Information about Manganese
Manganese is a trace element that exists in many metal-enzyme complexes and metalloenzymes, either as a bivalent (Mn2+) or trivalent (Mn3+) ion.
Mechanism of action of Manganese
Manganese functions in enzyme activation and is present in superoxide reductases, ligases, hydrolases, kinases, transferases and decarboxylases.
Deficiency of Manganese
Manganese deficiency has been reported in animals and possibly in man, with signs of weight loss, nausea and vomiting, dermatitis, impaired growth, skeletal and hair abnormalities. There are generally adequate amounts of manganese in routine diets and deficiency states are very rare, if they exist at all.
Toxicity of Manganese
Manganese is relatively nontoxic, but excessive exposures accompanied by toxicity have been described in miners and metal workers. Acute toxicity is marked by severe psychiatric symptoms, irritability, anxiety, hallucinations and violent acts. Chronic toxicity can lead to chronic neurologic disorders with headaches, muscle weakness, speech disturbance and extrapyramidal signs.
Liver safety of Manganese
Liver toxicity has not been described.
Trace Elements in Tissues and Biologic Systems