act of 1957 (PPIA)]]'''
* [[Poultry Products Inspection Act of 1957 (PPIA)]]  
 
  
 
P.L. 85-172 (August 28, 1957), as amended by the Wholesome Poultry Products Act of 1968 (P.L. 90-492, August 18, 1968), requires USDA to inspect all “domesticated birds” when slaughtered and processed into products for human consumption. The USDA has defined, by regulation, domesticated birds as chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, and guineas. The primary goals of the law are to prevent adulterated or misbranded poultry and products from being sold as food, and to ensure that poultry, poultry products, ratites, and squabs are slaughtered and processed under sanitary conditions. These requirements also apply to products produced and sold within states as well as to imports, which must be inspected under equivalent foreign standards.
 
P.L. 85-172 (August 28, 1957), as amended by the Wholesome Poultry Products Act of 1968 (P.L. 90-492, August 18, 1968), requires USDA to inspect all “domesticated birds” when slaughtered and processed into products for human consumption. The USDA has defined, by regulation, domesticated birds as chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, and guineas. The primary goals of the law are to prevent adulterated or misbranded poultry and products from being sold as food, and to ensure that poultry, poultry products, ratites, and squabs are slaughtered and processed under sanitary conditions. These requirements also apply to products produced and sold within states as well as to imports, which must be inspected under equivalent foreign standards.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Poultry, Product Classes]]'''
* [[Poultry, Product Classes]]  
 
  
 
Standards for kinds and classes, and for cuts of raw poultry are discussed in 9 CFR 381.170.
 
Standards for kinds and classes, and for cuts of raw poultry are discussed in 9 CFR 381.170.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[PrepNet]]'''
* [[PrepNet]]  
 
  
 
The Food Threat Preparedness Network (PrepNet) functions across Federal departments to ensure effective coordination of food security efforts throughout the Government. PrepNet is co-chaired by the Administrator of FSIS and the Director of the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Other members include the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), the Department of Defense (DOD), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The focus of this group is on preventive activities to protect the food supply proactively, as well as on rapid response. PrepNet, which works in conjunction with the Office of Homeland Security, is reviewing each agency’s statutory authorities and conducting an assessment of needs, with plans to fill the statutory gaps. PrepNet members share scientific and laboratory assets.
 
The Food Threat Preparedness Network (PrepNet) functions across Federal departments to ensure effective coordination of food security efforts throughout the Government. PrepNet is co-chaired by the Administrator of FSIS and the Director of the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Other members include the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), the Department of Defense (DOD), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The focus of this group is on preventive activities to protect the food supply proactively, as well as on rapid response. PrepNet, which works in conjunction with the Office of Homeland Security, is reviewing each agency’s statutory authorities and conducting an assessment of needs, with plans to fill the statutory gaps. PrepNet members share scientific and laboratory assets.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Prepared]]'''
* [[Prepared]]  
 
  
 
Slaughtered, canned, salted, rendered, boned, cut up, or otherwise manufactured or processed.
 
Slaughtered, canned, salted, rendered, boned, cut up, or otherwise manufactured or processed.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Preservation]]'''
* [[Preservation]]  
 
  
 
A variety of methods used at the processing stage and at home to keep food safe from harmful bacteria and extend the storage life of food.
 
A variety of methods used at the processing stage and at home to keep food safe from harmful bacteria and extend the storage life of food.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Product]]'''
* [[Product]]  
 
  
 
Any carcass, meat, meat by-product, or meat food product, capable of use as human food.
 
Any carcass, meat, meat by-product, or meat food product, capable of use as human food.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Prosciutto Ham]]'''
* [[Prosciutto Ham]]  
 
  
 
An Italian-style dry cured raw ham; not smoked; often coated with pepper. Prosciutto can be eaten raw because of the way it is processed.
 
An Italian-style dry cured raw ham; not smoked; often coated with pepper. Prosciutto can be eaten raw because of the way it is processed.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Public Health]]'''
* [[Public Health]]  
 
  
 
The science and the art of 1) preventing disease; 2) prolonging life; and organized community efforts for a) the sanitation of the environment; b) the control of communicable infections; c) the education of the individual in personal hygiene; d) the organization of medical and nursing devices for the early diagnosis and preventive treatment of disease; and e) the development of the social machinery to ensure everyone a standard of living adequate for the maintenance of health, so organizing these benefits as to enable every citizen to realize his/her birthright of health and longevity.
 
The science and the art of 1) preventing disease; 2) prolonging life; and organized community efforts for a) the sanitation of the environment; b) the control of communicable infections; c) the education of the individual in personal hygiene; d) the organization of medical and nursing devices for the early diagnosis and preventive treatment of disease; and e) the development of the social machinery to ensure everyone a standard of living adequate for the maintenance of health, so organizing these benefits as to enable every citizen to realize his/her birthright of health and longevity.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Pulse-Field Gel Electrophorsis (PFGE)]]'''
* [[Pulse-Field Gel Electrophorsis (PFGE)]]  
 
  
 
The DNA fingerprinting method that scientists use to determine the source of bacteria in foods.
 
The DNA fingerprinting method that scientists use to determine the source of bacteria in foods.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[PulseNet]]'''
* [[PulseNet]]  
 
  
 
FSIS participates in PulseNet, a national network of public health laboratories directed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PulseNet performs DNA fingerprinting on foodborne bacteria and assists in the detection of foodborne illness outbreaks and traceback to their sources, including detection of a linkage among sporadic cases. PulseNet, combined with epidemiology, has been key in enabling Federal agencies to detect and control outbreaks of foodborne illness rapidly.
 
FSIS participates in PulseNet, a national network of public health laboratories directed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PulseNet performs DNA fingerprinting on foodborne bacteria and assists in the detection of foodborne illness outbreaks and traceback to their sources, including detection of a linkage among sporadic cases. PulseNet, combined with epidemiology, has been key in enabling Federal agencies to detect and control outbreaks of foodborne illness rapidly.
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==Q==
 
==Q==
  
 +
  
 +
* '''[[Qualitative Analysis]]'''
  
* [[Qualitative Analysis]]
+
The process of testing for a substance to determine what it is and what its components are. The results are reported in terms of the presence or absence of particular components, based on the size of the sample used in the analysis, the number of samples analyzed, and the testing method. An example of qualitative analysis would be testing for the presence of the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in a specific food.
  
The process of testing for a substance to determine what it is and what its components are. The results are reported in terms of the presence or absence of particular components, based on the size of the sample used in the analysis, the number of samples analyzed, and the testing method. An example of qualitative analysis would be testing for the presence of the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in a specific food.
+
  
 
+
* '''[[Qualitative Risk Assessment]]'''
 
 
* [[Qualitative Risk Assessment]]  
 
  
 
A risk assessment that is based on qualitative data or giving a qualitative result. The results are often stated in an estimated range, such as “there is a moderate to high risk of a certain outcome occurring”
 
A risk assessment that is based on qualitative data or giving a qualitative result. The results are often stated in an estimated range, such as “there is a moderate to high risk of a certain outcome occurring”
  
 +
  
 +
* '''[[Quantitative Analysis]]'''
  
* [[Quantitative Analysis]]
+
The process of testing for a substance to determine how much of it there is and the numerical value of each of its components. An example would be testing for the amount or concentration of a certain chemical or microorganism, such as E. coli, in a food.
  
The process of testing for a substance to determine how much of it there is and the numerical value of each of its components. An example would be testing for the amount or concentration of a certain chemical or microorganism, such as E. coli, in a food.
+
  
 
+
* '''[[Quantitative Risk Assessment]]'''
 
 
* [[Quantitative Risk Assessment]]  
 
  
 
A risk assessment that uses modeling to determine the probability(s) of what can go wrong, how likely it is to happen, and how severe is the health impact. The results are stated in numerical terms, such as “there is a 42% probability that one illness may occur from eating a serving of X food with a certain health outcome.”
 
A risk assessment that uses modeling to determine the probability(s) of what can go wrong, how likely it is to happen, and how severe is the health impact. The results are stated in numerical terms, such as “there is a 42% probability that one illness may occur from eating a serving of X food with a certain health outcome.”
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==R==
 
==R==
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Rancid/Rancidity]]'''
* [[Rancid/Rancidity]]  
 
  
 
Oxidation/breakdown of fat that occurs naturally, causing undesirable smell and taste.
 
Oxidation/breakdown of fat that occurs naturally, causing undesirable smell and taste.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Ratites]]'''
* [[Ratites]]  
 
  
 
A family of large flightless birds that include ostriches, emus, and rheas, which U.S. farmers are beginning to domesticate and raise for food. On April 26, 2001, FSIS mandated the inspection of ratites. As a result of this action U.S. establishments slaughtering or processing ratites for distribution into commerce as human food are now subject to mandatory requirements of the Poultry Products Inspection Act and no longer pay a fee for inspection. Previously, some ratites had been inspected under the Agency’s voluntary poultry inspection program, which requires establishments to pay a fee for inspection services.
 
A family of large flightless birds that include ostriches, emus, and rheas, which U.S. farmers are beginning to domesticate and raise for food. On April 26, 2001, FSIS mandated the inspection of ratites. As a result of this action U.S. establishments slaughtering or processing ratites for distribution into commerce as human food are now subject to mandatory requirements of the Poultry Products Inspection Act and no longer pay a fee for inspection. Previously, some ratites had been inspected under the Agency’s voluntary poultry inspection program, which requires establishments to pay a fee for inspection services.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Ready-to-Eat]]'''
* [[Ready-to-Eat]]  
 
  
 
Food that is in a form that is edible without washing, cooking, or additional preparation by the food establishment or consumer and that is reasonably expected to be consumed in that form.
 
Food that is in a form that is edible without washing, cooking, or additional preparation by the food establishment or consumer and that is reasonably expected to be consumed in that form.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Recall]]'''
* [[Recall]]  
 
  
 
Recalls are voluntary actions carried out by a food manufacturer or distributor in cooperation with Federal and State agencies. Products are recalled when found to be contaminated, adulterated, or misbranded. Even when the food has been previously inspected and passed by FSIS, a recall is necessary when new information becomes available indicating a possible public health issue. A recall does not include a market withdrawal or stock recovery.
 
Recalls are voluntary actions carried out by a food manufacturer or distributor in cooperation with Federal and State agencies. Products are recalled when found to be contaminated, adulterated, or misbranded. Even when the food has been previously inspected and passed by FSIS, a recall is necessary when new information becomes available indicating a possible public health issue. A recall does not include a market withdrawal or stock recovery.
  
 +
  
 +
* '''[[Recall Classifications]]'''
  
* [[Recall Classifications]]
+
FSIS assesses the public health concern or hazard presented by a product being recalled, or considered for recall, whether firm-initiated or requested by FSIS, and classifies the concern as one of the following:
  
FSIS assesses the public health concern or hazard presented by a product being recalled, or considered for recall, whether firm-initiated or requested by FSIS, and classifies the concern as one of the following:
+
Class I. This is a health hazard situation where there is a reasonable probability that the use of the product will cause serious, adverse health consequences or death. For example, the presence of pathogens in ready-to-eat product or the presence of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef.
  
Class I. This is a health hazard situation where there is a reasonable probability that the use of the product will cause serious, adverse health consequences or death. For example, the presence of pathogens in ready-to-eat product or the presence of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef.
 
 
Class II. This is a health hazard situation where there is a remote probability of adverse health consequences from the use of the product. For example, the presence of undeclared allergens such as milk or soy products.
 
Class II. This is a health hazard situation where there is a remote probability of adverse health consequences from the use of the product. For example, the presence of undeclared allergens such as milk or soy products.
 +
 
Class III. This is a situation where the use of the product will not cause adverse health consequences. For example, the presence of undeclared generally recognized as safe non-allergen substances, such as excess water.
 
Class III. This is a situation where the use of the product will not cause adverse health consequences. For example, the presence of undeclared generally recognized as safe non-allergen substances, such as excess water.
  
  
* [[Recall, Depth of]]  
+
 
 +
* '''[[Recall, Depth of]]'''
  
 
The level of product distribution to which the recall is to extend:
 
The level of product distribution to which the recall is to extend:
  
 
Consumer - This includes household consumers as well as all other levels of distribution.
 
Consumer - This includes household consumers as well as all other levels of distribution.
 +
 
Retail Level - The level that includes all retail sales of the recalled product.
 
Retail Level - The level that includes all retail sales of the recalled product.
 +
 
User Level - This level includes hotels, restaurants, and other food service institutional consignees.
 
User Level - This level includes hotels, restaurants, and other food service institutional consignees.
 +
 
Wholesale Level - The distribution level between the manufacturer and the retailer. This level may not be encountered in every recall situation; i.e., the recalling firm may sell directly to the retail or consumer level.
 
Wholesale Level - The distribution level between the manufacturer and the retailer. This level may not be encountered in every recall situation; i.e., the recalling firm may sell directly to the retail or consumer level.
  
  
* [[Recall Scope]]  
+
 
 +
* '''[[Recall Scope]]'''
  
 
This defines the amount and kind of product in question. For example, all products produced under a single HACCP plan between performance of complete cleaning and sanitation procedures (clean up to clean up).
 
This defines the amount and kind of product in question. For example, all products produced under a single HACCP plan between performance of complete cleaning and sanitation procedures (clean up to clean up).
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Renderer]]'''
* [[Renderer]]  
 
  
 
A business engaged in the separation of fats from animal tissue by heating.
 
A business engaged in the separation of fats from animal tissue by heating.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Residue]]'''
* [[Residue]]  
 
  
 
Any substance, including metabolites, remaining in livestock at time of slaughter or in carcass tissues after slaughter as the result of treatment or exposure of the livestock to a pesticide, organic or inorganic compound, hormone, hormonelike substance, growth promoter, antibiotic, anthelmintic, tranquilizer, or other therapeutic or prophylactic agent.
 
Any substance, including metabolites, remaining in livestock at time of slaughter or in carcass tissues after slaughter as the result of treatment or exposure of the livestock to a pesticide, organic or inorganic compound, hormone, hormonelike substance, growth promoter, antibiotic, anthelmintic, tranquilizer, or other therapeutic or prophylactic agent.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Risk Analysis]]'''
* [[Risk Analysis]]  
 
  
 
The assessment and management of hazards that cause harm (risk) to human health and the communication of how those hazards can be controlled, reduced or eliminated.
 
The assessment and management of hazards that cause harm (risk) to human health and the communication of how those hazards can be controlled, reduced or eliminated.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Risk Assessment]]'''
* [[Risk Assessment]]  
 
  
 
The process of estimating the severity and likelihood of harm to human health or the environment occurring from exposure to a substance or activity that, under plausible circumstances, can cause harm to human health or the environment.
 
The process of estimating the severity and likelihood of harm to human health or the environment occurring from exposure to a substance or activity that, under plausible circumstances, can cause harm to human health or the environment.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Risk Communication]]'''
* [[Risk Communication]]  
 
  
 
Exchanges of information among risk assessors, risk managers, other stakeholders, and the public about levels of health or environmental risk, the significance and meaning of those risks, and the decisions, actions, or policies aimed at managing or controlling the risks.
 
Exchanges of information among risk assessors, risk managers, other stakeholders, and the public about levels of health or environmental risk, the significance and meaning of those risks, and the decisions, actions, or policies aimed at managing or controlling the risks.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Risk Management]]'''
* [[Risk Management]]  
 
  
 
The process of evaluating policy alternatives in view of the results of risk assessment and selecting and implementing appropriate options to protect public health. Risk management determines what action to take to reduce, eliminate, or control risks. This includes establishing risk assessment policies, regulations, procedures, and a framework for decision making based on risk.
 
The process of evaluating policy alternatives in view of the results of risk assessment and selecting and implementing appropriate options to protect public health. Risk management determines what action to take to reduce, eliminate, or control risks. This includes establishing risk assessment policies, regulations, procedures, and a framework for decision making based on risk.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Roaster or Roasting Chicken]]'''
* [[Roaster or Roasting Chicken]]  
 
  
 
A bird of this class is a young chicken, usually three to five months of age, of either sex, that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin and breastbone cartilage that may be somewhat less flexible than that of a broiler or fryer.
 
A bird of this class is a young chicken, usually three to five months of age, of either sex, that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin and breastbone cartilage that may be somewhat less flexible than that of a broiler or fryer.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Roaster Duckling]]'''
* [[Roaster Duckling]]  
 
  
 
A young duck, usually under 16 weeks of age, of either sex, that is tender-meated and has a bill that is not completely hardened and a windpipe that is easily dented.
 
A young duck, usually under 16 weeks of age, of either sex, that is tender-meated and has a bill that is not completely hardened and a windpipe that is easily dented.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Ruminant]]'''
* [[Ruminant]]  
 
  
 
An animal with a stomach that has four compartments, and a more complex digestive system than other mammals. Ruminants include cattle, sheep, goats, deer, bison, elk, and camels. Swine, dogs, and humans are examples of nonruminants.
 
An animal with a stomach that has four compartments, and a more complex digestive system than other mammals. Ruminants include cattle, sheep, goats, deer, bison, elk, and camels. Swine, dogs, and humans are examples of nonruminants.
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==S==
 
==S==
  
 +
  
 +
* '''[[Salmonella ]]'''
  
* [[Salmonella ]]
+
A pathogenic, diarrhea-producing bacterium that is the leading cause of human foodborne illness among intestinal pathogens. It is commonly found in raw meats, poultry, milk, and eggs, but other foods can carry it. Under 1996 rules published by USDA to control pathogens in meat and poultry, all plants that slaughter food animals and produce raw ground meat products must meet established pathogen reduction performance standards for salmonellacontamination. The standards, which took effect in January 1998, vary by product. Plants where USDA testing indicates contamination rates are above the national standard will be required to take remedial actions.
 
 
A pathogenic, diarrhea-producing bacterium that is the leading cause of human foodborne illness among intestinal pathogens. It is commonly found in raw meats, poultry, milk, and eggs, but other foods can carry it. Under 1996 rules published by USDA to control pathogens in meat and poultry, all plants that slaughter food animals and produce raw ground meat products must meet established pathogen reduction performance standards for salmonellacontamination. The standards, which took effect in January 1998, vary by product. Plants where USDA testing indicates contamination rates are above the national standard will be required to take remedial actions.
 
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Sample]]'''
* [[Sample]]  
 
  
 
A specimen that is taken from food and tested for the purpose of identifying a foodborne pathogen or various kinds of chemical contaminants in food.
 
A specimen that is taken from food and tested for the purpose of identifying a foodborne pathogen or various kinds of chemical contaminants in food.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Sanitation]]'''
* [[Sanitation]]  
 
  
 
The act of maintaining a clean condition in a food-handling situation in order to prevent disease and other potentially harmful contaminants.
 
The act of maintaining a clean condition in a food-handling situation in order to prevent disease and other potentially harmful contaminants.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOPs)]]'''
* [[Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOPs)]]  
 
  
 
Refers to the sanitation procedures that meat and poultry plants use, both before and during production, to prevent contamination of products. Site-specific SSOPs were required to be implemented in January 1997 by all slaughter and processing plants, under the comprehensive pathogen reduction regulations issued by USDA in July 1996.
 
Refers to the sanitation procedures that meat and poultry plants use, both before and during production, to prevent contamination of products. Site-specific SSOPs were required to be implemented in January 1997 by all slaughter and processing plants, under the comprehensive pathogen reduction regulations issued by USDA in July 1996.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Sanitizer]]'''
* [[Sanitizer]]  
 
  
 
Chemical or physical agents that reduce microorganism contamination levels present on inanimate environmental surfaces.
 
Chemical or physical agents that reduce microorganism contamination levels present on inanimate environmental surfaces.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Scrapie]]'''
* [[Scrapie]]  
 
  
 
A fatal, degenerative neurological disease of sheep and goats. Belonging to a family of diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), scrapie is similar to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) (mad cow), a disease of cattle. There is no scientific evidence to indicate that scrapie poses a risk to human health. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service conducts a Scrapie Flock Certification Program to certify scrapie-free herds and a Scrapie Eradication Program to accelerate the eradication of scrapie from the United States.
 
A fatal, degenerative neurological disease of sheep and goats. Belonging to a family of diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), scrapie is similar to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) (mad cow), a disease of cattle. There is no scientific evidence to indicate that scrapie poses a risk to human health. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service conducts a Scrapie Flock Certification Program to certify scrapie-free herds and a Scrapie Eradication Program to accelerate the eradication of scrapie from the United States.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Sectioned and Formed]]'''
* [[Sectioned and Formed]]  
 
  
 
(or Chunked and Formed) A boneless ham that is made from different cuts, tumbled or massaged and reassembled into a casing or mold and fully cooked. During this process it is usually thoroughly defatted.
 
(or Chunked and Formed) A boneless ham that is made from different cuts, tumbled or massaged and reassembled into a casing or mold and fully cooked. During this process it is usually thoroughly defatted.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[“Sell By” Date]]'''
* [[“Sell By” Date]]  
 
  
 
A calendar date on the packaging of a food product that indicates the last day the product can be sold.
 
A calendar date on the packaging of a food product that indicates the last day the product can be sold.
  
 +
  
 +
* '''[[Shigella ]]'''
  
* [[Shigella ]]
+
A bacterium carried only by humans and causes an estimated 300,000 cases of diarrheal illnesses in the United States per year. Poor hygiene, especially poor hand washing, causes Shigella to be passed easily from person to person via food. Once it is in food, it multiplies rapidly at room temperature.
  
A bacterium carried only by humans and causes an estimated 300,000 cases of diarrheal illnesses in the United States per year. Poor hygiene, especially poor hand washing, causes Shigella to be passed easily from person to person via food. Once it is in food, it multiplies rapidly at room temperature.
+
  
 
+
* '''[[Shrink Wrapping]]'''
 
 
* [[Shrink Wrapping]]  
 
  
 
Plastic film that shrinks when heated, producing a tight, neat fit; the most popular form of grocery store meat packaging is PVC wrapping with foam trays.
 
Plastic film that shrinks when heated, producing a tight, neat fit; the most popular form of grocery store meat packaging is PVC wrapping with foam trays.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Smoke Flavoring]]'''
* [[Smoke Flavoring]]  
 
  
 
After curing, some hams are smoked. Smoke flavoring (or smoked) is a process by which ham is hung in a smokehouse and allowed to absorb smoke from smoldering fires. This gives added flavor and color to meat and slows the development of rancidity.
 
After curing, some hams are smoked. Smoke flavoring (or smoked) is a process by which ham is hung in a smokehouse and allowed to absorb smoke from smoldering fires. This gives added flavor and color to meat and slows the development of rancidity.
  
 +
  
 +
* '''[[Sodium Nitrite]]'''
  
* [[Sodium Nitrite]]
+
Used alone or in conjunction with sodium nitrate as a color fixative in cured meat and poultry products (bologna, hot dogs, bacon). Sodium Nitrate helps prevent the growth of Clostridium botulinum, which can cause botulism in humans.
  
Used alone or in conjunction with sodium nitrate as a color fixative in cured meat and poultry products (bologna, hot dogs, bacon). Sodium Nitrate helps prevent the growth of Clostridium botulinum, which can cause botulism in humans.
+
  
 
+
* '''[[Souse]]'''
 
 
* [[Souse]]  
 
  
 
Seasoned and chopped pork trimmings.
 
Seasoned and chopped pork trimmings.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Squab]]'''
* [[Squab]]  
 
  
 
A squab is a fledging pigeon, of either sex that has not flown yet. Effective April 26, 2001, establishments processing squabs will be inspected pursuant to the Poultry Products Inspection Act.
 
A squab is a fledging pigeon, of either sex that has not flown yet. Effective April 26, 2001, establishments processing squabs will be inspected pursuant to the Poultry Products Inspection Act.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Standards of Identity for Food]]'''
* [[Standards of Identity for Food]]  
 
  
 
Mandatory, federally-set requirements that determine what a food product must contain in order to be marketed under a certain name in interstate commerce. Mandatory standards (which differ from voluntary grades and standards applied to agricultural commodities) protect the consumer by ensuring that a label accurately reflects what is inside (for example, that “mayonnaise” is not an imitation spread, or that “ice cream” is not a similar, but different, frozen dessert).
 
Mandatory, federally-set requirements that determine what a food product must contain in order to be marketed under a certain name in interstate commerce. Mandatory standards (which differ from voluntary grades and standards applied to agricultural commodities) protect the consumer by ensuring that a label accurately reflects what is inside (for example, that “mayonnaise” is not an imitation spread, or that “ice cream” is not a similar, but different, frozen dessert).
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[State Inspection Program]]'''
* [[State Inspection Program]]  
 
  
 
Often refers to the state-run meat and poultry inspection programs to which USDA contributes 50% of the cost. State programs (about half the states use them) must be certified by USDA to be at least equal to federal inspection requirements. However, products from state-inspected plants (most of them are relatively smaller operations) cannot be sold outside of the state. Small plants and many state officials have endorsed bills in Congress that would permit state-inspected products to be sold into interstate and foreign commerce, but large meat and poultry companies (most of them already under federal inspection) generally oppose such a change.
 
Often refers to the state-run meat and poultry inspection programs to which USDA contributes 50% of the cost. State programs (about half the states use them) must be certified by USDA to be at least equal to federal inspection requirements. However, products from state-inspected plants (most of them are relatively smaller operations) cannot be sold outside of the state. Small plants and many state officials have endorsed bills in Congress that would permit state-inspected products to be sold into interstate and foreign commerce, but large meat and poultry companies (most of them already under federal inspection) generally oppose such a change.
  
 +
  
 +
* '''[[Steam Pasteurization]]'''
  
* [[Steam Pasteurization]]
+
A technology that uses heat to control or reduce harmful microorganisms in beef. This system passes freshly slaughtered beef carcasses that are already inspected, washed, and trimmed, through a chamber that exposes the beef to pressurized steam for approximately 6 to 8 seconds. The steam raises the surface temperature of the carcasses to 190° to 200° F (88° to 93° C). The carcasses are then cooled with a cold water spray. This process has proven to be successful in reducing pathogenic bacteria, such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria, without the use of any chemicals.
 
 
A technology that uses heat to control or reduce harmful microorganisms in beef. This system passes freshly slaughtered beef carcasses that are already inspected, washed, and trimmed, through a chamber that exposes the beef to pressurized steam for approximately 6 to 8 seconds. The steam raises the surface temperature of the carcasses to 190° to 200° F (88° to 93° C). The carcasses are then cooled with a cold water spray. This process has proven to be successful in reducing pathogenic bacteria, such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria, without the use of any chemicals.
 
 
 
  
 +
  
* [[Stock Recovery]]  
+
* '''[[Stock Recovery]]'''
  
 
A firm's removal or correction of product that has not been marketed or that has not left the direct control of the firm. For example, product is located on premises owned by, or under the control of, the firm, and no portion of the lot has been released for sale or use.
 
A firm's removal or correction of product that has not been marketed or that has not left the direct control of the firm. For example, product is located on premises owned by, or under the control of, the firm, and no portion of the lot has been released for sale or use.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Sugar Cured]]'''
* [[Sugar Cured]]  
 
  
 
A term that may appear on ham labels if cane or beet sugar is at least half the sweetening ingredients used and if the sugar is used in an amount sufficient to flavor and/or affect the appearance of the finished product. Most hams contain sugar in the curing mixture.
 
A term that may appear on ham labels if cane or beet sugar is at least half the sweetening ingredients used and if the sugar is used in an amount sufficient to flavor and/or affect the appearance of the finished product. Most hams contain sugar in the curing mixture.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Surveillance]]'''
* [[Surveillance]]  
 
  
 
A system of monitoring the health of the population, which is used to prevent foodborne illness outbreaks from increasing.
 
A system of monitoring the health of the population, which is used to prevent foodborne illness outbreaks from increasing.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Survey]]'''
* [[Survey]]  
 
  
 
A tool used by epidemiologists to understand the state of health of the population or to identify the source of a foodborne outbreak.
 
A tool used by epidemiologists to understand the state of health of the population or to identify the source of a foodborne outbreak.
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==T==
 
==T==
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Tallow]]'''
* [[Tallow]]  
 
  
 
The white nearly tasteless solid rendered fat of cattle and sheep used chiefly in soap, candles, and lubricants.
 
The white nearly tasteless solid rendered fat of cattle and sheep used chiefly in soap, candles, and lubricants.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Thermy! TM ]]'''
* [[Thermy! TM ]]  
 
  
 
The messenger, developed by FSIS, of a national consumer education campaign designed to promote the use of food thermometers.
 
The messenger, developed by FSIS, of a national consumer education campaign designed to promote the use of food thermometers.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Tolerance, pesticide residue]]'''
* [[Tolerance, pesticide residue]]  
 
  
 
The amount of pesticide residue allowed by regulation to remain in or on a food sold in interstate commerce. Whenever a pesticide is registered for use on a food or a feed crop, a tolerance (or exemption from the tolerance requirement) must be established. The Environmental Protection Agency establishes the tolerance levels, which are enforced by the Food and Drug Administration and verified by USDA.
 
The amount of pesticide residue allowed by regulation to remain in or on a food sold in interstate commerce. Whenever a pesticide is registered for use on a food or a feed crop, a tolerance (or exemption from the tolerance requirement) must be established. The Environmental Protection Agency establishes the tolerance levels, which are enforced by the Food and Drug Administration and verified by USDA.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)]]'''
* [[Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)]]  
 
  
 
P.L. 94-469 (October 11, 1976) authorizes the Environmental Protection Agency to regulate toxic substances (any chemical that may present a risk of unreasonable harm to man or the environment). By definition, however, the Act excludes from EPA regulation under TSCA certain substances, including pesticides (as defined by and regulated under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act), tobacco or tobacco products, and any food or food additive (as defined by and regulated under the Poultry Products Inspection Act, the Federal Meat Inspection Act, the Egg Products Inspection Act, or the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act).
 
P.L. 94-469 (October 11, 1976) authorizes the Environmental Protection Agency to regulate toxic substances (any chemical that may present a risk of unreasonable harm to man or the environment). By definition, however, the Act excludes from EPA regulation under TSCA certain substances, including pesticides (as defined by and regulated under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act), tobacco or tobacco products, and any food or food additive (as defined by and regulated under the Poultry Products Inspection Act, the Federal Meat Inspection Act, the Egg Products Inspection Act, or the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act).
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Toxin]]'''
* [[Toxin]]  
 
  
 
A poisonous substance that may be found in food.
 
A poisonous substance that may be found in food.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE)]]'''
* [[Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE)]]  
 
  
 
A family of diseases sharing some common characteristics, including a prolonged incubation period ranging from a few months to years and progressively debilitating neurological illnesses, which are always fatal. Examples of other TSEs include scrapie (sheep and goats), chronic wasting disease (deer and elk), feline spongiform encephalopathy (cats), kuru (humans), Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (humans), and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (humans).
 
A family of diseases sharing some common characteristics, including a prolonged incubation period ranging from a few months to years and progressively debilitating neurological illnesses, which are always fatal. Examples of other TSEs include scrapie (sheep and goats), chronic wasting disease (deer and elk), feline spongiform encephalopathy (cats), kuru (humans), Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (humans), and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (humans).
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Transparency]]'''
* [[Transparency]]  
 
  
 
A World Trade Organization principle stipulating that a country’s policies and regulations affecting foreign trade should be clearly communicated to its trading partners. For example, out of recognition that sanitary and phytosanitary measures may (sometimes deliberately) be unclear, arbitrary, or capricious, recent international trading agreements have provisions calling on countries to notify others, in advance, about any measures that could affect trade, to explain them fully, and to provide a means for commenting on them.
 
A World Trade Organization principle stipulating that a country’s policies and regulations affecting foreign trade should be clearly communicated to its trading partners. For example, out of recognition that sanitary and phytosanitary measures may (sometimes deliberately) be unclear, arbitrary, or capricious, recent international trading agreements have provisions calling on countries to notify others, in advance, about any measures that could affect trade, to explain them fully, and to provide a means for commenting on them.
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==U==
 
==U==
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[United States Code (USC)]]'''
* [[United States Code (USC)]]  
 
  
 
The consolidation and codification of all the general and permanent laws of the United States. The U.S. Code is divided into 50 titles that represent broad subject areas. Title 7 is Agriculture. Each title is divided into chapters followed by subdivisions into parts covering specific areas. For example, 7 USC Chapter 45 Subchapter III deals with the Conservation Reserve Program. Regulations issued to administer the laws are first published in the Federal Register and then in the Code of Federal Regulations.
 
The consolidation and codification of all the general and permanent laws of the United States. The U.S. Code is divided into 50 titles that represent broad subject areas. Title 7 is Agriculture. Each title is divided into chapters followed by subdivisions into parts covering specific areas. For example, 7 USC Chapter 45 Subchapter III deals with the Conservation Reserve Program. Regulations issued to administer the laws are first published in the Federal Register and then in the Code of Federal Regulations.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[U.S. Condemned]]'''
* [[U.S. Condemned]]  
 
  
 
This term means that the livestock so identified has been inspected and found to be in a dying condition, or to be affected with any other condition or disease that would require condemnation of its carcass.
 
This term means that the livestock so identified has been inspected and found to be in a dying condition, or to be affected with any other condition or disease that would require condemnation of its carcass.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[U.S. Passed for Cooking]]'''
* [[U.S. Passed for Cooking]]  
 
  
 
This term means that the meat or meat byproduct so identified has been inspected and passed on condition that it be cooked.
 
This term means that the meat or meat byproduct so identified has been inspected and passed on condition that it be cooked.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[U.S. Passed for Refrigeration]]'''
* [[U.S. Passed for Refrigeration]]  
 
  
 
This term means that the meat or meat byproduct so identified has been inspected and passed on condition that it be refrigerated.
 
This term means that the meat or meat byproduct so identified has been inspected and passed on condition that it be refrigerated.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[U.S. Retained]]'''
* [[U.S. Retained]]  
 
  
 
This term means that the carcass, viscera, other part of carcass, or other product, or article so identified is held for further examination by an inspector to determine its disposal.
 
This term means that the carcass, viscera, other part of carcass, or other product, or article so identified is held for further examination by an inspector to determine its disposal.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[U.S. Suspect]]'''
* [[U.S. Suspect]]  
 
  
 
This term means that the livestock so identified is suspected of being affected with a disease or condition which may require its condemnation, in whole or in part, when slaughtered, and is subject to further examination by an inspector to determine its disposal.
 
This term means that the livestock so identified is suspected of being affected with a disease or condition which may require its condemnation, in whole or in part, when slaughtered, and is subject to further examination by an inspector to determine its disposal.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[USDA]]'''
* [[USDA]]  
 
  
 
U.S. Department of Agriculture. The department of the Federal government responsible for enhancing the quality of life for the American people by supporting the production of Agriculture. This mission is achieved through: 1) ensuring a safe, affordable, nutritious and accessible food supply; 2) caring for agricultural, forests, and range lands; 3) supporting sound development of rural communities; 4) providing economic opportunities for farm and rural residents; 5) expanding global markets for agricultural and forest products and services; and 6) working to reduce hunger in America and throughout the world.
 
U.S. Department of Agriculture. The department of the Federal government responsible for enhancing the quality of life for the American people by supporting the production of Agriculture. This mission is achieved through: 1) ensuring a safe, affordable, nutritious and accessible food supply; 2) caring for agricultural, forests, and range lands; 3) supporting sound development of rural communities; 4) providing economic opportunities for farm and rural residents; 5) expanding global markets for agricultural and forest products and services; and 6) working to reduce hunger in America and throughout the world.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[USDA Homeland Security Council]]'''
* [[USDA Homeland Security Council]]  
 
  
 
The USDA Homeland Security Council is an internal organization designed to work in partnership with the Office of Homeland Security, the National Security Council, and other Departments. The Council is responsible for establishing overall USDA Homeland Security policy, coordinating department- wide homeland security issues, tracking USDA progress on homeland security objectives, and appointing a representative to interagency or other external groups. The Council also ensures that information, research, and resources are shared and activities are coordinated with other Federal agencies.
 
The USDA Homeland Security Council is an internal organization designed to work in partnership with the Office of Homeland Security, the National Security Council, and other Departments. The Council is responsible for establishing overall USDA Homeland Security policy, coordinating department- wide homeland security issues, tracking USDA progress on homeland security objectives, and appointing a representative to interagency or other external groups. The Council also ensures that information, research, and resources are shared and activities are coordinated with other Federal agencies.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[User Fees]]'''
* [[User Fees]]  
 
  
 
Any of various charges and assessments levied on a specifically delineated group that is directly subject to a particular government service, program, or activity; such fees are not levied on the general public. User fees are intended to be used solely to support that service, program, or activity. For example, about 75% of the $225 million budget of the Agricultural Marketing Service, which provides a variety of inspection and grading, market news reporting, and other services to the agricultural community, comes from user fees; the other 25% is appropriated funds. Similarly, grain inspection is paid for through user fees.
 
Any of various charges and assessments levied on a specifically delineated group that is directly subject to a particular government service, program, or activity; such fees are not levied on the general public. User fees are intended to be used solely to support that service, program, or activity. For example, about 75% of the $225 million budget of the Agricultural Marketing Service, which provides a variety of inspection and grading, market news reporting, and other services to the agricultural community, comes from user fees; the other 25% is appropriated funds. Similarly, grain inspection is paid for through user fees.
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==V==
 
==V==
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Vacuum Packaging]]'''
* [[Vacuum Packaging]]  
 
  
 
Rigid or flexible containers from which substantially all air has been removed before sealing. Carbon dioxide or nitrogen may be introduced into the container. This process prolongs shelf life, preserves the flavors and retards bacterial growth.
 
Rigid or flexible containers from which substantially all air has been removed before sealing. Carbon dioxide or nitrogen may be introduced into the container. This process prolongs shelf life, preserves the flavors and retards bacterial growth.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD)]]'''
* [[Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD)]]  
 
  
 
vCJD is a variant of the most commonly identified TSE in humans, classic (sporadic) Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD). Scientific evidence supports a causal relationship between BSE outbreaks in Europe and vCJD. The disease vCJD is most likely caused by the ingestion of products contaminated with the BSE agent. There has never been a case of vCJD that did not have a history of exposure within a country where BSE was occurring. Patients with vCJD have primarily been younger and exhibit clinical signs of the disease longer than patients with classic CJD.
 
vCJD is a variant of the most commonly identified TSE in humans, classic (sporadic) Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD). Scientific evidence supports a causal relationship between BSE outbreaks in Europe and vCJD. The disease vCJD is most likely caused by the ingestion of products contaminated with the BSE agent. There has never been a case of vCJD that did not have a history of exposure within a country where BSE was occurring. Patients with vCJD have primarily been younger and exhibit clinical signs of the disease longer than patients with classic CJD.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Veal]]'''
* [[Veal]]  
 
  
 
The meat from a calf or young beef animal. Male dairy calves are used in the veal industry. Dairy cows must give birth to continue producing milk, but male dairy calves are of little or no value to the dairy farmer. A small percentage are raised to maturity and used for breeding.
 
The meat from a calf or young beef animal. Male dairy calves are used in the veal industry. Dairy cows must give birth to continue producing milk, but male dairy calves are of little or no value to the dairy farmer. A small percentage are raised to maturity and used for breeding.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Veal Calf]]'''
* [[Veal Calf]]  
 
  
 
A calf is a young bovine of either sex that has not reached puberty (up to about nine months of age), and has a maximum live weight of 750 pounds.
 
A calf is a young bovine of either sex that has not reached puberty (up to about nine months of age), and has a maximum live weight of 750 pounds.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Veal, “Bob]]'''
* [[Veal, “Bob]]  
 
  
 
About fifteen percent of veal calves are marketed up to three weeks of age or at a weight of 150 pounds. These are called Bob Calves.
 
About fifteen percent of veal calves are marketed up to three weeks of age or at a weight of 150 pounds. These are called Bob Calves.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Veal, “Special-Fed]]'''
* [[Veal, “Special-Fed]]  
 
  
 
The majority of veal calves are “special-fed.” A veal calf is raised until about 16 to 18 weeks of age, weighing up to 450 pounds. They are raised in specially designed facilities where they can be cared for and monitored. Special, milk fed, and formula fed are the names given to nutritionally balanced milk or soy based diets fed to calves. These diets contain iron and 40 other essential nutrients, including amino acids, carbohydrates, fats, minerals and vitamins.
 
The majority of veal calves are “special-fed.” A veal calf is raised until about 16 to 18 weeks of age, weighing up to 450 pounds. They are raised in specially designed facilities where they can be cared for and monitored. Special, milk fed, and formula fed are the names given to nutritionally balanced milk or soy based diets fed to calves. These diets contain iron and 40 other essential nutrients, including amino acids, carbohydrates, fats, minerals and vitamins.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Verification]]'''
* [[Verification]]  
 
  
 
The use of methods, procedures, or tests by supervisors, designated personnel, or regulators to determine if the food safety system based on the HACCP principles is working to control identified hazards or if modifications need to be made.
 
The use of methods, procedures, or tests by supervisors, designated personnel, or regulators to determine if the food safety system based on the HACCP principles is working to control identified hazards or if modifications need to be made.
  
* [[Vertical Coordination]]  
+
* '''[[Vertical Coordination]]'''
  
 
The process of ensuring that each successive stage in the production, processing, and marketing of a product is appropriately managed and interrelated to the next, so that decisions about what to produce, and how much, are communicated as efficiently as possible from the consumer to the producer. Agricultural economists believe that vertical coordination of markets is particularly important in the food industry because of its complexity, the large number of firms that participate in one or more stages, and the relative perishability of the products involved. Vertical integration is a type of vertical coordination, but the latter does not necessarily require that a single organization own or control all of the stages. For example, the use of contracts and marketing agreements between buyers and sellers, and the availability of timely, accurate price and other market information are methods for achieving vertical coordination.
 
The process of ensuring that each successive stage in the production, processing, and marketing of a product is appropriately managed and interrelated to the next, so that decisions about what to produce, and how much, are communicated as efficiently as possible from the consumer to the producer. Agricultural economists believe that vertical coordination of markets is particularly important in the food industry because of its complexity, the large number of firms that participate in one or more stages, and the relative perishability of the products involved. Vertical integration is a type of vertical coordination, but the latter does not necessarily require that a single organization own or control all of the stages. For example, the use of contracts and marketing agreements between buyers and sellers, and the availability of timely, accurate price and other market information are methods for achieving vertical coordination.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Vertical Integration]]'''
* [[Vertical Integration]]  
 
  
 
The integrating of successive stages of the production and marketing functions under the ownership or control of a single management organization. For example, much of the broiler industry is highly vertically integrated in that processing companies own or control the activities from production and hatching of eggs, through the growth and feeding of the chickens, to slaughter, processing, and wholesale marketing.
 
The integrating of successive stages of the production and marketing functions under the ownership or control of a single management organization. For example, much of the broiler industry is highly vertically integrated in that processing companies own or control the activities from production and hatching of eggs, through the growth and feeding of the chickens, to slaughter, processing, and wholesale marketing.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Veterinary Biologics]]'''
* [[Veterinary Biologics]]  
 
  
 
Vaccines, antigens, antitoxins and other preparations made from living organisms (or genetically engineered) and intended for use in diagnosing, treating, or immunizing animals. Unlike some pharmaceutical products, such as antibiotics, most biologics leave no residues in animals. Veterinary biologics are regulated by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, which licenses the facilities that produce them and conducts a program to ensure that animal vaccines and other veterinary biologics are safe, pure, potent, and effective.
 
Vaccines, antigens, antitoxins and other preparations made from living organisms (or genetically engineered) and intended for use in diagnosing, treating, or immunizing animals. Unlike some pharmaceutical products, such as antibiotics, most biologics leave no residues in animals. Veterinary biologics are regulated by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, which licenses the facilities that produce them and conducts a program to ensure that animal vaccines and other veterinary biologics are safe, pure, potent, and effective.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Veterinary Equivalency]]'''
* [[Veterinary Equivalency]]  
 
  
 
The mutual recognition by two or more countries that each party's safety and sanitation standards for animal products, even where not identical, provide an equivalent level of protection to public and animal health. Aimed at facilitating trade, the practical effect of veterinary equivalency is that each country's individual products and facilities will not have to submit to the separate standards of importing countries and to cumbersome and costly inspections by foreign reviewers. Veterinary equivalency has been a contentious issue for the United States and European Union (EU); the two parties in 1997 agreed in principle to an agreement recognizing each other's standards.
 
The mutual recognition by two or more countries that each party's safety and sanitation standards for animal products, even where not identical, provide an equivalent level of protection to public and animal health. Aimed at facilitating trade, the practical effect of veterinary equivalency is that each country's individual products and facilities will not have to submit to the separate standards of importing countries and to cumbersome and costly inspections by foreign reviewers. Veterinary equivalency has been a contentious issue for the United States and European Union (EU); the two parties in 1997 agreed in principle to an agreement recognizing each other's standards.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Viscus (Plural, viscera)]]'''
* [[Viscus (Plural, viscera)]]  
 
  
 
An internal organ of a human or animal.
 
An internal organ of a human or animal.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Voluntary Inspection]]'''
* [[Voluntary Inspection]]  
 
  
 
Under the authority of the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, as amended (7 U.S.C. 1621 et seq.), FSIS provides voluntary inspection of exotic animal products. Voluntary inspection is conducted by USDA inspectors who must have knowledge about each particular species they inspect. Under the FSIS voluntary inspection program, establishments are required to pay a fee for inspection services.
 
Under the authority of the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, as amended (7 U.S.C. 1621 et seq.), FSIS provides voluntary inspection of exotic animal products. Voluntary inspection is conducted by USDA inspectors who must have knowledge about each particular species they inspect. Under the FSIS voluntary inspection program, establishments are required to pay a fee for inspection services.
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==W==
 
==W==
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Westphalian Ham]]'''
* [[Westphalian Ham]]  
 
  
 
A German-style dry cured ham that is similar to Prosciutto; smoked, sometimes with juniper berries. Also called Westfalischer Schinken.
 
A German-style dry cured ham that is similar to Prosciutto; smoked, sometimes with juniper berries. Also called Westfalischer Schinken.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Withdrawal Time]]'''
* [[Withdrawal Time]]  
 
  
 
A “withdrawal” period is required from the time antibiotics are administered until it is legal to slaughter the animal. This is so residues can exit the animal's system.
 
A “withdrawal” period is required from the time antibiotics are administered until it is legal to slaughter the animal. This is so residues can exit the animal's system.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[World Trade Organization (WTO)]]'''
* [[World Trade Organization (WTO)]]  
 
  
 
The international organization established by the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations to oversee implementation of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the agreements arising from the Uruguay Round, including the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture.
 
The international organization established by the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations to oversee implementation of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the agreements arising from the Uruguay Round, including the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture.
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==Y==
 
==Y==
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Yearling Turkey]]'''
* [[Yearling Turkey]]  
 
  
 
A fully matured turkey, usually under 15 months of age that is reasonably tender-meated and with reasonably smooth-textured skin.
 
A fully matured turkey, usually under 15 months of age that is reasonably tender-meated and with reasonably smooth-textured skin.
  
 +
  
 +
* '''[[Yersinia enterocolita ]]'''
  
* [[Yersinia enterocolita ]]
+
A pathogen which causes yersiniosis, a disease characterized by diarrhea and/or vomiting. Yersinia is found in raw meat, seafood, dairy products, produce, and untreated water.
 
 
A pathogen which causes yersiniosis, a disease characterized by diarrhea and/or vomiting. Yersinia is found in raw meat, seafood, dairy products, produce, and untreated water.
 
 
 
  
 +
  
* [[Young Turkey]]  
+
* '''[[Young Turkey]]'''
  
 
A turkey, usually under eight months of age, that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin, and breastbone cartilage that is somewhat less flexible than in a fryer-roaster turkey.
 
A turkey, usually under eight months of age, that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin, and breastbone cartilage that is somewhat less flexible than in a fryer-roaster turkey.
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==Z==
 
==Z==
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Zero Tolerance]]'''
* [[Zero Tolerance]]  
 
  
 
In food safety policy, a “zero tolerance” standard generally means that if a potentially dangerous substance (whether microbiological, chemical, or other) is present in or on a product, that product will be considered adulterated and unfit for human consumption. In the meat and poultry inspection program, “zero tolerance” usually refers to USDA’s rule that permits no visible signs of fecal contamination (feces) on meat and poultry carcasses.
 
In food safety policy, a “zero tolerance” standard generally means that if a potentially dangerous substance (whether microbiological, chemical, or other) is present in or on a product, that product will be considered adulterated and unfit for human consumption. In the meat and poultry inspection program, “zero tolerance” usually refers to USDA’s rule that permits no visible signs of fecal contamination (feces) on meat and poultry carcasses.
  
 +
  
 
+
* '''[[Zoonotic Diseases]]'''
* [[Zoonotic Diseases]]  
 
  
 
Diseases that under natural conditions are communicable from animals to humans. Anthrax, Brucellosis, Psittacosis, Rabies, Tuberculosis, and Tularemia are example of zoonotic diseases. Brucellosis in livestock becomes undulant fever in humans.
 
Diseases that under natural conditions are communicable from animals to humans. Anthrax, Brucellosis, Psittacosis, Rabies, Tuberculosis, and Tularemia are example of zoonotic diseases. Brucellosis in livestock becomes undulant fever in humans.
  
 
{{catz}}
 
{{catz}}

Latest revision as of 15:14, 14 July 2019

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#-9

None

A

Material within a package which absorbs liquids from product; pad in meat trays is made from paper and has a plastic liner.


An estimate by the Joint Food and Agricultural Organization (United Nations)/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) of the amount of a veterinary drug, expressed on a body weight basis, that can be ingested daily over a lifetime without appreciable health risk (standard man=60 kg).


The Accredited Laboratory Program accredits nonfederal analytical chemistry laboratories to analyze meat and poultry food products for moisture, protein, fat, and salt (MPFS) content, and/or certain specific classes of chemical residues. Currently the specific chemical residues are chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), sulfonamides, nitrosamines, and arsenic.


A list of popular acronyms used widely by and within FSIS.


Product derived from AMR systems is defined as “meat.” AMR is a process that uses machinery to separate edible meat from bones by scraping, shaving, or pressing the meat from the bone. AMR machinery is not permitted to break, grind, crush, or pulverize bones to separate meat, and bones must emerge intact and in natural physical conformation. Meat produced using this method is comparable in appearance, texture, and composition to meat trimmings and similar meat products derived by hand trimming of bones. Product derived from AMR systems cannot contain spinal cord tissue. FSIS verifies that establishments using AMR systems do not incorporate spinal cord tissue into the products as a consequence of the pressure used to force meat tissue from the bone. Questionable products may be sampled by FSIS for analytical testing for the presence of spinal cord.


Generally, impure, unsafe, or unwholesome; however, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the Federal Meat Inspection Act, the Poultry Products Inspection Act, and the Egg Products Inspection Act contain separate language defining in very specific (and lengthy) terms how the term “adulterated” will be applied to the foods each of these laws regulates. Products found to be adulterated under these laws cannot enter into commerce for human food use.


see Dry Aged.


USDA agency that establishes standards for grades of cotton, tobacco, meat, dairy products, eggs, fruits, and vegetables. It also operates inspection, grading, and market news services, and provides supervisory administration for federal marketing orders.


USDA agency employing federal scientists to conduct basic,applied, and developmental research in the following fields: livestock; plants; soil, water and air quality; energy; food safety and quality; nutrition; food processing, storage, and distribution efficiency; non-food agricultural products; and international development.


Animals subject to the Federal Meat Inspection Act or the Poultry Products Inspection Act’s mandatory inspection requirements. USDA exempts from its inspection foods containing three percent or less raw (or less than two percent cooked) red meat or other edible portions of a carcass, or products which historically have not been considered by consumers as products of the meat industry. For poultry products, see 9 CFR §381.15.


USDA agency established to conduct inspections and regulatory and control programs to protect animal and plant health. It utilizes border inspections to prevent international transmission of pests and disease, administers quarantine and eradication programs, and certifies that U.S. exports meet importing countries’ animal and plant health standards.


The Animal Disposition Reporting System contains slaughter totals and disposition summaries for federally inspected livestock and poultry slaughter establishments. Each animal carcass is inspected for diseases and other conditions, which if present, may result in the animal being condemned as unfit for human consumption. If a carcass is condemned, the reason for condemnation, also referred to as the disposition, is recorded in the ADRS database.


Drugs intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in animals. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the broad mandate under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act to assure the safety and effectiveness of animal drugs and their use in all animals, including farm animals. Before FDA formally approves an animal drug, the sponsor or manufacturer of the drug must show in its premarket approval application that the drug is “safe and effective” in scientific testing. Such testing data, included with the application, must demonstrate a methodology to detect and measure any residue left in edible animal products and show that edible animal products when ready-to-eat are free from unsafe residues. Farmers and veterinarians treating farm animals must adhere to any restrictions about withdrawal times, or any warning or use constraints stated on the drug label.


Any article intended for use as food for dogs, cats, or other animals derived wholly, or in part, from the carcass or parts or products of the carcass of any livestock, except that the term animal food as used herein does not include:

Processed dry animal food or

Livestock or poultry feeds manufactured from processed livestock byproducts (such as meatmeal tankage, meat and bonemeal, bloodmeal, and feed grade animal fat).


Any person engaged in the business of manufacturing or processing animal food.


Currently, the private marketing system, assisted by computerization of records, generally can trace products back to their original suppliers, although not necessarily all the way to the farm. It has been suggested that a type of traceback program might be formalized to monitor and contain outbreaks of foodborne illness better. USDA has called “animal identification” an important element of any traceback system. Many livestock producers currently identify their animals using backtags, ear tags, tattoos, and other devices, so incorporating animal identification into a traceback program might not be difficult.


Advance notice of proposed rulemaking.


As used in the meat and poultry inspection program, the term refers to the examination that USDA meat and poultry inspectors are required to conduct of all live animals prior to slaughter.


A disease of mammals and humans caused by a spore-forming bacterium called Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax has an almost worldwide distribution and is a zoonotic disease, meaning it may spread from animals to humans. All mammals appear to be susceptible to anthrax to some degree, but ruminants such as cattle, sheep, and goats are the most susceptible and commonly affected, followed by horses, and then swine.


Chemical substances produced by microorganisms or synthetically that inhibit the growth of, or destroy, bacteria. Rules guiding the use of veterinary drugs and medicated animal feeds, including tolerance levels for drug residues in meats for human consumption, are set by the Center for Veterinary Medicine of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) enforces the FDA rules through a sampling and testing program that is part of its overall meat and poultry inspection program.


Public health action plan developed by an Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance that was created in 1999 to combat antimicrobial resistance. The task force is co-chaired by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Food and Drug Administration, National Institutes of Health, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Department of Defense, Department of Veterans Affairs, Environmental Protection Agency, and Health Resources and Services Administration.


Bacteria and other disease-causing organisms have a remarkable ability to mutate and acquire resistance genes from other organisms and thereby develop resistance to antimicrobial drugs. When an antimicrobial drug is used, the selective pressure exerted by the drug favors the growth of organisms that are resistant to the drug's action.


Substance added to food to prevent the oxygen present in the air from causing undesirable changes in flavor color. BHA, BHT, and tocopherols are examples of antioxidants.


A coloring containing any dye or pigment manufactured by a process of synthesis or other similar artifice, or a coloring which was manufactured by extracting naturally produced dyes or pigments from a plant or other material.


Artificial flavors are restricted to an ingredient which was manufactured by a process of synthesis or similar process. The principal components of artificial flavors usually are esters, ketones, and aldehyde groups. These ingredients are declared in the ingredients statement as “Artificial Flavors” without naming the individual components. See 9 CFR 317.2(j)(3) and 381.119.


Technique for creating a shelf-stable container by placing a commercially sterile product into a commercially sterile container in a commercially sterile environment. The sealed container is designed to maintain product sterility until the seal is broken.


A centralized FSIS database that stores inspection results and provides a record of how each exporting country maintains inspection controls.

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B

The cured belly of a swine carcass. If meat from other portions of the carcass is used, the product name must be qualified to identify the portions, e.g., “Pork Shoulder Bacon.” “Certified” refers to products that have been treated for trichinae.

Living single-cell organisms. Bacteria can be carried by water, wind, insects, plants, animals, and people and survive well on skin and clothes and in human hair. They also thrive in scabs, scars, the mouth, nose, throat, intestines, and room-temperature foods. Often bacteria are maligned as the causes of human and animal disease, but there are certain types which are beneficial for all types of living matter.

To moisten meat or other food while cooking. Melted butter or other fat, meat drippings, or liquid such as stock is spooned or brushed on food as it cooks to moisten it.

Bone-in poultry products that are injected or marinated with a solution containing butter or other edible fat, broth, stock or water plus spices, flavor enhancers and other approved substances must be labeled as basted or self basted. The maximum added weight of approximately 3% solution before processing is included in the net weight on the label. Label must include a statement identifying the total quantity and common or usual name of all ingredients in the solution, e.g., “Injected with approximately 3% of a solution of ____________ (list of ingredients).” Use of terms “basted” or “self-basted” on boneless poultry products is limited to 8% of the weight of the raw poultry before processing.

Meat from full-grown cattle about two years old. “Baby beef” and “calf” are interchangeable terms used to describe young cattle weighing about 700 pounds that have been raised mainly on milk and grass.

“Beef Patties” shall consist of chopped fresh and/or frozen beef with or without the addition of beef fat and/or seasonings.

Hard fat from kidneys and loin, mainly used for tallow. May be labeled as “Beef Fat” or “Beef Suet.”

Biosecurity refers to policies and measures taken to protect this nation’s food supply and agricultural resources from both accidental contamination and deliberate attacks of bioterrorism. Now viewed as an emerging threat, bioterrorism might include such acts as introducing pests intended to kill U.S. food crops; spreading a virulent disease among animal production facilities; and poisoning air, water, food, and blood supplies. The federal government is now increasing its efforts to improve biosecurity to lessen the vulnerabilities to bioterrorism threats.

Agricultural biotechnology is a collection of scientific techniques, including genetic engineering, that are used to create, improve, or modify plants, animals, and microorganisms. Using conventional techniques, such as selective breeding, scientists have been working to improve plants and animals for human benefit for hundreds of years. Modern techniques now enable scientists to move genes (and therefore desirable traits) in ways they could not before - and with greater ease and precision.

Intentional use of biological agents or toxins to cause a public health emergency or to threaten the integrity of the food and agricultural system.

The National Bison Association encourages the name bison to differentiate the American buffalo from the Asian Water buffalo and African Cape buffalo. The American buffalo is not a true buffalo. Its scientific name is Bison and it belongs to the bovine family along with domestic cattle.

A rare but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. There are three main kinds of botulism, one of which is foodborne botulism caused by eating foods that contain the botulism toxin. Foodborne botulism can be especially dangerous because many people can be poisoned by eating a contaminated food. All forms of botulism can be fatal and are considered medical emergencies. Good supportive care in a hospital is the mainstay of therapy for all forms of botulism.

Commonly known as “mad cow disease,” BSE is a slowly progressive, incurable disease affecting the central nervous system of cattle, first diagnosed in the United Kingdom in 1986. BSE belongs to a family of diseases known as the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Consumption by cattle of animal feed containing TSE-contaminated ruminant protein has been cited as one possible means of transmission. Scientific evidence supports a causal relationship between BSE outbreaks in Europe and more than 120 recent European cases of a human TSE, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD). TSE animal diseases are found in the United States, including scrapie in sheep and goats and chronic wasting disease in deer and elk. Since 1989, USDA has prohibited the importation of live ruminants from countries where BSE is known to exist in native cattle. In 1997, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prohibited the use of most mammalian protein in ruminant feeds.

(Verb) To treat with or steep in brine. (Noun) A strong solution of water and salt, and a sweetener such as sugar, molasses, honey, or corn syrup may be added to the solution for flavor and to improve browning.

Brine curing (or wet curing) is the most popular way of producing hams. It is a wet cure whereby fresh meat is injected with a curing solution before cooking. Brining ingredients can be salt, sugar, sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate, sodium erythorbate, sodium phosphate, potassium chloride, water and flavorings. Smoke flavoring (liquid smoke) may also be injected with brine solution. Cooking may occur during this process.

A broiler or fryer is a young chicken, usually under 13 weeks of age, of either sex, that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin and flexible breastbone cartilage.

See Meat Byproduct.

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Campylobacter is a bacterium that is commonly found in the intestinal tracts of cats, dogs, poultry, cattle, swine, rodents, monkeys, wild birds, and some humans. The bacteria pass through feces to cycle through the environment and are also in untreated water.  Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni), the strain associated with most reported human infections, may be present in the body without causing illness.


A diarrheal disease often caused by the type of bacteria known as Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) associated with poultry, raw milk, and water. There are an estimated 2.5 million cases annually in the United States with 200 to 730 deaths. Campylobacteriosis has been linked to Guillain-Barre syndrome (a disease which paralyzes limbs and breathing muscles) as well as Epstein-Barr, Cytomegalovirus, and other viruses. USDA has estimated that this disease costs the United States between $1.2 to $1.4 billion annually in medical costs, productivity losses, and residential care.


A receptacle generally having less than 10 gallon capacity (consumer or institutional sizes); also means to pack a product in a can or a wide-mouth glass container for processing, shipping or storage.


Boneless pork shoulder butts which are dry cured; not necessarily cooked.


A surgically unsexed male chicken, usually under eight months of age, that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin.


An instrument used to stun cattle prior to slaughter. The bolt is driven into the animal’s brain, rendering it unconscious.


All parts of any slaughtered livestock.


A membranous case for processed meat.


The agency within the Food and Drug Administration responsible for developing and overseeing enforcement of food safety and quality regulations. CFSAN coordinates surveillance and compliance with FDA and other states’ surveillance and compliance programs. FDA's roughly 800 field inspectors (located administratively within FDA's Office of Regulatory Affairs)enforce CFSAN's food safety regulations at 53,000 processing facilities.


An agency within the Food and Drug Administration that is responsible for assuring that all animal drugs, feeds (including pet foods), and veterinary devices are safe for animals, properly labeled, and produce no human health hazards when used in food-producing animals.


An agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that monitors and investigates food borne disease outbreaks and compiles baseline data against which to measure the success of changes in food safety programs.


The term “certified” implies that the USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service and the Agriculture Marketing Service have officially evaluated a meat product for class, grade, or other quality characteristics (e.g., “Certified Angus Beef”). When used under other circumstances, the term must be closely associated with the name of the organization responsible for the “certification”process, e.g., “XYZ Company’s Certified Beef.”


Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of deer and elk. To date, this disease has been found only in cervids (members of the deer family) in North America. First recognized as a clinical "wasting" syndrome in 1967 in mule deer in a wildlife research facility in northern Colorado, it was identified as a TSE in 1978. CWD is typified by chronic weight loss leading to death. There is no known relationship between CWD and any other TSE of animals or people.


Any chemical that, when added to a meat or meat food product, tends to prevent or retard deterioration thereof, but does not include common salt, sugars, vinegars, spices, or oils extracted from spices or substances added to meat and meat food products by exposure to wood smoke.


Goat meat used for food.


An acceptable name to denote a short, usually plump meat food product, unsliced in casing.


The name of a group of bacteria commonly found in soil. These rod-shaped organisms grow best in low oxygen conditions. The bacteria form spores which allow them to survive in a dormant state until exposed to conditions that can support their growth. Clostridium botulinum is the bacterium that produces the nerve toxin that causes botulism.


A mature male chicken with coarse skin, toughened and darkened meat, and hardened breastbone tip.


The codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the Executive departments and agencies of the federal government. The Code is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to regulation. Most regulations directly related to agriculture are in Title 7. Each title is divided into chapters that usually bear the name of the issuing agency, followed by subdivisions into parts covering specific regulatory areas. Title 9, Chapter III covers the Food Safety and Inspection Service.


A joint commission of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization, comprised of some 146 member countries, created in 1962 to ensure consumer food safety, establish fair practices in food trade, and promote the development of international food standards. The Commission drafts nonbinding standards for food additives, veterinary drugs, pesticide residues, and other substances that affect consumer food safety. It publishes these standards in a listing called the “Codex Alimentarius.”


The Consumer Safety Officer (CSO), a professional position created by FSIS in 2001, serves as a representative of a district office within the agency. The CSO’s duties include focusing on in-plant inspection activities, serving on in-depth verification reviews, investigations, and other Agency reviews to assess the effectiveness of a plant’s food safety control systems. In addition, a key responsibility of the CSO will be to assist with activities associated with the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA) which supports in-plant food safety inspection activities and helps small and very small establishments identify resources for the design and implementation of HACCP plans, SSOPs, E. colitesting plans, and microbiological control strategies.


USDA's meat and poultry inspection system is often called “continuous” because no animal destined for human food may be slaughtered or dressed unless an inspector is present to examine it before slaughter (antemortem inspection), and its carcass and parts after slaughter (postmortem inspection). In processing plants, as opposed to slaughter plants, inspectors need not be present at all times, but they do visit at least once daily. Processing inspection is also considered continuous.


Packaging method in which selected atmospheric concentrations of gases are maintained throughout storage in order to extend product shelf life. Gas may either be evacuated or introduced to achieve the desired atmosphere. Normally used for fruits and vegetables, not meat products.


Corning is a form of curing one of the several less-tender cuts of beef like the brisket, rump or round. It has nothing to do with corn. The name comes from Anglo-Saxon times before refrigeration. In those days, the meat was dry-cured in coarse “corns” of salt. Pellets of salt, some the size of kernels of corn, were rubbed into the beef to keep it from spoiling and to preserve it. Today, brining has replaced the dry salt cure, but the name “corned beef” is still used, rather than “brined” or “pickled” beef. Commonly used spices that give corned beef its distinctive flavor are peppercorns and bay leaf.


A Rock Cornish game hen or Cornish game hen is a young immature chicken (usually five to six weeks of age) weighing not more than two pounds ready-to-cook weight, which was prepared from a Cornish chicken or the progeny of a Cornish chicken crossed with another breed of chicken.


A Rock Cornish fryer, roaster, or hen is the progeny of a cross between a purebred Cornish and a purebred Rock chicken, without regard to the weight of the carcass involved; however, the term “fryer,” “roaster,” or “hen” shall apply only if the carcasses are from birds with ages and characteristics of a “broiler or fryer” or “roaster or roasting chicken.”


A ham made from the shoulder butt end.


Uncooked, cured, dried, smoked-or-unsmoked meat products made from a single piece of meat from the hind leg of a hog or from a single piece of meat from a pork shoulder.


Under Section 304 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, most products entering the United States must be clearly marked so that the “ultimate purchaser” can identify the country of origin. Imported meat products are subject to this requirement: imported carcasses and parts of carcasses must be labeled, and individual retail (consumer-ready) packages also must be labeled. Imported carcasses or parts generally go to U.S. plants for further processing. The labeling policy considers these plants as the “ultimate purchasers.” Therefore, any products these plants make from the imported meat (for example, ground beef patties made in the United States from beef that originated in Canada or elsewhere) do not have to bear country-of-origin labels. A number of other agricultural articles are exempt from the basic country-of-origin labeling requirements: eggs, livestock and other animals, live or dead; and other “natural products” such as fruits, vegetables, nuts and berries. (However, the outermost containers used to bring these articles into the United States must indicate the country of origin.) On May 13, 2002, President Bush signed into law the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, which requires beef, lamb, pork, farm-raised fish, wild fish, perishable agricultural commodities, and peanuts to bear Country-of-origin labeling at the point of retail sale.


A sporadic and rare, but fatal human disease that usually strikes people over 65. It occurs worldwide at an estimated rate of one case per million population. About 10-15% of CJD cases are inherited. A small number of cases occurred as the result of various medical treatments or procedures which inadvertently transferred the CJD agent. In March 1996, the British government announced a possible link between bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and CJD. The announcement was prompted by the discovery of several atypical cases of CJD in Great Britain.


An operation (practice, procedure, process, or location) at or by which preventive or control measures can be exercised that will eliminate, prevent, or minimize one or more hazards. Critical control points are fundamental to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems.


The transfer of harmful substances or disease-causing microorganisms to food by hands, food-contact surfaces, sponges, cloth towels and utensils that touch raw food, are not cleaned, and then touch ready-to-eat foods. Cross contamination can also occur when raw food touches or drips onto cooked or ready-to-eat foods.


A chemical agent placed in or on meat or poultry for use in preservation, flavor, or color.


Curing is the addition of salt, sodium nitrate (or saltpeter), nitrites and sometimes sugars, seasonings, phosphates and ascorbates to pork for preservation, color development and flavor enhancement.


Custom exempt establishments are slaughter and processing establishments which are not subject to the routine inspection requirements of the Federal Meat Inspection Act and Poultry Products Inspection Act, provided the specified operations meet the exemption requirements of Section 23 of the FMIA and section 15 of the PIA.


Any division of any carcass or part thereof, except that the trimming of carcasses or parts thereof to remove surface contaminants is not considered as cutting up.

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The body (cadaver) of livestock which has died otherwise than by slaughter.


The Delaney Clause in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) states that no additive shall be deemed to be safe for human food if it is found to induce cancer in man or animals. It is an example of the zero tolerance concept in food safety policy. The Delaney prohibition appears in three separate parts of the FFDCA: Section 409 on food additives; Section 512, relating to animal drugs in meat and poultry; and Section 721 on color additives. The Section 409 prohibition applied to many pesticide residues until enactment of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-170, August 3, 1996). This legislation removed pesticide residue tolerances from Delaney Clause constraints.


This terminology has been permitted on labeling for ready-to-eat meat food products that consumers would normally expect to find in a delicatessen.


Emulsifying agents for rendered fats.


A group of chemical compounds that share certain similar chemical structures and biological characteristics. Dioxins are present in the environment all over the world. Within animals, dioxins tend to accumulate in fat. About 95% of the average person's exposure to dioxins occurs through consumption of food, especially food containing animal fat. Scientists and health experts are concerned about dioxins because studies have shown that exposure may cause a number of adverse health effects.


A food manufacturer's action to correct a situation leading to a recall such as relabeling, reworking, or destroying product.


Commonly used term for an animal that is unable to rise and walk.


Fresh Meat is held (without vacuum packing) for various periods of time (usually 10 days to 6 weeks) under controlled temperatures (34°F to 38°F), humidity, and airflow to avoid spoilage and ensure flavor enhancement, tenderness, and palatability.


Dry curing is the process used to make country hams and prosciutto. Fresh meat is rubbed with a dry cure mixture of salt and other ingredients. Dry curing produces a salty product. In 1992, FSIS approved a trichina treatment method that permits substituting up to half of the sodium chloride with potassium chloride to result in lower sodium levels. Since dry curing draws out moisture, it reduces ham weight by at least 18% — usually 20 to 25%; this results in a more concentrated ham flavor.


Livestock which has or displays symptoms of having any of the following:

Central nervous system disorder;

Abnormal temperature (high or low);

Difficult breathing;

Abnormal swellings;

Lack of muscular coordination;

Inability to walk normally or stand;

Any of the conditions for which livestock is required to be condemned on ante-mortem inspection in accordance with the regulations.

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A bacterium that lives harmlessly in the intestines of animals such as cattle, reptiles, and birds. However, in humans the bacterium, which can be transmitted by foods, animal contact, and drinking water, can cause bloody diarrhea, and also lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a life threatening disease. Although other generic strains of E. coli are thought to be harmless to humans, the O157:H7 strain is particularly virulent and dangerous. USDA began an E. coli O157:H7 testing plan in 1994. As part of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) rule,all meat and poultry slaughter plants are required to test carcasses regularly for generic E. coli in order to verify that their sanitary systems are effectively controlling fecal contamination.


The Economic Research Service (ERS) is the main source of economic information and research from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The mission of ERS is to inform and enhance public and private decision making on economic and policy issues related to agriculture, food, natural resources, and rural development. To accomplish this mission, highly trained economists and social scientists develop and distribute a broad range of economic and other social science information and analyses.


Intended for use as human food.


Eggs that are removed from their shells for processing. The processing of egg products includes breaking eggs, filtering, mixing, stabilizing, blending, pasteurizing, cooling, freezing or drying, and packaging. Egg products include whole eggs, whites, yolks and various blends with or without non-egg ingredients that are processed and pasteurized and may be available in liquid, frozen, and dried forms. FSIS is responsible for inspecting egg products and enforcing the Egg Products Inspection Act (EPIA).


The Egg Products Inspection Act (EPIA), passed by Congress in 1970, provides for the mandatory continuous inspection of the processing of liquid, frozen, and dried egg products.


A substance added to products, such as meat spreads, to prevent separation of product components to ensure consistency. Examples of these types of additives include lecithin, and mono- and diglycerides.


The Federal Agency whose mission is to protect human health and to safeguard the natural environment &151; air, water, and land &151; upon which life depends. EPA provides leadership in the nation's environmental science, research, education and assessment efforts. EPA works closely with other federal agencies, state and local governments, and Indian tribes to develop and enforce regulations under existing environmental laws. EPA is responsible for researching and setting national standards for a variety of environmental programs and delegates to states and tribes responsibility for issuing permits, and monitoring and enforcing compliance.


Study of the distribution of disease, or other health-related conditions and events in human or animal populations, in order to identify health problems and possible causes.


A term applied by the Uruguay Round Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Measures. WTO Member countries shall accord acceptance to the SPS measures of other countries (even if those measures differ from their own or from those used by other Member countries trading in the same product) if the exporting country demonstrates to the importing country that its measures achieve the importer's appropriate level of sanitary and phytosanitary protection.


Any slaughtering, cutting, boning, meat canning, curing, smoking, salting, packing, rendering, or similar facility at which inspection is maintained under regulations of the Federal Meat Inspection Act, Poultry Products Inspection Act, Egg Products Inspection Act, and the Humane Methods of Slaughter Act.


A contagious and fatal viral disease affecting all species of birds. Exotic Newcastle disease is one of the most infectious diseases of poultry in the world. A death rate of almost 100 percent can occur in unvaccinated poultry flocks.


Any animal used in any research investigation involving the feeding or other administration of, or subjection to, an experimental biological product, drug, or chemical or any nonexperimental biological product, drug, or chemical used in a manner for which it was not intended.

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Fabricated beef steaks, veal steaks, beef and veal steaks, or veal and beef steaks, and similar products, such as those labeled “Beef Steak, Chopped, Shaped, Frozen,” “Minute Steak, Formed, Wafer Sliced, Frozen,” “Veal Steaks, Beef Added, Chopped-Molded-Cubed-Fro-Flavoring” shall be prepared by comminuting and forming the product from fresh and/or frozen meat, with or without added fat, of the species indicated on the label. Such products shall not contain more than 30 percent fat and shall not contain added water, binders or extenders.


A phrase that refers to a multi-year, multi-commodity federal support law. It usually amends some and suspends many provisions of permanent law, reauthorizes, amends, or repeals provisions of preceding temporary agricultural acts, and puts forth new policy provisions for a limited time into the future. Beginning in 1973, farms bills have included titles on commodity programs, trade, rural development, farm credit, conservation, agricultural research, food and nutrition programs, marketing, etc. These are referred to as omnibus farm bills. The following is a generally agreed chronological list of farm bills: (1) Food and Agriculture Act of 1965, P.L. 89-321; (2) Agricultural Act of 1970, P.L. 91-524; (3) Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973, P.L. 93-86; (4) Food and Agriculture Act of 1977, P.L. 95-113; (5) Agriculture and Food Act of 1981, P.L. 97-98; (6) Food Security Act of 1985, P.L. 99-198; (7) Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, P.L. 101-624; (8) Federal Agricultural Improvement and Reform Act of 1996, P.L. 104-127, Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.


A multi-step journey that food travels before it is consumed.


P.L. 75-717 (June 25, 1938) is the basic authority intended to ensure that foods are pure and wholesome, safe to eat, and produced under sanitary conditions; that drugs and devices are safe and effective for their intended uses; that cosmetics are safe and made from appropriate ingredients; and that all labeling and packaging is truthful, informative, and not deceptive. The Food and Drug Administration is primarily responsible for enforcing the FFDCA, although USDA also has some enforcement responsibility. The Environmental Protection Agency establishes limits for concentrations of pesticide residues on food under this Act.


Enacted June 30, 1906, as chapter 3913, 34 Stat. 674, and substantially amended by the Wholesome Meat Act 1967 (P.L. 90-201), requires USDA to inspect all cattle, sheep, swine, goats, and horses when slaughtered and processed into products for human consumption. The primary goals of the law are to prevent adulterated or misbranded livestock and products from being sold as food, and to ensure that meat and meat products are slaughtered and processed under sanitary conditions. These requirements apply to animals and their products produced and sold within states as well as to imports, which must be inspected under equivalent foreign standards. The Food and Drug Administration is responsible for all meats considered “exotic” at this time, including venison and buffalo.


A federal document containing current Presidential orders or directives, agency regulations, proposed agency rules, notices and other documents that are required by statute to be published for wide public distribution. The Federal Register is published each federal working day. USDA publishes its rules, notices and other documents in the Federal Register. Final regulations are organized by agency and programs in the Code of Federal Regulations.


A national public education project by the Partnership for Food Safety Education, which bring together industry, government, and consumer groups to educate Americans about the importance of using safe food-handling practices. The campaign focuses on the “4 Cs” of food safety the four simple steps people can take to fight foodborne bacteria and reduce the risk of foodborne illness. The four simple steps are Clean, Cook, Separate, and Chill.


A pasteurization process which involves a high temperature, short-time treatment in which pourable products, such as juices, are heated for three to 15 seconds to a temperature that destroys harmful micro-organisms.


Any substance or mixture of substances other than the basic foodstuff present in a food as a result of any phase of production, processing, packaging, storage, transport or handling. USDA allows food additives in meat, poultry and egg products only after they have received Food and Drug Administration safety approval. Food additives are regulated under the authority of the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act and are subject to the Delaney Clause.


A UN organization, founded in 1945, that collects and disseminates information about world agriculture. FAO also provides technical assistance to developing countries in agricultural production and distribution, food processing, nutrition, fisheries, and forestry.


An agency within the Public Health Service of the Department of Health and Human Services. FDA is a public health agency, charged with protecting consumers by enforcing the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and several related public health laws. Importantly for agriculture, a major FDA mission is to protect the safety and wholesomeness of food. In this regard, its scientists test samples to see if any substances, such as pesticide residues, are present in unacceptable amounts, it sets food labeling standards, and it sees that medicated feeds and other drugs given to animals raised for food are not threatening to the consumer's health.


The USDA agency whose goals are to provide needy people with access to a more nutritious diet, to improve the eating habits of the nation’s children, and to stabilize farm prices through the distribution of surplus foods. It administers 15 domestic food assistance programs (including the food stamp program, child nutrition programs [e.g., school feeding programs], and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children [WIC]). FNS works in partnership with the states and reimburses most of the administrative costs the states incur for carrying out local program administration.


The USDA Under Secretary for Food Safety formed the Food Biosecurity Action Team (F-BAT) to coordinate and facilitate all activities pertaining to biosecurity, countering terrorism, and emergency preparedness with FSIS. F-BAT also serves as FSIS’ voice with other governmental agencies and internal and external constituents on biosecurity issues.


The code, published by the Food and Drug Administration, consists of model requirements for safeguarding public health that may be adopted and used by various parts of local, state, and federal governments, if desired. It is used by officials who have compliance responsibilities for food service, retail food stores, or food vending operations.


A microorganism that is derived from food for the purpose of identifying or characterizing it.


The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is the public health agency in the U.S. Department of Agriculture responsible for ensuring that the nation's commercial supply of meat, poultry, and egg products is safe, wholesome, and correctly labeled and packaged, as required by the Federal Meat Inspection Act, the Poultry Products Inspection Act, and the Egg Products Inspection Act.


The Food Safety Educator was a free quarterly newsletter published by FSIS’ Food Safety Education Staff that reports on new food safety educational programs and materials as well as emerging science concerning food safety risks. (It is no longer published.)


A 1997 interagency initiative among the Food and Drug Administration, Center for Disease Control, Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Agriculture to implement a series of coordinated efforts to reduce the annual incidence of foodborne illness and resultant economic losses to consumers and industry by enhancing the safety of the U.S. food supply.


Access by all people at all times to enough food for an active healthy life. Food security at a minimum includes the ready availability of nutritionally adequate and safe food, and an assured ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways, that is, without having to resort to emergency food supplies, scavenging, stealing, or other coping strategies. Causes of food insecurity may include poverty, civil conflict, governmental corruption, environmental degradation, and natural disasters.


A special device that measures the internal temperature of cooked foods, such as meat, poultry, and any combination dishes to ensure that a safe food temperature is reached.


See PrepNet.


Illnesses caused by pathogens that enter the human body through foods.


The occurrence of two or more people experiencing the same illness after eating the same food.


Disease-causing microorganisms found in food, usually bacteria, fungi, parasites, protozoans, and viruses. The top ten pathogens are: Salmonella; Staphylococcus Aureus; Campylobacter jejuni; Yersinia enerocolitica; Listeria monocytogenes; Vibro cholerae non-01; Vibrio Parahemolyticus; Bacillus cereus; Escherichia coli - enteropathogenic ; and Shigella. Many of these pathogens may be found in contaminated meat, poultry, shell eggs, dairy products, and seafood.


a highly contagious viral disease of cattle and swine, as well as sheep, goats, deer, and other cloven-hoofed ruminants. Although rarely transmissible to humans, FMD is devastating to livestock and has critical economic consequences with potentially severe losses in the production and marketing of meat and milk.


The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) is the principal foodborne disease component of CDC's Emerging Infections Program (EIP). FoodNet is a collaborative project of the CDC, nine EIP sites (California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, New York, Maryland, Minnesota, Oregon and Tennessee), the USDA, and the FDA. The project consists of active surveillance for foodborne diseases and related epidemiologic studies designed to help public health officials better understand the epidemiology of foodborne diseases in the United States. FoodNet provides a network for responding to new and emerging foodborne diseases of national importance, monitoring the burden of foodborne diseases, and identifying the sources of specific foodborne diseases.


USDA agency that administers agricultural export and food aid programs. FAS is also responsible for formulating agricultural trade policy, negotiating to reduce foreign agricultural trade barriers, and carrying out programs of international cooperation and technical assistance. The agency maintains a global network of agricultural officers (counselors and attaches) as well as a Washington-based staff to analyze and disseminate information on world agricultural trade policy interests of U.S. producers in multilateral forums.


Cooked and/or smoked sausages prepared according to the Federal standards of identity. Federal standards of identity describe the requirements for processors to follow in formulating and marketing meat, poultry, and egg products produced in the United States for sale in this country and in foreign commerce. The standard also requires that they be comminuted (reduced to minute particles), semisolid products made from one or more kinds of raw skeletal muscle from livestock (like beef or pork)and may contain poultry meat. Smoking and curing ingredients contribute to flavor, color, and preservation of the product. They are link-shaped and come in all sizes -- short, long, thin, and chubby.


Livestock or poultry has been allowed access to the outside.


Poultry whose internal temperature has never been below 26°F.


The uncured leg of pork. Since the meat is not cured or smoked, it has the flavor of a fresh pork loin roast or pork chops. Its raw color is pinkish red and after cooking, greyish white.


A young immature turkey, usually under 16 weeks of age, of either sex, that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin, and flexible breastbone cartilage.


Fully cooked product needs no further cooking. The product is fully cooked in the plant, and it can be reheated or eaten directly from the package. Also known as ready-to-eat.


Smoking, cooking, canning, curing, refining, or rendering in an official establishment of product previously prepared in official establishments.

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G

Thickener from collagen which is derived from the skin, tendons, ligaments, or bones of livestock. It may be used in canned hams or jellied meat products, as well as non-food products such as photography and medicine.


Giblets are the heart, liver, and gizzard of a poultry carcass. Although often packaged with them, the neck of the bird is not a giblet. Giblets are not packaged with the original bird; however, they are inspected by FSIS inspectors.


The gizzard is the mechanical “stomach” of a bird. It is located just after the true or glandular stomach in the gastrointestinal system. Since poultry have no teeth and swallow feed whole, this muscular organ, sometimes called “hen's teeth,” mechanically grinds and mixes the bird's feed.


The inspection and grading of meat and poultry are two separate programs within the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Inspection for wholesomeness is mandatory and is paid for out of tax dollars. Grading for quality is voluntary, and the service is requested and paid for by meat and poultry producers/processors.


“Ground Beef” or “Chopped Beef” shall consist of chopped fresh and/or frozen beef with or without seasoning and without the addition of beef fat as such, shall not contain more than 30 percent fat, and shall not contain added water, phosphates, binders, or extenders.

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H

Products prepared by federally inspected meat packing plants identified with labels bearing references to “Halal” or “Zabiah Halal” must be handled according to Islamic law and under Islamic authority.


Ham means pork which comes from the hind leg of a hog. Ham made from the front leg of a hog will be labeled “pork shoulder picnic.” Hams may be fresh, cured, or cured-and-smoked. The usual color for cured ham is deep rose or pink; fresh ham (which is not cured) has the pale pink or beige color of fresh pork roast; country hams and prosciutto (which are dry cured) range from pink to mahogany color. “Turkey ham” must be made from the thigh meat of turkey.


Another name for center cut ham slices.


“Hamburger” shall consist of chopped fresh and/or frozen beef with or without the addition of beef fat as such and/or seasoning, shall not contain more than 30 percent fat, and shall not contain added water, phosphates, binders, or extenders.


A biological, physical, or chemical property that may cause a food to be unsafe for human consumption.


A production quality control system now being adopted throughout much of the food industry as a method for minimizing the entry of foodborne pathogens into the food supply in order to protect human health. Under a HACCP (pronounced Ha-sip) system, potential hazards are identified and risks are analyzed in each phase of production; critical control points for preventing such hazards are identified and constantly monitored; and corrective actions are taken when necessary. Record keeping and verification procedures are used to ensure that the system is working. HACCP is one of the major elements of regulations, issued by USDA in July 1996 to control pathogens in meat and poultry products. Under the rules, all meat and poultry slaughter and processing plants with 500 or more employees had to develop and implement, by January 1998, a USDA-approved HACCP plan for each of their processes and products. Plants with 10 to 500 employees implemented HACCP by January 1999, and plants with less than 10 employees implemented the system by January 2000. Under separate rules issued by the Food and Drug Administration on December 5, 1995, seafood processors and importers also were required to implement HACCP plans and be in full compliance by December 1997.


A jellied product consisting predominantly of pork byproducts and seasoning ingredients. It must contain some product from the head.


A bird of this class is a mature female chicken, usually more than 10 months of age, with meat less tender than that of a roaster, or roasting chicken and nonflexible breastbone tip.


A cured ham which has been smoked by hanging over burning hickory wood chips in a smokehouse. The ham may not be labeled “hickory smoked” unless hickory wood has been used.


HIMP is an effort to determine how FSIS can improve the use of its online slaughter inspectors and continue to ensure the reduction and/or elimination of defects that pass through traditional inspection. Under this project, FSIS has established performance standards for food safety and non-food safety defects (also known as “other consumer protections” or OCP) found in young chickens, hogs, and turkeys. The food safety performance standards are set at zero to protect consumers from conditions that may be harmful. The OCP performance standards are more stringent than current standards and thus require improved plant performance. Participating plants must revise their HACCP systems to meet these food safety performance standards and establish process control systems to address the OCP concerns. Under this project, FSIS conducts continuous inspection with verification to ensure that performance standards are met.


Honey-cured may be shown on the labeling of a cured product if honey is the only sweetening ingredient or is at least half the sweetening ingredients used, and if the honey is used in an amount sufficient to flavor and/or affect the appearance of the finished product.


This Act amended the FMIA by requiring that all meat inspected at Federal establishments by FSIS for use as human food be produced from livestock slaughtered by humane methods in accordance with the Humane Slaughter Act of 1958. The 1958 Act required all livestock in the United States be slaughtered humanely, except for Kosher, Halal, and other religious slaughter.


A substance added to foods to help retain moisture and soft texture. An example is glycerine, which may be used in dried meat snacks.


Flavor enhancers that can be used in meat and poultry products. They are made from protein obtained from a plant source such as soy or wheat, or from an animal source, such as milk. The source used must be identified on the label.

I

As defined in the Food and Drug Administration regulations (21 CFR 101.100(a)(3)), incidental additives are substances present in foods at insignificant levels that do not serve a technical or functional effect in that food.


Adulterated, uninspected, or not intended for use as human food.


Slaughter of livestock that is not in accordance with the Humane Methods of Slaughter Act of 1978 and FSIS regulations promulgated to enforce the Act. Inadequate methods to prevent pain and suffering of animals presented for slaughter.


This term means that the product so identified has been inspected and passed under the regulations in CFR, and at the time it was inspected, passed, and identified, it was found to be not adulterated.


An inspector of the Program.


A designated program employee who is in charge of one or more official establishments within a circuit and is responsible to the circuit supervisor or his/her designee.


The temperature of the internal portion of a food product.


The process where foods, such as poultry, red meat, spices, and fruits and vegetables, are subjected to small amounts of radiant energy including gamma rays, electron beams, and x-rays in amounts approved by the Food and Drug Administration. USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service oversees the irradiation of meat and poultry.


Accreditation by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which develops international agreements on standards for various industries.

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This product is a nutrient-dense meat that has been made lightweight by drying. Products may be cured or uncured, dried, and may be smoked or unsmoked, air or oven dried.

K

Kosher may be used only on the labels of meat and poultry products prepared under Rabbinical supervision.

L

A display of written, printed, or graphic matter upon the immediate container (not including package liners) of any food product.


Meat from sheep less than one year old. If the phrase “Spring Lamb” is on a meat label, it means the lamb was produced between March and October.


Lard is the fat rendered from clean and sound edible tissues from swine.


Listeria monocytogenes, a pathogenic bacterium that can be carried in a variety of foods such as dairy products, red meat, poultry, seafood, and vegetables.


Cattle, sheep, swine, goat, horse, mule, or other equine.


“Log” stands for logarithm, which is the exponent of 10. For example, log2 represents 102 or 10 x 10 or 100. Log reduction stands for a 10-fold or one decimal or 90% reduction in numbers of recoverable bacteria in a test food vehicle. Another way to look at it is: 1 log reduction would reduce the number of bacteria 90%. This means, for example, that 100 bacteria would be reduced to 10 or 10 reduced to 1.

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The common term used for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).


A firm's removal or correction by its own volition of a distributed product that involves a minor infraction that would not warrant legal action by FSIS, or that involves no violation of the FMIA or the PPIA, or no health hazard.


To steep food in a marinade.


A savory acidic sauce in which a food is soaked to enrich its flavor or to tenderize it. Marinade consists of a cooking oil, an acid (vinegar, lemon juice, wine), and spices. As the food stands in the mixture, the acid and the oil impart the savory flavors of the spices to the food. The acid also has a tenderizing action.


Mechanically deboned meat.


The flesh of animals used as food including the dressed flesh of cattle, swine, sheep, or goats and other edible animals, except fish, poultry, and wild game animals.


A granular, paste-like product which is shelf-stable primarily because of its high salt content (30-40%).

Beef Base - 15% beef or 10.5% cooked beef.

Pork Base - 15% pork or 10.5% cooked pork.

Ham Base - 18% ham.


Any person engaged in the business of buying or selling carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat or meat food products of livestock on commission, or otherwise negotiating purchases or sales of such articles other than for his/her own account or as an employee of another person.


Any part capable of use as human food, other than meat, which has been derived from one or more cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. This term, as applied to products of equines, shall have a meaning comparable to that provided in this paragraph with respect to cattle, sheep, swine, and goats.


Mechanically separated poultry (i.e., chicken, turkey) is a paste-like and batter-like product produced by forcing the bones and attached edible tissue through a sieve or similar device to separate the bone from the edible poultry tissue. This product is intended for use in the formulation of other poultry products. During this process, it is possible for bones to be crushed or pulverized, resulting in a limited amount of bone particles. Because it may contain some bone particles, any product that has been produced using the mechanical separation process cannot, by definition, be labeled as “poultry.” Instead, it must be labeled appropriately as “mechanically separated chicken” (or turkey) on the product's label. Mechanically separated chicken and turkey are used in products such as chicken and turkey franks, bologna, nuggets, and patties.


Mechanically separated meat (i.e., beef, veal, pork, lamb)

also known as mechanically separated (species) or MS(S)

is a paste-like and batter-like product produced by forcing the bones and attached edible tissue through a sieve or similar device to separate the bone from the edible meat tissue. This product is intended for use in the formulation of other meat products. During this process, it is possible for bones to be crushed or pulverized, resulting in a limited amount of bone particles. Because it may contain some bone particles, any product that has been produced using the mechanical separation process cannot, by definition, be labeled as “meat.” Instead, it must be labeled appropriately as “mechanically separated beef” (or other species). The manufacture and sale of mechanically separated beef, veal, pork, or lamb in the United States is not common, but a small amount is exported.


An agreement between federal agencies, or divisions/units within an agency or department, or between federal and state agencies, which delineate tasks, jurisdiction, standard operating procedures or other matters which the agencies or units are duly authorized and directed to conduct. Sometimes referred to as a memorandum of understanding (MOU).


A form of life that can be seen only with a microscope; including bacteria, viruses, yeast, and single-celled animals.


Transfer of a component of a packaging material into the product contained, or loss of a component of the product into the packaging material.


This term applies to any carcass, part thereof, meat or meat food product under one or more of the following circumstances: 1) If its labeling is false or misleading in any particular; 2) If it is offered for sale under the name of another food; 3) If it is an imitation of another food, unless its label bears, in type of uniform size and prominence, the word “imitation” and immediately thereafter, the name of the food imitated; 4) If its container is so made, formed, or filled as to be misleading; 5) If in a package or other container unless it bears a label showing: a.) the name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor; and b.) an accurate statement of the quantity of the contents in terms of weight, measure, or numerical count; except as otherwise provided.


Packaging method in which a combination of gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen is introduced into the package at the time of closure. The purpose is to extend shelf life of the product packaged.


Starch that has been chemically altered to improve its thickening properties. Before the starch is modified, it is separated from the protein through isolation techniques; therefore, the source of the starch used is not required on the label.


MSG is a flavor enhancer. It comes from a common amino acid, glutamic acid, and must be declared as monosodium glutamate on meat and poultry labels.


Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), the same as a memorandum of agreement (MOA).


Meat from sheep more than one year old.

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N

National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods. The purpose of the Committee is to provide impartial, scientific advice to Federal food safety agencies for use in the development of an integrated national food safety systems approach from farm to final consumption to assure the safety of domestic, imported, and exported foods.


National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection. Congress established the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection in 1971 under authority of the Federal Meat and Inspection Act (FMIA) and the Poultry Products Inspection Acts (PPIA). Both acts require the Secretary of Agriculture to consult with an advisory committee before issuing product standards and labeling changes or any matters affecting federal and state program activities. Membership in the committee includes representatives from industry, consumer interests, and state agencies.


An institution created by Congress in 1863 to provide science-based advice to the government. The sister organizations associated with the Academy are the National Academy of Engineers, Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council. The Academies and the Institute are honorary societies that elect new members to their ranks each year. The bulk of the institutions’ science-policy and technical work is conducted by the National Research Council (NRC), created expressly for that purpose. The NRC's Board on Agriculture addresses issues confronting agriculture, food, and related environmental topics.


A collaborative agreement established in 1996 with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food and Drug Administration, and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The NARMS program is a national surveillance program that monitors changes in susceptibilities of human and animal enteric bacteria to 17 antimicrobial drugs. The program provides baseline information on prevalence of resistance, allows for detection of small decreases in susceptibility, and predicts trends in time to allow for mitigation.


A national depository of scientific and popular agricultural information located at the Agricultural Research Service's research center in Beltsville, Maryland. NAL's administration was merged with ARS in 1994.


USDA agency that collects and publishes statistics on the U.S. food and fiber system, with offices located in each state’s department of agriculture.


A program run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to increase federal support to state health departments to detect foodborne diseases by increasing the number of scientists available to investigate food borne outbreaks and by enhancing laboratory-based surveillance of important foodborne pathogens.


A product containing no artificial ingredient or added color that is only minimally processed (a process which does not fundamentally alter the raw product) may be labeled natural. The label must explain the use of the term natural (such as no added colorings or artificial ingredients; minimally processed.)


Continuous extruded net of flexible plastic material, most commonly polyethylene, which can be made into bags, sleeves or wraps (example: net over a frozen turkey package).


See Sodium Nitrite.


The term “No Roll” is permitted on marking devices and labels for single ingredient red meats (carcasses, primal and retail cuts) provided the term is not accompanied with an official grade name (e.g., “No Roll Choice”).


Identification of the nutritional components of a food product. The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 required nutrition labeling of most foods regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. On January 6, 1993, FSIS published final regulations requiring comparable nutrition labeling requirements, with certain exemptions, for multi-ingredient and heat processed meat and poultry products such as hot dogs and luncheon meats. FSIS also established guidelines for voluntary nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw meat and poultry products, including those that are ground and chopped. Retailers and manufacturers voluntarily provide nutrition information on the labels of these products or at their point-of-purchase.

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O

The U.S. Department of Labor agency responsible for administering the Occupational Safety and Health Act (P.L. 91-596). According to OSHA, farming is the nation’s most hazardous occupation. Agriculture is the largest occupational group in the United States, with some 10 to 20 million people depending upon one’s criteria of “agriculture.” The intrinsically seasoned nature of many segments of agriculture not only causes the size of this workforce to vary temporally and often geographically via migrant work groups, but usually also has major effects on the nature and intensity of the work itself. OSHA has issued safety standards relating to agricultural operations.


The Office of Homeland Security was established on October 8, 2001 by President George W. Bush to develop and coordinate the implementation of a comprehensive national strategy to secure the United States from terrorist threats or attacks. The Office coordinates the executive branch's efforts to detect, prepare for, prevent, protect against, respond to, and recover from terrorist attacks within the United States. These efforts include working with executive departments and agencies, State and local governments, and private entities to ensure the adequacy of the national strategy.


The official inspection legend or any other symbol prescribed by FSIS regulations to identify the status of any article or animal under the Federal Meat Inspection Act.


Chemically, a compound or molecule containing carbon bound to hydrogen. Organic compounds make up all living matter. The term organic frequently is used to distinguish “natural” products or processes from man-made “synthetic” ones. Thus natural fertilizers include manures or rock phosphate, as opposed to fertilizers synthesized from chemical feedstocks. Likewise, in organic farming pests are controlled by cultivation techniques and the use of pesticides derived from natural sources (e.g., rotenone and pyrethrins, both from plants) and the use of natural fertilizers (e.g., manure and compost). Some consumers, alleging risks from synthetic chemicals, prefer organic food products. The FACT Act of 1990 required USDA to define organic foods for marketing purposes and implement a National Organic Program.


An approach to farming based on biological methods that avoid the use of synthetic crop or livestock production inputs; also a broadly defined philosophical approach to farming that puts value on ecological harmony, resource efficiency, and non-intensive animal husbandry practices. Farmers who wish to have their operations certified as organic so that they can label their products as organically produced currently follow standards and submit to inspection by private or state certification organizations.


Food products produced by organic farming practices and handled or processed under organic handling and manufacturing processes as defined by several private and state organic certifying agencies.


Related to or perceived by a sensory organ.


Product is ready to cook.

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P

Organisms that derive nourishment and protection from other living organisms known as hosts. They may be transmitted from animals to humans, from humans to humans, or from humans to animals. Several parasites have emerged as significant causes of foodborne and waterborne disease. These organisms live and reproduce within the tissues and organs of infected human and animal hosts, and are often excreted in feces. Some common parasites are Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spiralis, Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm), and Taenia solium (pork tapeworm).


Parma Ham is prosciutto from the Parma locale in Italy. These hams tend to be larger than the U.S. produced product, as Italian hogs are larger at slaughter.


These are byproducts produced from fatty trimmings containing less than 12% lean meat. These ingredients may be used in meat products in which byproducts are acceptable.


A public-private coalition formed in 1977, which is dedicated to educating the public about safe food handling to help reduce foodborne illnesses. The partnership is comprised of industry, government and consumer groups and has developed a far-reaching, ambitious and consumer-friendly public education campaign focused on safe food handling.


The process of destroying microorganisms that could disease. This is usually done by applying heat to food. Three processes used to pasteurize foods are flash pasteurization, steam pasteurization, and irradiation pasteurization.


A microorganism (bacteria, parasites, viruses, or fungi) that is infectious and causes disease.


A computer-based system used by USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service. The system organizes inspection requirements, schedules inspection activities, and maintains records of findings for meat and poultry processing operations under federal inspection.


Food that is subject to decay, spoilage, or bacteria unless it is properly refrigerated or frozen.


A substance used to kill, control, repel, or mitigate any pest. Insecticides, fungicides, rodenticides, herbicides, and germicides are all pesticides. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates pesticides under authority of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). In addition, under FIFRA, a substance used as a plant regulator, defoliant, desiccant is defined as a pesticide and regulated accordingly. All pesticides must be registered and carry a label approved by EPA.


A program initiated in 1991 by the Agricultural Marketing Service to collect pesticide residue data on selected food commodities, primarily fruits and vegetables. PDP data are used by the Environmental Protection Agency to support its dietary risk assessment process and pesticide registration process, by the Food and Drug Administration to refine sampling for enforcement of tolerances, by the Foreign Agricultural Service, to support export of U.S. commodities in a competitive global market, by the Economic Research Service to evaluate pesticide alternatives, and by the public sector to address food safety issues.


Protein Fat Free.


Material added during the manufacturing process to increase flexibility; for example, the plasticizer ATBC (acetyl tributyl citrate), used in such DowBrands™ as Saran™ and Handiwrap™, is made from citric acid which is commonly present in citrus fruit.


The meat from hogs, or domestic swine. Much of a hog is cured and made into ham, bacon, and sausage. Uncured meat is called “fresh pork.”


One of the major cuts of the hog carcass that, when cured, becomes bacon.


A front shoulder cut of pork which has been cured in the same manner as ham.


As used in the meat and poultry inspection program, the phrase refers to the inspection that Food Safety and Inspection Service inspectors are required to conduct of all animal carcasses immediately after they are killed.


A food that is natural or synthetic and that requires temperature control because it is in a form capable of supporting the rapid and progressive growth of infectious or toxigenic microorganisms.


P.L. 85-172 (August 28, 1957), as amended by the Wholesome Poultry Products Act of 1968 (P.L. 90-492, August 18, 1968), requires USDA to inspect all “domesticated birds” when slaughtered and processed into products for human consumption. The USDA has defined, by regulation, domesticated birds as chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, and guineas. The primary goals of the law are to prevent adulterated or misbranded poultry and products from being sold as food, and to ensure that poultry, poultry products, ratites, and squabs are slaughtered and processed under sanitary conditions. These requirements also apply to products produced and sold within states as well as to imports, which must be inspected under equivalent foreign standards.


Standards for kinds and classes, and for cuts of raw poultry are discussed in 9 CFR 381.170.


The Food Threat Preparedness Network (PrepNet) functions across Federal departments to ensure effective coordination of food security efforts throughout the Government. PrepNet is co-chaired by the Administrator of FSIS and the Director of the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Other members include the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), the Department of Defense (DOD), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The focus of this group is on preventive activities to protect the food supply proactively, as well as on rapid response. PrepNet, which works in conjunction with the Office of Homeland Security, is reviewing each agency’s statutory authorities and conducting an assessment of needs, with plans to fill the statutory gaps. PrepNet members share scientific and laboratory assets.


Slaughtered, canned, salted, rendered, boned, cut up, or otherwise manufactured or processed.


A variety of methods used at the processing stage and at home to keep food safe from harmful bacteria and extend the storage life of food.


Any carcass, meat, meat by-product, or meat food product, capable of use as human food.


An Italian-style dry cured raw ham; not smoked; often coated with pepper. Prosciutto can be eaten raw because of the way it is processed.


The science and the art of 1) preventing disease; 2) prolonging life; and organized community efforts for a) the sanitation of the environment; b) the control of communicable infections; c) the education of the individual in personal hygiene; d) the organization of medical and nursing devices for the early diagnosis and preventive treatment of disease; and e) the development of the social machinery to ensure everyone a standard of living adequate for the maintenance of health, so organizing these benefits as to enable every citizen to realize his/her birthright of health and longevity.


The DNA fingerprinting method that scientists use to determine the source of bacteria in foods.


FSIS participates in PulseNet, a national network of public health laboratories directed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PulseNet performs DNA fingerprinting on foodborne bacteria and assists in the detection of foodborne illness outbreaks and traceback to their sources, including detection of a linkage among sporadic cases. PulseNet, combined with epidemiology, has been key in enabling Federal agencies to detect and control outbreaks of foodborne illness rapidly.

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The process of testing for a substance to determine what it is and what its components are. The results are reported in terms of the presence or absence of particular components, based on the size of the sample used in the analysis, the number of samples analyzed, and the testing method. An example of qualitative analysis would be testing for the presence of the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in a specific food.


A risk assessment that is based on qualitative data or giving a qualitative result. The results are often stated in an estimated range, such as “there is a moderate to high risk of a certain outcome occurring”


The process of testing for a substance to determine how much of it there is and the numerical value of each of its components. An example would be testing for the amount or concentration of a certain chemical or microorganism, such as E. coli, in a food.


A risk assessment that uses modeling to determine the probability(s) of what can go wrong, how likely it is to happen, and how severe is the health impact. The results are stated in numerical terms, such as “there is a 42% probability that one illness may occur from eating a serving of X food with a certain health outcome.”

R

Oxidation/breakdown of fat that occurs naturally, causing undesirable smell and taste.


A family of large flightless birds that include ostriches, emus, and rheas, which U.S. farmers are beginning to domesticate and raise for food. On April 26, 2001, FSIS mandated the inspection of ratites. As a result of this action U.S. establishments slaughtering or processing ratites for distribution into commerce as human food are now subject to mandatory requirements of the Poultry Products Inspection Act and no longer pay a fee for inspection. Previously, some ratites had been inspected under the Agency’s voluntary poultry inspection program, which requires establishments to pay a fee for inspection services.


Food that is in a form that is edible without washing, cooking, or additional preparation by the food establishment or consumer and that is reasonably expected to be consumed in that form.


Recalls are voluntary actions carried out by a food manufacturer or distributor in cooperation with Federal and State agencies. Products are recalled when found to be contaminated, adulterated, or misbranded. Even when the food has been previously inspected and passed by FSIS, a recall is necessary when new information becomes available indicating a possible public health issue. A recall does not include a market withdrawal or stock recovery.


FSIS assesses the public health concern or hazard presented by a product being recalled, or considered for recall, whether firm-initiated or requested by FSIS, and classifies the concern as one of the following:

Class I. This is a health hazard situation where there is a reasonable probability that the use of the product will cause serious, adverse health consequences or death. For example, the presence of pathogens in ready-to-eat product or the presence of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef.

Class II. This is a health hazard situation where there is a remote probability of adverse health consequences from the use of the product. For example, the presence of undeclared allergens such as milk or soy products.

Class III. This is a situation where the use of the product will not cause adverse health consequences. For example, the presence of undeclared generally recognized as safe non-allergen substances, such as excess water.


The level of product distribution to which the recall is to extend:

Consumer - This includes household consumers as well as all other levels of distribution.

Retail Level - The level that includes all retail sales of the recalled product.

User Level - This level includes hotels, restaurants, and other food service institutional consignees.

Wholesale Level - The distribution level between the manufacturer and the retailer. This level may not be encountered in every recall situation; i.e., the recalling firm may sell directly to the retail or consumer level.


This defines the amount and kind of product in question. For example, all products produced under a single HACCP plan between performance of complete cleaning and sanitation procedures (clean up to clean up).


A business engaged in the separation of fats from animal tissue by heating.


Any substance, including metabolites, remaining in livestock at time of slaughter or in carcass tissues after slaughter as the result of treatment or exposure of the livestock to a pesticide, organic or inorganic compound, hormone, hormonelike substance, growth promoter, antibiotic, anthelmintic, tranquilizer, or other therapeutic or prophylactic agent.


The assessment and management of hazards that cause harm (risk) to human health and the communication of how those hazards can be controlled, reduced or eliminated.


The process of estimating the severity and likelihood of harm to human health or the environment occurring from exposure to a substance or activity that, under plausible circumstances, can cause harm to human health or the environment.


Exchanges of information among risk assessors, risk managers, other stakeholders, and the public about levels of health or environmental risk, the significance and meaning of those risks, and the decisions, actions, or policies aimed at managing or controlling the risks.


The process of evaluating policy alternatives in view of the results of risk assessment and selecting and implementing appropriate options to protect public health. Risk management determines what action to take to reduce, eliminate, or control risks. This includes establishing risk assessment policies, regulations, procedures, and a framework for decision making based on risk.


A bird of this class is a young chicken, usually three to five months of age, of either sex, that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin and breastbone cartilage that may be somewhat less flexible than that of a broiler or fryer.


A young duck, usually under 16 weeks of age, of either sex, that is tender-meated and has a bill that is not completely hardened and a windpipe that is easily dented.


An animal with a stomach that has four compartments, and a more complex digestive system than other mammals. Ruminants include cattle, sheep, goats, deer, bison, elk, and camels. Swine, dogs, and humans are examples of nonruminants.

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S

A pathogenic, diarrhea-producing bacterium that is the leading cause of human foodborne illness among intestinal pathogens. It is commonly found in raw meats, poultry, milk, and eggs, but other foods can carry it. Under 1996 rules published by USDA to control pathogens in meat and poultry, all plants that slaughter food animals and produce raw ground meat products must meet established pathogen reduction performance standards for salmonellacontamination. The standards, which took effect in January 1998, vary by product. Plants where USDA testing indicates contamination rates are above the national standard will be required to take remedial actions.


A specimen that is taken from food and tested for the purpose of identifying a foodborne pathogen or various kinds of chemical contaminants in food.


The act of maintaining a clean condition in a food-handling situation in order to prevent disease and other potentially harmful contaminants.


Refers to the sanitation procedures that meat and poultry plants use, both before and during production, to prevent contamination of products. Site-specific SSOPs were required to be implemented in January 1997 by all slaughter and processing plants, under the comprehensive pathogen reduction regulations issued by USDA in July 1996.


Chemical or physical agents that reduce microorganism contamination levels present on inanimate environmental surfaces.


A fatal, degenerative neurological disease of sheep and goats. Belonging to a family of diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), scrapie is similar to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) (mad cow), a disease of cattle. There is no scientific evidence to indicate that scrapie poses a risk to human health. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service conducts a Scrapie Flock Certification Program to certify scrapie-free herds and a Scrapie Eradication Program to accelerate the eradication of scrapie from the United States.


(or Chunked and Formed) A boneless ham that is made from different cuts, tumbled or massaged and reassembled into a casing or mold and fully cooked. During this process it is usually thoroughly defatted.


A calendar date on the packaging of a food product that indicates the last day the product can be sold.


A bacterium carried only by humans and causes an estimated 300,000 cases of diarrheal illnesses in the United States per year. Poor hygiene, especially poor hand washing, causes Shigella to be passed easily from person to person via food. Once it is in food, it multiplies rapidly at room temperature.


Plastic film that shrinks when heated, producing a tight, neat fit; the most popular form of grocery store meat packaging is PVC wrapping with foam trays.


After curing, some hams are smoked. Smoke flavoring (or smoked) is a process by which ham is hung in a smokehouse and allowed to absorb smoke from smoldering fires. This gives added flavor and color to meat and slows the development of rancidity.


Used alone or in conjunction with sodium nitrate as a color fixative in cured meat and poultry products (bologna, hot dogs, bacon). Sodium Nitrate helps prevent the growth of Clostridium botulinum, which can cause botulism in humans.


Seasoned and chopped pork trimmings.


A squab is a fledging pigeon, of either sex that has not flown yet. Effective April 26, 2001, establishments processing squabs will be inspected pursuant to the Poultry Products Inspection Act.


Mandatory, federally-set requirements that determine what a food product must contain in order to be marketed under a certain name in interstate commerce. Mandatory standards (which differ from voluntary grades and standards applied to agricultural commodities) protect the consumer by ensuring that a label accurately reflects what is inside (for example, that “mayonnaise” is not an imitation spread, or that “ice cream” is not a similar, but different, frozen dessert).


Often refers to the state-run meat and poultry inspection programs to which USDA contributes 50% of the cost. State programs (about half the states use them) must be certified by USDA to be at least equal to federal inspection requirements. However, products from state-inspected plants (most of them are relatively smaller operations) cannot be sold outside of the state. Small plants and many state officials have endorsed bills in Congress that would permit state-inspected products to be sold into interstate and foreign commerce, but large meat and poultry companies (most of them already under federal inspection) generally oppose such a change.


A technology that uses heat to control or reduce harmful microorganisms in beef. This system passes freshly slaughtered beef carcasses that are already inspected, washed, and trimmed, through a chamber that exposes the beef to pressurized steam for approximately 6 to 8 seconds. The steam raises the surface temperature of the carcasses to 190° to 200° F (88° to 93° C). The carcasses are then cooled with a cold water spray. This process has proven to be successful in reducing pathogenic bacteria, such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria, without the use of any chemicals.


A firm's removal or correction of product that has not been marketed or that has not left the direct control of the firm. For example, product is located on premises owned by, or under the control of, the firm, and no portion of the lot has been released for sale or use.


A term that may appear on ham labels if cane or beet sugar is at least half the sweetening ingredients used and if the sugar is used in an amount sufficient to flavor and/or affect the appearance of the finished product. Most hams contain sugar in the curing mixture.


A system of monitoring the health of the population, which is used to prevent foodborne illness outbreaks from increasing.


A tool used by epidemiologists to understand the state of health of the population or to identify the source of a foodborne outbreak.

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The white nearly tasteless solid rendered fat of cattle and sheep used chiefly in soap, candles, and lubricants.


The messenger, developed by FSIS, of a national consumer education campaign designed to promote the use of food thermometers.


The amount of pesticide residue allowed by regulation to remain in or on a food sold in interstate commerce. Whenever a pesticide is registered for use on a food or a feed crop, a tolerance (or exemption from the tolerance requirement) must be established. The Environmental Protection Agency establishes the tolerance levels, which are enforced by the Food and Drug Administration and verified by USDA.


P.L. 94-469 (October 11, 1976) authorizes the Environmental Protection Agency to regulate toxic substances (any chemical that may present a risk of unreasonable harm to man or the environment). By definition, however, the Act excludes from EPA regulation under TSCA certain substances, including pesticides (as defined by and regulated under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act), tobacco or tobacco products, and any food or food additive (as defined by and regulated under the Poultry Products Inspection Act, the Federal Meat Inspection Act, the Egg Products Inspection Act, or the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act).


A poisonous substance that may be found in food.


A family of diseases sharing some common characteristics, including a prolonged incubation period ranging from a few months to years and progressively debilitating neurological illnesses, which are always fatal. Examples of other TSEs include scrapie (sheep and goats), chronic wasting disease (deer and elk), feline spongiform encephalopathy (cats), kuru (humans), Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (humans), and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (humans).


A World Trade Organization principle stipulating that a country’s policies and regulations affecting foreign trade should be clearly communicated to its trading partners. For example, out of recognition that sanitary and phytosanitary measures may (sometimes deliberately) be unclear, arbitrary, or capricious, recent international trading agreements have provisions calling on countries to notify others, in advance, about any measures that could affect trade, to explain them fully, and to provide a means for commenting on them.

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The consolidation and codification of all the general and permanent laws of the United States. The U.S. Code is divided into 50 titles that represent broad subject areas. Title 7 is Agriculture. Each title is divided into chapters followed by subdivisions into parts covering specific areas. For example, 7 USC Chapter 45 Subchapter III deals with the Conservation Reserve Program. Regulations issued to administer the laws are first published in the Federal Register and then in the Code of Federal Regulations.


This term means that the livestock so identified has been inspected and found to be in a dying condition, or to be affected with any other condition or disease that would require condemnation of its carcass.


This term means that the meat or meat byproduct so identified has been inspected and passed on condition that it be cooked.


This term means that the meat or meat byproduct so identified has been inspected and passed on condition that it be refrigerated.


This term means that the carcass, viscera, other part of carcass, or other product, or article so identified is held for further examination by an inspector to determine its disposal.


This term means that the livestock so identified is suspected of being affected with a disease or condition which may require its condemnation, in whole or in part, when slaughtered, and is subject to further examination by an inspector to determine its disposal.


U.S. Department of Agriculture. The department of the Federal government responsible for enhancing the quality of life for the American people by supporting the production of Agriculture. This mission is achieved through: 1) ensuring a safe, affordable, nutritious and accessible food supply; 2) caring for agricultural, forests, and range lands; 3) supporting sound development of rural communities; 4) providing economic opportunities for farm and rural residents; 5) expanding global markets for agricultural and forest products and services; and 6) working to reduce hunger in America and throughout the world.


The USDA Homeland Security Council is an internal organization designed to work in partnership with the Office of Homeland Security, the National Security Council, and other Departments. The Council is responsible for establishing overall USDA Homeland Security policy, coordinating department- wide homeland security issues, tracking USDA progress on homeland security objectives, and appointing a representative to interagency or other external groups. The Council also ensures that information, research, and resources are shared and activities are coordinated with other Federal agencies.


Any of various charges and assessments levied on a specifically delineated group that is directly subject to a particular government service, program, or activity; such fees are not levied on the general public. User fees are intended to be used solely to support that service, program, or activity. For example, about 75% of the $225 million budget of the Agricultural Marketing Service, which provides a variety of inspection and grading, market news reporting, and other services to the agricultural community, comes from user fees; the other 25% is appropriated funds. Similarly, grain inspection is paid for through user fees.

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Rigid or flexible containers from which substantially all air has been removed before sealing. Carbon dioxide or nitrogen may be introduced into the container. This process prolongs shelf life, preserves the flavors and retards bacterial growth.


vCJD is a variant of the most commonly identified TSE in humans, classic (sporadic) Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD). Scientific evidence supports a causal relationship between BSE outbreaks in Europe and vCJD. The disease vCJD is most likely caused by the ingestion of products contaminated with the BSE agent. There has never been a case of vCJD that did not have a history of exposure within a country where BSE was occurring. Patients with vCJD have primarily been younger and exhibit clinical signs of the disease longer than patients with classic CJD.


The meat from a calf or young beef animal. Male dairy calves are used in the veal industry. Dairy cows must give birth to continue producing milk, but male dairy calves are of little or no value to the dairy farmer. A small percentage are raised to maturity and used for breeding.


A calf is a young bovine of either sex that has not reached puberty (up to about nine months of age), and has a maximum live weight of 750 pounds.


About fifteen percent of veal calves are marketed up to three weeks of age or at a weight of 150 pounds. These are called Bob Calves.


The majority of veal calves are “special-fed.” A veal calf is raised until about 16 to 18 weeks of age, weighing up to 450 pounds. They are raised in specially designed facilities where they can be cared for and monitored. Special, milk fed, and formula fed are the names given to nutritionally balanced milk or soy based diets fed to calves. These diets contain iron and 40 other essential nutrients, including amino acids, carbohydrates, fats, minerals and vitamins.


The use of methods, procedures, or tests by supervisors, designated personnel, or regulators to determine if the food safety system based on the HACCP principles is working to control identified hazards or if modifications need to be made.

The process of ensuring that each successive stage in the production, processing, and marketing of a product is appropriately managed and interrelated to the next, so that decisions about what to produce, and how much, are communicated as efficiently as possible from the consumer to the producer. Agricultural economists believe that vertical coordination of markets is particularly important in the food industry because of its complexity, the large number of firms that participate in one or more stages, and the relative perishability of the products involved. Vertical integration is a type of vertical coordination, but the latter does not necessarily require that a single organization own or control all of the stages. For example, the use of contracts and marketing agreements between buyers and sellers, and the availability of timely, accurate price and other market information are methods for achieving vertical coordination.


The integrating of successive stages of the production and marketing functions under the ownership or control of a single management organization. For example, much of the broiler industry is highly vertically integrated in that processing companies own or control the activities from production and hatching of eggs, through the growth and feeding of the chickens, to slaughter, processing, and wholesale marketing.


Vaccines, antigens, antitoxins and other preparations made from living organisms (or genetically engineered) and intended for use in diagnosing, treating, or immunizing animals. Unlike some pharmaceutical products, such as antibiotics, most biologics leave no residues in animals. Veterinary biologics are regulated by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, which licenses the facilities that produce them and conducts a program to ensure that animal vaccines and other veterinary biologics are safe, pure, potent, and effective.


The mutual recognition by two or more countries that each party's safety and sanitation standards for animal products, even where not identical, provide an equivalent level of protection to public and animal health. Aimed at facilitating trade, the practical effect of veterinary equivalency is that each country's individual products and facilities will not have to submit to the separate standards of importing countries and to cumbersome and costly inspections by foreign reviewers. Veterinary equivalency has been a contentious issue for the United States and European Union (EU); the two parties in 1997 agreed in principle to an agreement recognizing each other's standards.


An internal organ of a human or animal.


Under the authority of the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, as amended (7 U.S.C. 1621 et seq.), FSIS provides voluntary inspection of exotic animal products. Voluntary inspection is conducted by USDA inspectors who must have knowledge about each particular species they inspect. Under the FSIS voluntary inspection program, establishments are required to pay a fee for inspection services.

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A German-style dry cured ham that is similar to Prosciutto; smoked, sometimes with juniper berries. Also called Westfalischer Schinken.


A “withdrawal” period is required from the time antibiotics are administered until it is legal to slaughter the animal. This is so residues can exit the animal's system.


The international organization established by the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations to oversee implementation of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the agreements arising from the Uruguay Round, including the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture.

X

None

Y

A fully matured turkey, usually under 15 months of age that is reasonably tender-meated and with reasonably smooth-textured skin.


A pathogen which causes yersiniosis, a disease characterized by diarrhea and/or vomiting. Yersinia is found in raw meat, seafood, dairy products, produce, and untreated water.


A turkey, usually under eight months of age, that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin, and breastbone cartilage that is somewhat less flexible than in a fryer-roaster turkey.

Z

In food safety policy, a “zero tolerance” standard generally means that if a potentially dangerous substance (whether microbiological, chemical, or other) is present in or on a product, that product will be considered adulterated and unfit for human consumption. In the meat and poultry inspection program, “zero tolerance” usually refers to USDA’s rule that permits no visible signs of fecal contamination (feces) on meat and poultry carcasses.


Diseases that under natural conditions are communicable from animals to humans. Anthrax, Brucellosis, Psittacosis, Rabies, Tuberculosis, and Tularemia are example of zoonotic diseases. Brucellosis in livestock becomes undulant fever in humans.

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