Ciprofloxacin

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Ciprofloxacin

An oral antibiotic.

Information about Ciprofloxacin

Ciprofloxacin is a second generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic that is widely used in the therapy of mild-to-moderate urinary and respiratory tract infections caused by susceptible organisms.

Liver safety of Ciprofloxacin

Ciprofloxacin has been linked to rare but convincing instances of liver injury that can be severe and even fatal.

Mechanism of action of Ciprofloxacin

Ciprofloxacin (sip" roe flox' a sin) is an oral fluoroquinolone that is used to treat mild-to-moderate urinary and respiratory tract infections. Ciprofloxacin is also used for infectious diarrhea, typhoid fever, uncomplicated gonorrhea, treatment of Neisseria meningitides nasal carriage and prophylaxis against anthrax.

Mechanism of action of Ciprofloxacin

Like other fluoroquinolones, ciprofloxacin is active against a wide range of aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. The fluoroquinolones are believed to act by inhibition of type II DNA toposiomerases (gyrases) that are required for synthesis of bacterial mRNAs (transcription) and DNA replication.Ciprofloxacin was approved for use in the United States in 1990 and, currently, approximately 20 million prescriptions are filled yearly.

Dosage and administration for Ciprofloxacin

Ciprofloxacin is available in multiple oral formulations of 100, 250, 500 and 750 mg tablets and extended release formulations of 500 and 1000 mg tablets. Ciprofloxacin is available generically and under several commercial names including Cipro and Proquin. The usual dose is 250 to 500 mg every 12 hours.

Oral formulations are recommended for mild-to-moderate infections due to susceptible organisms, including urinary tract infections, sinusitis, bronchitis, skin infections, urethral and cervical infections. Intravenous formulations are available for moderate to severe infections, including pneumonia, sinusitis, septicemia, intraabdominal and bone and joint infections, the usual dosages being 200 to 400 mg IV every 8 hours. Oral therapy is typically continued for 7 to 10 days, but both shorter and longer courses are used.

Side effects of Ciprofloxacin

Common side effects include gastrointestinal upset, headaches, skin rash and allergic reactions. Less common, but more severe side effects include prolongation of the QT interval, seizures, hallucinations, tendon rupture, angioedema, Stevens Johnson syndrome and photosensitivity.

List of flouroquinolones

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