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Nutrient

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Nutrient is any substance that the body can use to maintain its health

Glossary of terms

  • abetalipoproteinemia -  a rare inherited disorder of fat metabolism; characterized by severe deficiency of beta-lipoproteins and abnormal red blood cells (acanthocytes) and abnormally low cholesterol levels
  • abo blood group system -  a classification system for the antigens of human blood; used in blood transfusion therapy; four groups are A and B and AB and O
  • academic -  hypothetical or theoretical and not expected to produce an immediate or practical result; marked by a narrow focus on or display of learning especially its trivial aspects; associated with academia or an academy;  an educator who works at a college or university
  • acanthosis nigricans -  a skin disease characterized by dark wartlike patches in the body folds; can be benign or malignant
  • acetaldehyde -  a colorless volatile water-soluble liquid aldehyde used chiefly in manufacture of acetic acid and perfumes and drugs
  • acetate -  a salt or ester of acetic acid; a fabric made from fibers of cellulose acetate
  • acetic acid -  a colorless pungent liquid widely used in manufacturing plastics and pharmaceuticals
  • acetyl -  the organic group of acetic acid (CH3CO-)
  • acetylation -  the process of introducing an acetyl group into a compound
  • acid value -  (chemistry) the amount of free acid present in fat as measured by the milligrams of potassium hydroxide needed to neutralize it
  • acidic -  being or containing an acid; of a solution having an excess of hydrogen atoms (having a pH of less than 7); being sour to the taste
  • aconitum -  genus of poisonous plants of temperate regions of northern hemisphere with a vaulted and enlarged petal
  • active site -  the part of an enzyme or antibody where the chemical reaction occurs
  • activist -  advocating or engaged in activism;  a militant reformer
  • adenine -  (biochemistry) purine base found in DNA and RNA; pairs with thymine in DNA and with uracil in RNA
  • adenosine -  (biochemistry) a nucleoside that is a structural component of nucleic acids; it is present in all living cells in a combined form as a constituent of DNA and RNA and ADP and ATP and AMP
  • adenosine deaminase -  an enzyme found in mammals that can catalyze the deamination of adenosine into inosine and ammonia
  • adipose tissue -  a kind of body tissue containing stored fat that serves as a source of energy; it also cushions and insulates vital organs
  • adrenosterone -  a steroid having androgenic activity; obtained from the cortex of the adrenal gland
  • adulterant -  making impure or corrupt by adding extraneous materials;  any substance that adulterates (lessens the purity or effectiveness of a substance)
  • african elephant -  an elephant native to Africa having enormous flapping ears and ivory tusks
  • agriculture -  the class of people engaged in growing food; the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock; a large-scale farming enterprise; the federal department that administers programs that provide services to farmers (including research and soil conservation and efforts to stabilize the farming economy); created in 1862
  • agrobiology -  the study of plant nutrition and growth especially as a way to increase crop yield
  • air well -  a shaft for ventilation
  • airborne -  moved or conveyed by or through air
  • albumin -  a simple water-soluble protein found in many animal tissues and liquids
  • alcohol -  a liquor or brew containing alcohol as the active agent; any of a series of volatile hydroxyl compounds that are made from hydrocarbons by distillation
  • alcohol abuse -  excessive use of alcohol and alcoholic drinks
  • alcoholism -  habitual intoxication; prolonged and excessive intake of alcoholic drinks leading to a breakdown in health and an addiction to alcohol such that abrupt deprivation leads to severe withdrawal symptoms; an intense persistent desire to drink alcoholic beverages to excess
  • aldose -  a monosaccharide sugar that contains the aldehyde group or is hemiacetal
  • aldosterone -  a corticosteroid hormone that is secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland; regulates salt (sodium and potassium) and water balance
  • alginic acid -  a gum used especially as a thickener or emulsifier
  • allergic rhinitis -  rhinitis caused by an allergic reaction
  • alpha -  early testing stage of a software or hardware product; first in order of importance;  the 1st letter of the Greek alphabet; the beginning of a series or sequence
  • alpha fetoprotein -  an abnormally large amount of this fetoprotein in the fetus can signal an abnormality of the neural tube (as spina bifida or anencephaly)
  • alpha globulin -  a globulin in blood plasma or serum that is alkaline and has great electrophoretic mobility
  • alternate -  occurring by turns; first one and then the other; every second one of a series; of leaves and branches etc; first on one side and then on the other in two ranks along an axis; not paired; allowing a choice;  someone who takes the place of another person; verb do something in turns; go back and forth; swing back and forth between two states or conditions; exchange people temporarily to fulfill certain jobs and functions; reverse (a direction, attitude, or course of action); be an understudy or alternate for a role
  • alternative medicine -  the practice of medicine without the use of drugs; may involve herbal medicines or self-awareness or biofeedback or acupuncture
  • aminotransferase -  a class of transferases that catalyze transamination (that transfer an amino group from an amino acid to another compound)
  • amphetamine -  a central nervous system stimulant that increases energy and decreases appetite; used to treat narcolepsy and some forms of depression
  • amygdalin -  a bitter cyanogenic glucoside extracted from the seeds of apricots and plums and bitter almonds
  • amylase -  any of a group of proteins found in saliva and pancreatic juice and parts of plants; help convert starch to sugar
  • amyloid -  resembling starch;  (pathology) a waxy translucent complex protein resembling starch that results from degeneration of tissue; a non-nitrogenous food substance consisting chiefly of starch; any substance resembling starch
  • amyloidosis -  a disorder characterized by deposit of amyloid in organs or tissues; often secondary to chronic rheumatoid arthritis or tuberculosis or multiple myeloma
  • anabolic steroid -  any of a group of synthetic steroid hormones used to stimulate muscle and bone growth; more than 100 have been developed and each requires a prescription to be used legally in the United States; sometimes used illicitly by athletes to increase their strength
  • androgen -  male sex hormone that is produced in the testes and responsible for typical male sexual characteristics
  • androsterone -  an androgenic hormone that is less active than testosterone
  • animal fat -  any fat obtained from animals
  • animal product -  a product made from animal material
  • antibody -  any of a large variety of proteins normally present in the body or produced in response to an antigen which it neutralizes, thus producing an immune response
  • antigen -  any substance (as a toxin or enzyme) that stimulates an immune response in the body (especially the production of antibodies)
  • appetite -  a feeling of craving something
  • arginine -  a bitter tasting amino acid found in proteins and necessary for nutrition; its absence from the diet leads to a reduced production of spermatozoa
  • argos -  an ancient city in southeastern Greece; dominated the Peloponnese in the 7th century BC
  • arrowroot -  white-flowered West Indian plant whose root yields arrowroot starch; a nutritive starch obtained from the root of the arrowroot plant; canna grown especially for its edible rootstock from which arrowroot starch is obtained
  • arteriosclerosis -  sclerosis of the arterial walls
  • arum maculatum -  common European arum with lanceolate spathe and short purple spadix; emerges in early spring; source of a starch called arum
  • aspartame -  an artificial sweetener made from aspartic acid; used as a calorie-free sweetener
  • aspirin -  the acetylated derivative of salicylic acid; used as an analgesic anti-inflammatory drug (trade names Bayer and Empirin) usually taken in tablet form; used as an antipyretic; slows clotting of the blood by poisoning platelets
  • associated -  related to or accompanying; joined in some kind of relationship (as a colleague or ally or companion etc.)
  • asthma -  respiratory disorder characterized by wheezing; usually of allergic origin
  • astragalus -  large genus of annual or perennial herbs or shrubs of north temperate regions; largest genus in the family Leguminosae; the bone in the ankle that articulates with the leg bones to form the ankle joint
  • atherosclerosis -  a stage of arteriosclerosis involving fatty deposits (atheromas) inside the arterial walls
  • atopic dermatitis -  a severe form of dermatitis characterized by atopy
  • atropine -  a poisonous crystalline alkaloid extracted from the nightshade family; used as an antispasmodic and to dilate the eye pupil; also administered in large amounts as an antidote for organophosphate nerve agents or organophosphate insecticides
  • australia -  a nation occupying the whole of the Australian continent; aboriginal tribes are thought to have migrated from southeastern Asia 20,000 years ago; first Europeans were British convicts sent there as a penal colony; the smallest continent; between the South Pacific and the Indian Ocean
  • author -  someone who originates or causes or initiates something; writes (books or stories or articles or the like) professionally (for pay); verb be the author of
  • autotroph -  plant capable of synthesizing its own food from simple organic substances
  • avidity -  a positive feeling of wanting to push ahead with something
  • babassu oil -  fatty oil from kernels of babassu nuts similar to coconut oil
  • bacterial -  relating to or caused by bacteria
  • bagasse -  the dry dusty pulp that remains after juice is extracted from sugar cane or similar plants
  • baker -  someone who bakes bread or cake; someone who bakes commercially
  • baking -  as hot as if in an oven;  cooking by dry heat in an oven; making bread or cake or pastry etc.
  • balsam of peru -  dark brown syrupy balsam from the Peruvian balsam tree used especially in dressing wounds and treating certain skin diseases
  • barley-sugar -  a brittle transparent candy made by melting and cooling cane sugar
  • barrel -  a cylindrical container that holds liquids; a tube through which a bullet travels when a gun is fired; any of various units of capacity; the quantity that a barrel (of any size) will hold; a bulging cylindrical shape; hollow with flat ends; verb put in barrels
  • bayberry wax -  a fragrant green wax obtained from the wax myrtle and used in making candles
  • beano -  a game in which numbered balls are drawn at random and players cover the corresponding numbers on their cards
  • beeswax -  a yellow to brown wax secreted by honeybees to build honeycombs; verb cover with beeswax
  • behaviour -  manner of acting or controlling yourself; (psychology) the aggregate of the responses or reactions or movements made by an organism in any situation; (behavioral attributes) the way a person behaves toward other people; the action or reaction of something (as a machine or substance) under specified circumstances
  • benchmark -  a surveyor's mark on a permanent object of predetermined position and elevation used as a reference point; a standard by which something can be measured or judged
  • bender -  a tool for bending; a pitch of a baseball that is thrown with spin so that its path curves as it approach the batter; revelry in drinking; a merry drinking party
  • benzoate -  any salt or ester of benzoic acid
  • bernstein -  United States conductor and composer (1918-1990)
  • beta-carotene -  an isomer of carotene that is found in dark green and dark yellow fruits and vegetables
  • beverage -  any liquid suitable for drinking
  • bile acid -  any of the steroid acids generated in the liver and stored with bile
  • biochemist -  someone with special training in biochemistry
  • biochemistry -  the organic chemistry of compounds and processes occuring in organisms; the effort to understand biology within the context of chemistry
  • biochip -  a microchip that uses tiny strands of DNA to latch onto and quickly recognize thousands of genes at a time; intended for use in a biological environment
  • biology -  the science that studies living organisms; characteristic life processes and phenomena of living organisms; all the plant and animal life of a particular region
  • biotin -  a B vitamin that aids in body growth
  • bitter orange -  highly acidic orange used especially in marmalade; any of various common orange trees yielding sour or bitter fruit; used as grafting stock
  • blackburn -  black-and-white North American wood warbler having an orange-and-black head and throat
  • blackout -  a momentary loss of consciousness; the failure of electric power for a general region; darkness resulting from the extinction of lights (as in a city invisible to enemy aircraft); a suspension of radio or tv broadcasting; partial or total loss of memory
  • bland diet -  a diet of foods that are not irritating
  • bloater -  large fatty herring lightly salted and briefly smoked
  • blubber -  an insulating layer of fat under the skin of whales and other large marine mammals; used as a source of oil; excess bodily weight; verb utter while crying; cry or whine with snuffling
  • body weight -  the weight of a person's body
  • bonbon -  a candy that usually has a center of fondant or fruit or nuts coated in chocolate
  • boost -  the act of giving hope or support to someone; the act of giving a push; an increase in cost; verb give a boost to; be beneficial to; increase or raise; push or shove upward, as if from below or behind; increase; contribute to the progress or growth of
  • bottled water -  drinking water (often spring water) that is put into bottles and offered for sale
  • bowman -  a person who is expert in the use of a bow and arrow
  • brazil -  the largest Latin American country and the largest Portuguese speaking country in the world; located in the central and northeastern part of South America; world's leading coffee exporter; three-sided tropical American nut with white oily meat and hard brown shell
  • breast -  the front part of the trunk from the neck to the abdomen; either of two soft fleshy milk-secreting glandular organs on the chest of a woman; meat carved from the breast of a fowl; verb reach the summit; meet at breast level; confront bodily
  • bridge -  any of various card games based on whist for four players; a structure that allows people or vehicles to cross an obstacle such as a river or canal or railway etc.; an upper deck where a ship is steered and the captain stands; the link between two lenses; rests on nose; a denture anchored to teeth on either side of missing teeth; a wooden support that holds the strings up; a circuit consisting of two branches (4 arms arranged in a diamond configuration) across which a meter is connected; the hard ridge that forms the upper part of the nose; something resembling a bridge in form or function; verb make a bridge across; cross over on a bridge; connect or reduce the distance between
  • brown sugar -  unrefined or only partly refined sugar
  • browsing -  the act of feeding by continual nibbling; reading superficially or at random
  • brucine -  a bitter alkaloid poison resembling strychnine and extracted from nux vomica
  • buspirone -  a drug (trade name BuSpar) designed specifically for anxiety
  • butanol -  a flammable alcohol derived from butanes and used for solvents
  • butanone -  colorless soluble flammable liquid ketone used as a solvent for resins and as a paint remover and in lacquers and cements and adhesives and cleaning fluids and celluloid
  • butterscotch -  a hard brittle candy made with butter and brown sugar
  • butyric acid -  an unpleasant smelling fatty acid found especially in butter
  • caffeine -  a bitter alkaloid found in coffee and tea that is responsible for their stimulating effects
  • calcium -  a white metallic element that burns with a brilliant light; the fifth most abundant element in the earth's crust; an important component of most plants and animals
  • calisthenics -  light exercises designed to promote general fitness; the practice of calisthenic exercises
  • camouflage -  device or stratagem for concealment or deceit; fabric dyed with splotches of green and brown and black and tan; intended to make the wearer of a garment made of this fabric hard to distinguish from the background; the act of concealing the identity of something by modifying its appearance; an outward semblance that misrepresents the true nature of something; verb disguise by camouflaging; exploit the natural surroundings to disguise something
  • canavanine -  an amino acid found in the jack bean
  • cancer -  type genus of the family Cancridae; the fourth sign of the zodiac; the sun is in this sign from about June 21 to July 22; a small zodiacal constellation in the northern hemisphere; between Leo and Gemini; (astrology) a person who is born while the sun is in Cancer; any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division; it may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream
  • candelilla wax -  a hard brown wax that occurs as a coating on candelilla shrubs
  • candied fruit -  fruit cooked in sugar syrup and encrusted with a sugar crystals
  • candy cane -  a hard candy in the shape of a rod (usually with stripes)
  • candy corn -  a small yellow and white candy shaped to resemble a kernel of corn
  • cannibalism -  the practice of eating the flesh of your own kind
  • caprylic acid -  a fatty acid having a rancid taste; found in butter and other fats and oils
  • capsid -  the outer covering of protein surrounding the nucleic acid of a virus; a variety of leaf bug
  • caramel -  having the color of caramel; of a moderate yellow-brown;  burnt sugar; used to color and flavor food; firm chewy candy made from caramelized sugar and butter and milk; a medium to dark tan color
  • carbohydrate -  an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals; includes simple sugars with small molecules as well as macromolecular substances; are classified according to the number of monosaccharide groups they contain
  • carbonated water -  effervescent beverage artificially charged with carbon dioxide
  • carboxylic acid -  an organic acid characterized by one or more carboxyl groups
  • carboxymethyl cellulose -  an acid derivative of cellulose
  • cardiac glycoside -  obtained from a number of plants and used to stimulate the heart in cases of heart failure
  • cardiologist -  a specialist in cardiology; a specialist in the structure and function and disorders of the heart
  • carlos -  Venezuelan master terrorist raised by a Marxist-Leninist father; trained and worked with many terrorist groups (born in 1949)
  • carnassial -  (of a tooth) adapted for shearing flesh
  • carnauba wax -  hard yellowish to brownish wax from leaves of the carnauba palm used especially in floor waxes and polishes
  • carnivore -  any animal that feeds on flesh; a terrestrial or aquatic flesh-eating mammal
  • carotene -  yellow or orange-red fat-soluble pigments in plants; an orange isomer of an unsaturated hydrocarbon found in many plants; is converted into vitamin A in the liver
  • carotenoid -  any of a class of highly unsaturated yellow to red pigments occurring in plants and animals
  • carrageenan -  a colloidal extract from carrageen seaweed and other red algae
  • carter -  someone whose work is driving carts; 39th President of the United States (1924-); Englishman and Egyptologist who in 1922 discovered and excavated the tomb of Tutankhamen (1873-1939)
  • casein -  a milk protein used in making e.g. plastics and adhesives; a water-base paint made with a protein precipitated from milk
  • caspase -  any of a group of proteases that mediate apoptosis
  • castor oil -  a purgative extracted from the seed of the castor plant; used in paint and varnish as well as medically
  • catalase -  enzyme found in most plant and animal cells that functions as an oxidative catalyst; decomposes hydrogen peroxide into hydrogen and water
  • catechin -  a tannic acid that is extracted from black catechu as a white crystalline substance
  • catechu -  East Indian spiny tree having twice-pinnate leaves and yellow flowers followed by flat pods; source of black catechu; extract of the heartwood of Acacia catechu used for dying and tanning and preserving fishnets and sails; formerly used medicinally
  • cefoperazone -  a parenteral cephalosporin (trade name Cefobid) used for severe infections
  • ceftriaxone -  a parenteral cephalosporin (trade name Rocephin) used for severe infection of the lungs or throat or ears or urinary tract
  • cefuroxime -  a cephalosporin that can be given parenterally (trade name Zinacef) or orally by tablets (trade name Ceftin); indicated for infections of the lungs or throat or ears or urinary tract or meninges
  • cellophane -  a transparent paperlike product that is impervious to moisture and used to wrap candy or cigarettes etc.
  • cellular -  characterized by or divided into or containing cells or compartments (the smallest organizational or structural unit of an organism or organization); relating to cells
  • celluloid -  artificial as if portrayed in a film;  highly flammable substance made from cellulose nitrate and camphor; used in e.g. motion-picture and X-ray film; its use has decreased with the development of nonflammable thermoplastics; a medium that disseminates moving pictures
  • cellulose -  a polysaccharide that is the chief constituent of all plant tissues and fibers
  • cellulose acetate -  an ester of acetic acid; used in fibers and fabrics; photographic films and varnishes
  • cellulose triacetate -  cellulose acetate that is relatively slow to burn; used instead of celluloid for motion-picture film
  • centriole -  one of a pair of small cylindrical cell organelles near the nucleus in animal cells; composed of nine triplet microtubules and form the asters during mitosis
  • centrum -  the main body of a vertebra
  • cephalosporin -  one of several broad spectrum antibiotic substances obtained from fungi and related to penicillin (trade names Mefoxin); addition of side chains has produced semisynthetic antibiotics with greater antibacterial activity
  • cerberus -  (Greek mythology) the three-headed dog guarding the entrance to Hades; son of Typhon
  • ceresin -  a white wax extracted from ozokerite
  • cerotic acid -  a white solid fatty acid found in waxes (such as beeswax)
  • chaperone -  one who accompanies and supervises a young woman or gatherings of young people; verb accompany as a chaperone
  • cheese -  a solid food prepared from the pressed curd of milk; erect or decumbent Old World perennial with axillary clusters of rosy-purple flowers; introduced in United States; verb wind onto a cheese; used in the imperative (get away, or stop it)
  • chemical -  relating to or used in chemistry; of or made from or using substances produced by or used in reactions involving atomic or molecular changes;  produced by or used in a reaction involving changes in atoms or molecules
  • chemical defense -  procedures involved in taking defensive measures against attacks using chemical agents
  • chemist -  a scientist who specializes in chemistry; a health professional trained in the art of preparing and dispensing drugs
  • chemistry -  the science of matter; the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions; the way two individuals relate to each other
  • chicory -  crisp spiky leaves with somewhat bitter taste; root of the chicory plant roasted and ground to substitute for or adulterate coffee; perennial Old World herb having rayed flower heads with blue florets cultivated for its root and its heads of crisp edible leaves used in salads; the dried root of the chicory plant: used as a coffee substitute
  • chin-up -  an arm exercise performed by pulling yourself up on a horizontal bar until your chin is level with the bar
  • chitin -  a tough semitransparent horny substance; the principal component of the exoskeletons of arthropods and the cell walls of certain fungi
  • chloral hydrate -  a colorless crystalline drug used as a sedative; irritates the stomach and can be addictive
  • chloramphenicol -  an oral antibiotic (trade name Chloromycetin) used to treat serious infections (especially typhoid fever)
  • chlorella -  any alga of the genus Chlorella
  • chloride -  any salt of hydrochloric acid (containing the chloride ion); any compound containing a chlorine atom
  • chocolate -  a medium brown to dark-brown color; a food made from roasted ground cacao beans; a beverage made from cocoa powder and milk and sugar; usually drunk hot
  • cholesterol -  an animal sterol that is normally synthesized by the liver; the most abundant steroid in animal tissues
  • cholic acid -  an insoluble crystalline acid present in bile
  • choline -  a B-complex vitamin that is a constituent of lecithin; essential in the metabolism of fat
  • chondrin -  a substance that resembles gelatin and is obtained by boiling cartilage in water
  • chorioretinitis -  inflammation of the choroid layer behind the retina
  • chromium -  a hard brittle multivalent metallic element; resistant to corrosion and tarnishing
  • chromosome -  a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
  • chunky -  like or containing small sticky lumps; short and thick; as e.g. having short legs and heavy musculature
  • chylomicron -  a microscopic particle of triglycerides produced in the intestines during digestion; in the bloodstream they release their fatty acids into the blood
  • cider mill -  mill that extracts juice from apples to make apple cider
  • cirrhosis -  a chronic disease interfering with the normal functioning of the liver; the major cause is chronic alcoholism
  • citrin -  a vitamin that maintains the resistance of cell and capillary walls to permeation
  • civet -  catlike mammal typically secreting musk used in perfumes
  • club soda -  effervescent beverage artificially charged with carbon dioxide
  • coal oil -  a flammable hydrocarbon oil used as fuel in lamps and heaters
  • cobalt -  a hard ferromagnetic silver-white bivalent or trivalent metallic element; a trace element in plant and animal nutrition
  • cocaine -  a narcotic (alkaloid) extracted from coca leaves; used as a surface anesthetic or taken for pleasure; can become powerfully addictive
  • cochineal -  a red dyestuff consisting of dried bodies of female cochineal insects; Mexican red scale insect that feeds on cacti; the source of a red dye
  • coconut oil -  oil from coconuts
  • cod liver oil -  an oil obtained from the livers of cod and similar fishes; taken orally as a source of vitamins A and D
  • coenzyme q -  any of several quinones found in living cells and that function as coenzymes that transfer electrons from one molecule to another in cell respiration
  • cofactor -  a substance (as a coenzyme) that must join with another to produce a given result
  • coffee filter -  filter (usually of paper) that passes the coffee and retains the coffee grounds
  • cohune oil -  semisolid fat from nuts of the cohune palm; used in cooking and soap making
  • collagen -  a fibrous scleroprotein in bone and cartilage and tendon and other connective tissue; yields gelatin on boiling
  • collagenase -  any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of collagen and gelatin
  • collodion -  a colorless syrupy solution of pyroxylin in ether and alcohol; used as a coating for wounds or photographic films
  • colostrum -  milky fluid secreted for the first day or two after parturition
  • colza oil -  edible light yellow to brown oil from rapeseed used also as a lubricant or illuminant
  • comfort food -  food that is simply prepared and gives a sense of wellbeing; typically food with a high sugar or carbohydrate content that is associated with childhood or with home cooking
  • company -  an institution created to conduct business; a unit of firefighters including their equipment; a social gathering of guests or companions; organization of performers and associated personnel (especially theatrical); small military unit; usually two or three platoons; the state of being with someone; crew of a ship including the officers; the whole force or personnel of a ship; a band of people associated temporarily in some activity; a social or business visitor; verb be a companion to somebody
  • complex -  complicated in structure; consisting of interconnected parts;  a conceptual whole made up of complicated and related parts; (psychoanalysis) a combination of emotions and impulses that have been rejected from awareness but still influence a person's behavior; a compound described in terms of the central atom to which other atoms are bound or coordinated; a whole structure (as a building) made up of interconnected or related structures
  • compound -  of leaf shapes; of leaves composed of several similar parts or lobes; consisting of two or more substances or ingredients or elements or parts; composed of many distinct individuals united to form a whole or colony;  an enclosure of residences and other building (especially in the Orient); a whole formed by a union of two or more elements or parts; (chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight; verb put or add together; combine so as to form a whole; mix; create by mixing or combining; calculate principal and interest; make more intense, stronger, or more marked
  • condenser -  lens used to concentrate light on an object; a hollow coil that condenses by abstracting heat; an apparatus that converts vapor into liquid; an electrical device characterized by its capacity to store an electric charge
  • confabulation -  (psychiatry) a plausible but imagined memory that fills in gaps in what is remembered; an informal conversation
  • confectionary -  a confectioner's shop
  • confectionery -  the occupation and skills of a confectioner; a confectioner's shop; candy and other sweets considered collectively
  • confit -  a piece of meat (especially a duck) cooked slowly in its own fat
  • confiture -  preserved or candied fruit
  • conformational entropy -  entropy calculated from the probability that a state could be reached by chance alone
  • conjugated protein -  a protein complex combining amino acids with other substances
  • constriction -  the action or process of compressing; a tight feeling in some part of the body; tight or narrow compression; a narrowing that reduces the flow through a channel
  • consumer -  a person who uses goods or services
  • convergence -  the act of converging (coming closer); the approach of an infinite series to a finite limit; the occurrence of two or more things coming together; a representation of common ground between theories or phenomena
  • cookbook -  a book of recipes and cooking directions
  • cooking -  the act of preparing something (as food) by the application of heat
  • cooking oil -  any of numerous vegetable oils used in cooking
  • cooler -  a refrigerator for cooling liquids; a cell for violent prisoners; an iced drink especially white wine and fruit juice
  • copper -  any of various small butterflies of the family Lycaenidae having coppery wings; a reddish-brown color resembling the color of polished copper; a copper penny; a ductile malleable reddish-brown corrosion-resistant diamagnetic metallic element; occurs in various minerals but is the only metal that occurs abundantly in large masses; used as an electrical and thermal conductor; uncomplimentary terms for a policeman; verb coat with a layer of copper
  • coprophagia -  eating feces; in human a symptom of some kinds of insanity
  • corn oil -  oil from the germs of corn grains
  • corn syrup -  syrup prepared from corn
  • corticosteroid -  a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex or synthesized; administered as drugs they reduce swelling and decrease the body's immune response
  • corticosterone -  secreted by the adrenal cortex; involved in regulating water and electrolyte balance in the body
  • cortisol -  an adrenal-cortex hormone (trade names Hydrocortone or Cortef) that is active in carbohydrate and protein metabolism
  • cortisone -  a corticosteroid hormone (trade name Cortone Acetate) normally produced by the adrenal cortex; is converted to hydrocortisone
  • cotton -  fabric woven from cotton fibers; thread made of cotton fibers; erect bushy mallow plant or small tree bearing bolls containing seeds with many long hairy fibers; soft silky fibers from cotton plants in their raw state; verb take a liking to
  • cottonseed oil -  edible oil pressed from cottonseeds
  • creamery -  a workplace where dairy products (butter and cheese etc.) are produced or sold
  • creatine -  an amino acid that does not occur in proteins but is found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates both in the free form and as phosphocreatine; supplies energy for muscle contraction
  • creosol -  a colorless to yellow aromatic liquid that is a constituent of creosote
  • crohn's disease -  a serious chronic and progressive inflammation of the ileum producing frequent bouts of diarrhea with abdominal pain and nausea and fever and weight loss
  • cross-link -  a side bond that links two adjacent chains of atoms in a complex molecule; verb join by creating covalent bonds (of adjacent chains of a polymer or protein)
  • crunch -  the sound of something crunching; a critical situation that arises because of a shortage (as a shortage of time or money or resources); the act of crushing; verb make crunching noises; chew noisily; press or grind with a crunching noise; reduce to small pieces or particles by pounding or abrading
  • culinary -  of or relating to or used in cooking
  • curare -  a toxic alkaloid found in certain tropical South American trees that is a powerful relaxant for striated muscles
  • curing -  the process of becoming hard or solid by cooling or drying or crystallization
  • cushing's disease -  a glandular disorder caused by excessive ACTH resulting in greater than normal functioning of the adrenal gland; characterized by obesity
  • cushing's syndrome -  a glandular disorder caused by excessive cortisol
  • cyanamide -  a weak soluble dibasic acid (the parent acid of cyanamide salts); a compound used as a fertilizer and as a source of nitrogen compounds
  • cyanocobalamin -  a B vitamin that is used to treat pernicious anemia
  • cyclooxygenase -  either of two related enzymes that control the production of prostaglandins and are blocked by aspirin
  • cytochrome c -  the most abundant and stable cytochrome; involved in energy transfer
  • cytokine -  any of various proteins secreted by cells of the immune system that serve to regulate the immune system
  • cytokinin -  any of a class of plant hormones that promote cell division and delay the senescence of leaves
  • cytoskeleton -  a microscopic network of actin filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells that gives the cell shape and coherence
  • dairy product -  milk and butter and cheese
  • danger zone -  a dangerous area
  • database -  an organized body of related information
  • decanoic acid -  a fatty acid found in animal oils and fats; has an unpleasant smell resembling goats
  • deficiency -  lack of an adequate quantity or number; the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable
  • dehydration -  the process of extracting moisture; depletion of bodily fluids; dryness resulting from the removal of water
  • delirium tremens -  acute delirium caused by alcohol poisoning
  • deoxyribose -  a sugar that is a constituent of nucleic acids
  • dermatitis -  inflammation of the skin; skin becomes itchy and may develop blisters
  • dermatomyositis -  myositis characterized by weakness of limb and neck muscles and much muscle pain and selling accompanied by skin rash affecting cheeks and eyelids and neck and chest and limbs; progression and severity vary among individuals
  • dessert wine -  still sweet wine often served with dessert or after a meal
  • detoxification -  treatment for poisoning by neutralizing the toxic properties (normally a function of the liver); a treatment for addiction to drugs or alcohol intended to remove the physiological effects of the addictive substances
  • device -  any clever maneuver; an instrumentality invented for a particular purpose; an emblematic design (especially in heraldry); any ornamental pattern or design (as in embroidery); something in an artistic work designed to achieve a particular effect
  • dexamethasone -  a corticosteroid drug (trade names Decadron or Dexamethasone Intensol or Dexone or Hexadrol or Oradexon) used to treat allergies or inflammation
  • dextrin -  any of various polysaccharides obtained by hydrolysis of starch; a tasteless and odorless gummy substance that is used as a thickening agent and in adhesives and in dietary supplements
  • diabetes -  any of several metabolic disorders marked by excessive urination and persistent thirst
  • diabetes insipidus -  a rare form of diabetes resulting from a deficiency of vasopressin (the pituitary hormone that regulates the kidneys); characterized by the chronic excretion of large amounts of pale dilute urine which results in dehydration and extreme thirst
  • diabetic diet -  a diet designed to help control the symptoms of diabetes
  • diamine -  any organic compound containing two amino groups
  • dielectric heating -  heating of an insulator by a high-frequency electric field
  • dieting -  the act of restricting your food intake (or your intake of particular foods)
  • dietitian -  a specialist in the study of nutrition
  • digestion -  learning and coming to understand ideas and information; the organic process by which food is converted into substances that can be absorbed into the body; the process of decomposing organic matter (as in sewage) by bacteria or by chemical action or heat
  • dihydrostreptomycin -  antibiotic consisting of a hydrogenated form of streptomycin; used against tuberculosis and tularemia and Gram-negative organisms
  • diphenhydramine -  antihistamine (trade name Benadryl) used to treat allergic reactions involving the nasal passages (hay fever) and also to treat motion sickness
  • dippel's oil -  dark-colored ill-smelling oil obtained by carbonizing bone; used especially in sheep dips and in denaturing alcohol
  • dipsomania -  an intense persistent desire to drink alcoholic beverages to excess
  • directive -  showing the way by conducting or leading; imposing direction on;  a procement encouraging or banning some activity
  • disaccharide -  any of a variety of carbohydrates that yield two monosaccharide molecules on complete hydrolysis
  • disambiguation -  clarification that follows from the removal of ambiguity
  • disease -  an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning
  • dishevelled -  in disarray; extremely disorderly
  • disorder -  a disturbance of the peace or of public order; condition in which there is a disturbance of normal functioning; a condition in which things are not in their expected places; verb bring disorder to; disturb in mind or make uneasy or cause to be worried or alarmed
  • distilled water -  water that has been purified by distillation
  • disulfiram -  a drug (trade name Antabuse) used in the treatment of alcoholism; causes nausea and vomiting if alcohol is ingested
  • docking -  the act of securing an arriving vessel with ropes
  • docosahexaenoic acid -  an omega-3 fatty acid with 22 carbon atoms; found in fish (especially tuna and bluefish)
  • doctor -  children take the roles of physician or patient or nurse and pretend they are at the physician's office; a licensed medical practitioner; a person who holds Ph.D. degree (or the equivalent) from an academic institution; (Roman Catholic Church) a title conferred on 33 saints who distinguished themselves through the orthodoxy of their theological teaching; verb give medical treatment to; restore by replacing a part or putting together what is torn or broken; alter and make impure, as with the intention to deceive
  • dog biscuit -  a hard biscuit for dogs
  • dog food -  food prepared for dogs
  • domain -  a knowledge domain that you are interested in or are communicating about; territory over which rule or control is exercised; the set of values of the independent variable for which a function is defined; people in general; especially a distinctive group of people with some shared interest; a particular environment or walk of life
  • dorian -  a member of one of the four divisions of the prehistoric Greeks
  • doxorubicin -  an antibiotic used as an anticancer drug
  • drinking fountain -  a public fountain to provide a jet of drinking water
  • drinking water -  water suitable for drinking
  • dripping -  having liquid falling in drops; wet with secreted or exuded moisture such as sweat or tears;  extremely wet;  a liquid (as water) that flows in drops (as from the eaves of house); the sound of a liquid falling drop by drop
  • drying oil -  an oil that hardens in air due to oxidation and is often used as a paint or varnish base
  • earwax -  a soft yellow wax secreted by glands in the ear canal
  • eating -  the act of consuming food
  • ecology -  the branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms and their environment; the environment as it relates to living organisms
  • effective -  existing in fact; not theoretical; real; able to accomplish a purpose; functioning effectively; exerting force or influence; producing or capable of producing an intended result or having a striking effect; works well as a means or remedy; ready for service
  • effector -  an organ (a gland or muscle) that becomes active in response to nerve impulses; a nerve fiber that terminates on a muscle or gland and stimulates contraction or secretion; one who brings about a result or event; one who accomplishes a purpose
  • eicosapentaenoic acid -  an omega-3 fatty acid with 20 carbon atoms; found in fish (especially tuna and bluefish)
  • elaidic acid -  a mosaturated fatty acid that has the same structure as oleic acid except that it is a trans fatty acid; the major trans fatty acid in margarine and fried foods
  • elastin -  a fibrous scleroprotein found in elastic tissues such as the walls of arteries
  • electron microscope -  a microscope that is similar in purpose to a light microscope but achieves much greater resolving power by using a parallel beam of electrons to illuminate the object instead of a beam of light
  • emaciation -  extreme leanness (usually caused by starvation or disease)
  • endocrinology -  the branch of medicine dealing with the endocrine glands and their secretions
  • endonuclease -  a nuclease that cleaves nucleic acids at interior bonds and so produces fragments of various sizes
  • energy -  an imaginative lively style (especially style of writing); enterprising or ambitious drive; forceful exertion; (physics) the capacity of a physical system to do work; the units of energy are joules or ergs; a healthy capacity for vigorous activity; the federal department responsible for maintaining a national energy policy of the United States; created in 1977
  • engineer -  a person who uses scientific knowledge to solve practical problems; the operator of a railway locomotive; verb design as an engineer; plan and direct (a complex undertaking)
  • engineering -  a room (as on a ship) in which the engine is located; the discipline dealing with the art or science of applying scientific knowledge to practical problems; the practical application of science to commerce or industry
  • ensure - verb be careful or certain to do something; make certain of something; make certain of
  • enterotoxin -  a cytotoxin specific for the cells of the intestinal mucosa
  • entrepreneur -  someone who organizes a business venture and assumes the risk for it
  • enzyme -  any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
  • ephedra -  jointed and nearly leafless desert shrub having reduced scalelike leaves and reddish fleshy seeds
  • epstein -  British sculptor (born in the United States) noted for busts and large controversial works (1880-1959)
  • eratosthenes -  Greek mathematician and astronomer who estimated the circumference of the earth and the distances to the moon and sun (276-194 BC)
  • ergocalciferol -  a fat-soluble vitamin that prevents rickets
  • ergosterol -  a plant sterol that is converted into vitamin D by ultraviolet radiation
  • erythromycin -  an antibiotic (trade name Erythrocin or E-Mycin or Ethril or Ilosone or Pediamycin) obtained from the actinomycete Streptomyces erythreus; effective against many Gram-positive bacteria and some Gram-negative
  • erythropoietin -  a glycoprotein secreted by the kidneys that stimulates the production of red blood cells
  • essential amino acid -  an amino acid that is required by animals but that they cannot synthesize; must be supplied in the diet
  • essential hypertension -  persistent and pathological high blood pressure for which no specific cause can be found
  • estradiol -  the most powerful female hormone that occurs naturally; synthesized and used to treat estrogen deficiency and breast cancer
  • estriol -  a naturally occurring estrogenic hormone; a synthetic form is used to treat estrogen deficiency
  • estrogen -  a general term for female steroid sex hormones that are secreted by the ovary and responsible for typical female sexual characteristics
  • estrone -  a naturally occurring weak estrogenic hormone secreted by the mammalian ovary; synthesized (trade name Estronol) and used to treat estrogen deficiency
  • etanercept -  a genetically engineered anti-TNF compound (trade name Enbrel) consisting of receptors that bind TNF; it is injected twice a week in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
  • ethyl acetate -  a fragrant colorless flammable volatile liquid ester made from ethanol and acetic acid; used in flavorings and perfumes and as a solvent for plastics
  • ethylene glycol -  a sweet but poisonous syrupy liquid used as an antifreeze and solvent
  • eucalyptus oil -  an essential oil obtained from the leaves of eucalypts
  • exercise -  the activity of exerting your muscles in various ways to keep fit; a task performed or problem solved in order to develop skill or understanding; systematic training by multiple repetitions; (usually plural) a ceremony that involves processions and speeches; the act of using; verb do physical exercise; give a workout to; learn by repetition; put to use; carry out or practice; as of jobs and professions
  • exonuclease -  a nuclease that releases one nucleotide at a time (serially) beginning at one of a nucleic acid
  • explorer -  someone who travels into little known regions (especially for some scientific purpose); a commercial browser
  • extract -  a passage selected from a larger work; a solution obtained by steeping or soaking a substance (usually in water); verb calculate the root of a number; remove, usually with some force or effort; also used in an abstract sense; separate (a metal) from an ore; get despite difficulties or obstacles; extract by the process of distillation; take out of a literary work in order to cite or copy; obtain from a substance, as by mechanical action; deduce (a principle) or construe (a meaning)
  • factor viii -  a coagulation factor (trade name Hemofil) whose absence is associated with hemophilia A
  • fad diet -  a reducing diet that enjoys temporary popularity
  • family -  primary social group; parents and children; people descended from a common ancestor; a social unit living together; (biology) a taxonomic group containing one or more genera; an association of people who share common beliefs or activities; a collection of things sharing a common attribute; a loose affiliation of gangsters in charge of organized criminal activities; a person having kinship with another or others
  • famine -  a severe shortage of food (as through crop failure) resulting in violent hunger and starvation and death; an acute insufficiency
  • fast day -  a day designated for fasting
  • fasting -  abstaining from food
  • fat chance -  little or no chance of success
  • fatty acid -  any of a class of aliphatic monocarboxylic acids that form part of a lipid molecule and can be derived from fat by hydrolysis; fatty acids are simple molecules built around a series of carbon atoms linked together in a chain of 12 to 22 carbon atoms
  • fed up -  having a strong distaste from surfeit
  • fermentation -  a process in which an agent causes an organic substance to break down into simpler substances; especially, the anaerobic breakdown of sugar into alcohol; a state of agitation or turbulent change or development
  • ferritin -  a protein containing 20% iron that is found in the intestines and liver and spleen; it is one of the chief forms in which iron is stored in the body
  • fertilizer -  any substance such as manure or a mixture of nitrates used to make soil more fertile
  • fibrin -  a white insoluble fibrous protein formed by the action of thrombin on fibrinogen when blood clots; it forms a network that traps red cells and platelets
  • fibrinogen -  a protein present in blood plasma; converts to fibrin when blood clots
  • filaggrin -  the main protein of the keratohyalin granules
  • filmmaker -  a producer of motion pictures
  • finger food -  food to be eaten with the fingers
  • fish oil -  a fatty oil obtained from the livers of various fish
  • fishing -  the act of someone who fishes as a diversion; the occupation of catching fish for a living
  • fitness -  the condition of being suitable; the quality of being qualified; good physical condition; being in shape or in condition; fitness to traverse the seas
  • flagellum -  a lash-like appendage used for locomotion (e.g., in sperm cells and some bacteria and protozoa); a whip used to inflict punishment (often used for pedantic humor)
  • flavor -  (physics) the six kinds of quarks; the taste experience when a savoury condiment is taken into the mouth; the general atmosphere of a place or situation and the effect that it has on people; verb lend flavor to
  • flavour -  the taste experience when a savoury condiment is taken into the mouth; (physics) the six kinds of quarks; the general atmosphere of a place or situation and the effect that it has on people; verb lend flavor to
  • flying saucer -  an (apparently) flying object whose nature is unknown; especially those considered to have extraterrestrial origins
  • foie gras -  a pate made from goose liver (marinated in Cognac) and truffles
  • folate -  a B vitamin that is essential for cell growth and reproduction
  • folding -  capable of being folded up and stored;  the act of folding; a geological process that causes a bend in a stratum of rock; the process whereby a protein molecule assumes its intricate three-dimensional shape
  • food additive -  an additive to food intended to improve its flavor or appearance or shelf-life
  • food coloring -  a digestible substance used to give color to food
  • food company -  a company that processes and sells food
  • food pyramid -  (ecology) a hierarchy of food chains with the principal predator at the top; each level preys on the level below
  • foraging -  the act of searching for food and provisions
  • freeze-drying -  a method of drying food or blood plasma or pharmaceuticals or tissue without destroying their physical structure; material is frozen and then warmed in a vacuum so that the ice sublimes
  • freshman -  used of a person in the first year of an experience (especially in United States high school or college);  a first-year undergraduate; any new participant in some activity
  • frozen food -  food preserved by freezing
  • fructose -  a simple sugar found in honey and in many ripe fruits
  • furan -  a colorless toxic flammable liquid used in the synthesis of nylon
  • furfural -  a liquid aldehyde with a penetrating odor; made from plant hulls and corn cobs; used in making furan and as a solvent
  • future -  coming at a subsequent time or stage; (of elected officers) elected but not yet serving; yet to be or coming; effective in or looking toward the future; a verb tense or other formation referring to events or states that have not yet happened;  bulk commodities bought or sold at an agreed price for delivery at a specified future date; a verb tense that expresses actions or states in the future; the time yet to come
  • galactagogue -  agent that induces milk secretion
  • galactose -  a simple sugar found in lactose
  • gamma globulin -  a plasma protein containing the immunoglobulins that are responsible for immune responses
  • gangrene -  necrotic tissue; a mortified or gangrenous part or mass; the localized death of living cells (as from infection or the interruption of blood supply); verb undergo necrosis
  • garland -  a city in northeastern Texas (suburb of Dallas); United States singer and film actress (1922-1969); flower arrangement consisting of a circular band of foliage or flowers for ornamental purposes; an anthology of short literary pieces and poems and ballads etc.; verb adorn with bands of flowers or leaves
  • gaucher's disease -  a rare chronic disorder of lipid metabolism of genetic origin
  • gelatin -  a thin translucent membrane used over stage lights for color effects; an edible jelly (sweet or pungent) made with gelatin and used as a dessert or salad base or a coating for foods; a colorless water-soluble glutinous protein obtained from animal tissues such as bone and skin
  • gemfibrozil -  medication (trade name Lopid) used to lower the levels of triglyceride in the blood
  • general -  prevailing among and common to the general public; not specialized or limited to one class of things; applying to all or most members of a category or group; of national scope; affecting the entire body; somewhat indefinite; of worldwide scope or applicability;  a fact about the whole (as opposed to particular); a general officer of the highest rank; the head of a religious order or congregation; verb command as a general
  • genetics -  the branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms
  • gentamicin -  an antibiotic (trade name Garamycin) that is derived from an actinomycete; used in treating infections of the urinary tract
  • genu valgum -  an inward slant of the thigh
  • geophagia -  eating earth or clay or chalk; occurs in some primitive tribes or sometimes in cases of nutritional deficiency
  • george -  Elector of Hanover and the first Hanoverian King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1714 to 1727 (1660-1727); King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover from 1727 to 1760 (1683-1760); King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1760 to 1820; the American colonies were lost during his reign; he became insane in 1811 and his son (later George IV) acted as regent until 1820 (1738-1820); King of Great Britain and Ireland and Hanover from 1820 to 1830; his attempt to divorce his estranged wife undermined the prestige of the crown (1762-1830); King of Great Britain and Ireland and emperor of India from 1910 to 1936; gave up his German title in 1917 during World War I (1865-1936); King of Great Britain and Ireland and emperor of India from 1936 to 1947; he succeeded Edward VIII (1895-1952); Christian martyr; patron saint of England; hero of the legend of Saint George and the Dragon in which he slew a dragon and saved a princess (?-303)
  • geyser -  a spring that discharges hot water and steam; verb to overflow like a geyser
  • ghrelin -  a hormone produced by stomach cells
  • gibberellic acid -  a crystalline acid associated with gibberellin
  • gibberellin -  a plant hormone isolated from a fungus; used in promoting plant growth
  • ginseng -  Chinese herb with palmately compound leaves and small greenish flowers and forked aromatic roots believed to have medicinal powers; aromatic root of ginseng plants
  • girth -  the distance around a person's body; stable gear consisting of a band around a horse's belly that holds the saddle in place; verb encircle or bind; tie a cinch around
  • globin -  a colorless protein obtained by removing heme from hemoglobin; the oxygen carrying compound in red blood cells
  • globulin -  a family of proteins found in blood and milk and muscle and in plant seed
  • glucocorticoid -  a steroid hormone that is produced by the adrenal cortex of animals; affects functioning of gonads and has anti-inflammatory activity
  • glucose -  a monosaccharide sugar that has several forms; an important source of physiological energy
  • glucoside -  a glycoside derived from glucose
  • glutamine -  a crystalline amino acid occurring in proteins; important in protein metabolism
  • glutelin -  a simple protein found in the seeds of cereals
  • gluten -  a protein substance that remains when starch is removed from cereal grains; gives cohesiveness to dough
  • gluttony -  eating to excess (personified as one of the deadly sins); habitual eating to excess
  • glyceraldehyde -  a sweet crystalline aldehyde formed by the breakdown of sugars
  • glyceric acid -  a syrupy acid obtained by oxidation of glycerol or glyceraldehyde
  • glyceride -  an ester of glycerol and fatty acids that occurs naturally as fats and fatty oils
  • glycerol -  a sweet syrupy trihydroxy alcohol obtained by saponification of fats and oils
  • glycogen -  one form in which body fuel is stored; stored primarily in the liver and broken down into glucose when needed by the body
  • glycolysis -  a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP
  • glycoprotein -  a conjugated protein having a carbohydrate component
  • glycoside -  a group of compounds derived from monosaccharides
  • golden syrup -  a pale cane syrup
  • gratitude -  a feeling of thankfulness and appreciation
  • grazing -  the act of brushing against while passing; the act of grazing
  • greek key -  an ornamental pattern consisting of repeated vertical and horizontal lines (often in relief)
  • griseofulvin -  a kind of penicillin (a fungicidal antibiotic with the trade name Fulvicin) produced by molds of the genus Penicillium
  • growth factor -  a protein that is involved in cell differentiation and growth
  • growth hormone -  a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland; promotes growth in humans
  • gumdrop -  a jellied candy coated with sugar crystals
  • gynecomastia -  excessive development of the breasts in males; usually the result of hormonal imbalance or treatment with certain drugs (including some antihypertensives)
  • hair of the dog -  an alcoholic drink supposed to cure a hangover
  • hair oil -  a toiletry for the hair
  • hamlet -  a community of people smaller than a village; the hero of William Shakespeare's tragedy who hoped to avenge the murder of his father; a settlement smaller than a town
  • hand tool -  a tool used with workers' hands
  • hangover -  something that has survived from the past; disagreeable aftereffects from the use of drugs (especially alcohol); an official who remains in office after his term
  • hard candy -  candy that is brittle
  • harris -  publisher of the first newspaper printed in America (1673-1713); British marshal of the Royal Air Force; during World War II he directed mass bombing raids against German cities that resulted in heavy civilian casualties (1892-1984); Irish writer noted for his sexually explicit but unreliable autobiography (1856-1931); United States diplomat who was instrumental in opening Japan to foreign trade (1804-1878)
  • harvest -  the season for gathering crops; the gathering of a ripened crop; the consequence of an effort or activity; the yield from plants in a single growing season; verb remove from a culture or a living or dead body, as for the purposes of transplantation; gather, as of natural products
  • health -  the general condition of body and mind; a healthy state of wellbeing free from disease
  • heating oil -  a petroleum product used for fuel
  • hematochrome -  a reddish coloring material found in some algae
  • hemolysin -  any substance that can cause lysis (destruction) of erythrocytes (red blood cells) and the release of their hemoglobin
  • hemorrhoid -  pain caused by venous swelling at or inside the anal sphincter
  • heparin -  a polysaccharide produced in basophils (especially in the lung and liver) and that inhibits the activity of thrombin in coagulation of the blood; it (trade names Lipo-Hepin and Liquaemin) is used as an anticoagulant in the treatment of thrombosis and in heart surgery
  • heptadecanoic acid -  a colorless crystalline synthetic fatty acid
  • herbal medicine -  the use of medicinal herbs to prevent or treat disease or promote health; a medicine made from plants and used to prevent or treat disease or promote health
  • herbivore -  any animal that feeds chiefly on grass and other plants
  • herman -  United States jazz musician and bandleader (1913-1987)
  • herring -  commercially important food fish of northern waters of both Atlantic and Pacific; valuable flesh of fatty fish from shallow waters of northern Atlantic or Pacific; usually salted or pickled
  • heterologous -  derived from organisms of a different but related species; not corresponding in structure or evolutionary origin
  • hexanoic acid -  a fatty acid found in animal oils and fats or made synthetically; smells like goats
  • hexose -  a monosaccharide that contains six carbon atoms per molecule
  • histidine -  an essential amino acid found in proteins that is important for the growth and repair of tissue
  • histone -  a simple protein containing mainly basic amino acids; present in cell nuclei in association with nucleic acids
  • history -  the discipline that records and interprets past events involving human beings; all that is remembered of the past as preserved in writing; a body of knowledge; a record or narrative description of past events; the aggregate of past events; the continuum of events occurring in succession leading from the past to the present and even into the future
  • hoarding -  large outdoor signboard
  • homeobox -  one of various similar homeotic genes that are involved in bodily segmentation during embryonic development
  • homogenization -  the act of making something homogeneous or uniform in composition
  • hopkins -  Welsh film actor (born in 1937); English biochemist who did pioneering work that led to the discovery of vitamins (1861-1947); English poet (1844-1889); United States financier and philanthropist who left money to found the university and hospital that bear his name in Baltimore (1795-1873); United States educator and theologian (1802-1887)
  • hot spring -  a natural spring of water at a temperature of 70 F or above
  • hothead -  a reckless impetuous irresponsible person; a belligerent grouch
  • humbug -  communication (written or spoken) intended to deceive; something intended to deceive; deliberate trickery intended to gain an advantage; pretentious or silly talk or writing; verb trick or deceive
  • hunger -  strong desire for something (not food or drink); a physiological need for food; the consequence of food deprivation; verb feel the need to eat; be hungry; go without food; have a craving, appetite, or great desire for
  • hunger strike -  a voluntary fast undertaken as a means of protest
  • hyalin -  a glassy translucent material that occurs in hyaline cartilage or in certain skin conditions
  • hyaluronic acid -  a viscous mucopolysaccharide found in the connective tissue space and the synovial fluid of movable joints and the humors of the eye; a cementing and protective substance
  • hyderabad -  a city in south central India in Andhra Pradesh; a city in southern Pakistan on the Indus River
  • hydrocortisone -  an adrenal-cortex hormone (trade names Hydrocortone or Cortef) that is active in carbohydrate and protein metabolism
  • hydrogen -  a nonmetallic univalent element that is normally a colorless and odorless highly flammable diatomic gas; the simplest and lightest and most abundant element in the universe
  • hydrology -  the branch of geology that studies water on the earth and in the atmosphere: its distribution and uses and conservation
  • hydrolysate -  a product of hydrolysis
  • hydroxy -  being or containing a hydroxyl group
  • hydroxymethyl -  a methyl with hydroxide replacing the hydrogen atoms
  • hyoscine -  an alkaloid with anticholinergic effects that is used as a sedative and to treat nausea and to dilate the pupils in ophthalmic procedures
  • hyoscyamine -  a poisonous crystalline alkaloid (isometric with atropine but more potent); used to treat excess motility of the gastrointestinal tract
  • hypercholesterolemia -  the presence of an abnormal amount of cholesterol in the cells and plasma of the blood; associated with the risk of atherosclerosis
  • hyperextension -  greater than normal extension
  • hyperlipidemia -  presence of excess lipids in the blood
  • hypertension -  a common disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater)
  • hypervitaminosis -  an abnormal condition resulting from taking vitamins excessively; can be serious for vitamins A or D or K
  • hypobetalipoproteinemia -  a hereditary disorder characterized by low levels of beta-lipoproteins and lipids and cholesterol
  • hypokalemia -  abnormally low level of potassium in the circulating blood leading to weakness and heart abnormalities; associated with adrenal tumors or starvation or taking diuretics
  • hypolipoproteinemia -  any of various disorders of lipoprotein and cholesterol metabolism that result in low levels of lipoprotein and cholesterol in the circulating blood
  • hyponatremia -  abnormally low level of sodium in the blood; associated with dehydration
  • hypothalamic -  of or relating to the hypothalamus
  • ice pack -  a waterproof bag filled with ice: applied to the body (especially the head) to cool or reduce swelling; a large expanse of floating ice
  • icebox -  white goods in which food can be stored at low temperatures
  • immunoelectrophoresis -  electrophoresis to separate antigens and antibodies
  • immunoglobulin a -  one of the most common of the five major classes of immunoglobulins; the chief antibody in the membranes of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts
  • immunoglobulin d -  one of the five major classes of immunoglobulins; present in blood serum in small amounts
  • immunoglobulin e -  one of the five major classes of immunoglobulins; present primarily in the skin and mucous membranes
  • immunoglobulin g -  one of the five major classes of immunoglobulins; the main antibody defense against bacteria
  • immunoglobulin m -  one of the five major classes of immunoglobulins; involved in fighting blood infections and in triggering production of immunoglobulin G
  • immunohistochemistry -  an assay that shows specific antigens in tissues by the use of markers that are either fluorescent dyes or enzymes (such as horseradish peroxidase)
  • immunology -  the branch of medical science that studies the body's immune system
  • incorporated -  introduced into as a part of the whole; organized and maintained as a legal corporation; formed or united into a whole
  • induced -  brought about or caused; not spontaneous
  • infant -  a very young child (birth to 1 year) who has not yet begun to walk or talk
  • infant feeding -  feeding an infant
  • infliximab -  an anti-TNF compound (trade name Remicade) consisting of an antibody directed against TNF; it is given intravenously at one-month to three-month intervals; used in treatment of regional enteritis and rheumatoid arthritis
  • inhibitor -  a substance that retards or stops an activity
  • inositol -  an optically inactive alcohol that is a component of the vitamin B complex
  • insectivore -  any organism that feeds mainly on insects; small insect-eating mainly nocturnal terrestrial or fossorial mammals
  • insulin -  hormone secreted by the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas; regulates storage of glycogen in the liver and accelerates oxidation of sugar in cells
  • interferon -  an antiviral protein produced by cells that have been invaded by a virus; inhibits replication of the virus
  • interleukin -  any of several lymphokines that promote macrophages and killer T cells and B cells and other components of the immune system
  • intestinal bypass -  surgical operation that shortens the small intestine; used in treating obesity
  • inulin -  used to manufacture fructose and in assessing kidney function
  • iodide -  a salt or ester of hydriodic acid
  • iodine -  a nonmetallic element belonging to the halogens; used especially in medicine and photography and in dyes; occurs naturally only in combination in small quantities (as in sea water or rocks); a tincture consisting of a solution of iodine in ethyl alcohol; applied topically to wounds as an antiseptic
  • ionization -  the process of ionizing; the formation of ions by separating atoms or molecules or radicals or by adding or subtracting electrons from atoms by strong electric fields in a gas; the condition of being dissociated into ions (as by heat or radiation or chemical reaction or electrical discharge)
  • iron deficiency anemia -  a form of anemia due to lack of iron in the diet or to iron loss as a result of chronic bleeding
  • isoleucine -  an essential amino acid found in proteins; isomeric with leucine
  • isoniazid -  antibacterial drug (trade name Nydrazid) used to treat tuberculosis
  • isothiocyanate -  a family of compounds derived from horseradish and radishes and onions and mustards; source of the hotness of those plants and preparations
  • jackknife -  a dive in which the diver bends to touch the ankles before straightening out; a large knife with one or more folding blades; verb dive into the water bending the body at the waist at a right angle, like a jackknife
  • jacobs -  Dutch physician who opened the first birth control clinic in the world in Amsterdam (1854-1929); United States writer and critic of urban planning (born in 1916); English writer of macabre short stories (1863-1943)
  • jaggery -  unrefined brown sugar made from palm sap
  • japan wax -  a yellow wax obtained from sumac berries; used in polishes
  • journal -  the part of the axle contained by a bearing; a record book as a physical object; a periodical dedicated to a particular subject; a daily written record of (usually personal) experiences and observations; a ledger in which transactions have been recorded as they occurred
  • jujube -  chewy fruit-flavored jellied candy (sometimes medicated to soothe a sore throat); dark red plumlike fruit of Old World buckthorn trees; spiny tree having dark red edible fruits
  • keratin -  a fibrous scleroprotein that occurs in the outer layer of the skin and in horny tissues such as hair feathers nails and hooves
  • keratohyalin -  hyaline in the large granules of the stratum granulosum
  • kerosene -  a flammable hydrocarbon oil used as fuel in lamps and heaters
  • ketose -  any monosaccharide sugar that contains a ketone group or its hemiacetal
  • ketosteroid -  a steroid containing a ketone group
  • kinase -  an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of a proenzyme to an active enzyme
  • kindling -  material for starting a fire; the act of setting something on fire
  • kipper -  salted and smoked herring
  • kwashiorkor -  severe malnutrition in children resulting from a diet excessively high in carbohydrates and low in protein
  • lactation -  the production and secretion of milk by the mammary glands; the period following birth during which milk is secreted; feeding an infant by giving suck at the breast
  • lactobacillus -  Gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria that produce lactic acid especially in milk
  • lactose -  a sugar comprising one glucose molecule linked to a galactose molecule; occurs only in milk
  • lactose intolerance -  congenital disorder consisting of an inability to digest milk and milk products; absence or deficiency of lactase results in an inability to hydrolyze lactose
  • lanolin -  an emollient containing wool fat (a fatty substance obtained from the wool of sheep); a yellow viscous animal oil extracted from wool; a mixture of fatty acids and esters; used in some ointments and cosmetics
  • larder -  a supply of food especially for a household; a small storeroom for storing foods or wines
  • latch -  catch for fastening a door or gate; a bar that can be lowered or slid into a groove; spring-loaded doorlock that can only be opened from the outside with a key; verb fasten with a latch
  • lauric acid -  a crystalline fatty acid occurring as glycerides in natural fats and oils (especially coconut oil and palm-kernel oil)
  • lecithin -  a yellow phospholipid essential for the metabolism of fats; found in egg yolk and in many plant and animal cells; used commercially as an emulsifier
  • lectin -  any of several plant glycoproteins that act like specific antibodies but are not antibodies in that they are not evoked by an antigenic stimulus
  • lemon drop -  a hard candy with lemon flavor and a yellow color and (usually) the shape of a lemon
  • leucine -  a white crystalline amino acid occurring in proteins that is essential for nutrition; obtained by the hydrolysis of most dietary proteins
  • lichen -  any thallophytic plant of the division Lichenes; occur as crusty patches or bushy growths on tree trunks or rocks or bare ground etc.; any of several eruptive skin diseases characterized by hard thick lesions grouped together and resembling lichens growing on rocks
  • ligand -  an atom or molecule or radical or ion that forms a complex around a central atom
  • limonene -  a liquid terpene with a lemon odor; found in lemons and oranges and other essential oils
  • linalool -  a colorless fragrant liquid found in many essential oils
  • linoleic acid -  a liquid polyunsaturated fatty acid abundant in plant fats and oils; a fatty acid essential for nutrition; used to make soap
  • linolenic acid -  a liquid polyunsaturated fatty acid that occurs in some plant oils; an essential fatty acid
  • linseed oil -  a drying oil extracted from flax seed and used in making such things as oil paints
  • lipomatosis -  pathology in which fat accumulates in lipomas in the body
  • lipoprotein -  a conjugated protein having a lipid component; the principal means for transporting lipids in the blood
  • liquefaction -  the conversion of a solid or a gas into a liquid
  • liquid diet -  a diet of foods that can be served in liquid or strained form (plus custards or puddings); prescribed after certain kinds of surgery
  • liquid oxygen -  a bluish translucent magnetic liquid obtained by compressing gaseous oxygen and then cooling it below its boiling point; used as an oxidizer in rocket propellants
  • liquorice -  a black candy flavored with the dried root of the licorice plant; deep-rooted coarse-textured plant native to the Mediterranean region having blue flowers and pinnately compound leaves; widely cultivated in Europe for its long thick sweet roots
  • lithia water -  mineral water containing lithium salts
  • lollipop -  hard candy on a stick; ice cream or water ice on a small wooden stick
  • long-chain -  of molecules having relatively long chains of atoms in a molecule
  • long-term -  relating to or extending over a relatively long time
  • lonicera japonica -  an Asiatic trailing evergreen honeysuckle with half-evergreen leaves and fragrant white flowers turning yellow with age; has become a weed in some areas
  • lubricant -  a substance capable of reducing friction by making surfaces smooth or slippery
  • lubrication -  an application of a lubricant to something; the condition of having been made smooth or slippery by the application of a lubricant
  • lunge -  (fencing) an attacking thrust made with one foot forward and the back leg straight and with the sword arm outstretched forward; the act of moving forward suddenly; verb make a thrusting forward movement
  • lutein -  yellow carotenoid pigments in plants and animal fats and egg yolks
  • luteinizing hormone -  a gonadotropic hormone that is secreted by the anterior pituitary; stimulates ovulation in female mammals and stimulates androgen release in male mammals
  • lycopene -  carotenoid that makes tomatoes red; may lower the risk of prostate cancer
  • lymphokine -  a cytokine secreted by helper T cells in response to stimulation by antigens and that acts on other cells of the immune system (as by activating macrophages)
  • lysine -  an essential amino acid found in proteins; occurs especially in gelatin and casein
  • macrobiotic diet -  a diet consisting chiefly of beans and whole grains
  • macrophage -  a large phagocyte; some are fixed and other circulate in the blood stream
  • magnesium -  a light silver-white ductile bivalent metallic element; in pure form it burns with brilliant white flame; occurs naturally only in combination (as in magnesite and dolomite and carnallite and spinel and olivine)
  • malnutrition -  a state of poor nutrition; can result from insufficient or excessive or unbalanced diet or from inability to absorb foods
  • maltose -  a white crystalline sugar formed during the digestion of starches
  • manganese -  a hard brittle grey polyvalent metallic element that resembles iron but is not magnetic; used in making steel; occurs in many minerals
  • mannitol -  a diuretic (trade name Osmitrol) used to promote the excretion of urine
  • maple sugar -  sugar made from the sap of the sugar maple tree
  • maraschino cherry -  cherry preserved in true or imitation maraschino liqueur; Dalmatian bitter wild cherry tree bearing fruit whose juice is made into maraschino liqueur
  • marasmus -  extreme malnutrition and emaciation (especially in children); can result from inadequate intake of food or from malabsorption or metabolic disorders
  • marie tussaud -  French modeler (resident in England after 1802) who made wax death masks of prominent victims of the French Revolution and toured Britain with her wax models; in 1835 she opened a permanent waxworks exhibition in London (1761-1850)
  • marrubium vulgare -  European aromatic herb with hairy leaves and numerous white flowers in axillary cymes; leaves yield a bitter extract use medicinally and as flavoring
  • marshall -  United States jurist; as chief justice of the Supreme Court he established the principles of United States constitutional law (1755-1835); United States general and statesman who as Secretary of State organized the European Recovery Program (1880-1959); United States actor (1914-1998); a law officer having duties similar to those of a sheriff in carrying out the judgments of a court of law; (in some countries) a military officer of highest rank
  • mascot -  a person or animal that is adopted by a team or other group as a symbolic figure
  • master -  an original creation (i.e., an audio recording) from which copies can be made; an authority qualified to teach apprentices; directs the work of other; someone who holds a master's degree from academic institution; an officer who is licensed to command a merchant ship; key that secures entrance everywhere; presiding officer of a school; an artist of consummate skill; a person who has general authority over others; a combatant who is able to defeat rivals; verb have a firm understanding or knowledge of; be on top of; be or become completely proficient or skilled in; get on top of; deal with successfully; have dominance or the power to defeat over
  • material -  derived from or composed of matter; directly relevant to a matter especially a law case; concerned with or affecting physical as distinct from intellectual or psychological well-being; concerned with worldly rather than spiritual interests; having substance or capable of being treated as fact; not imaginary; having material or physical form or substance;  things needed for doing or making something; information (data or ideas or observations) that can be used or reworked into a finished form; a person judged suitable for admission or employment; the tangible substance that goes into the makeup of a physical object; artifact made by weaving or felting or knitting or crocheting natural or synthetic fibers
  • mediator -  a negotiator who acts as a link between parties
  • medication -  the act of treating with medicines or remedies; (medicine) something that treats or prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease
  • medicine -  the learned profession that is mastered by graduate training in a medical school and that is devoted to preventing or alleviating or curing diseases and injuries; (medicine) something that treats or prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease; the branches of medical science that deal with nonsurgical techniques; punishment for one's actions; verb treat medicinally, treat with medicine
  • medroxyprogesterone -  a progestin compound (trade name Provera) used to treat menstrual disorders
  • megaphone -  a cone-shaped acoustic device held to the mouth to intensify and direct the human voice
  • megavitamin therapy -  therapy based on a theory that taking very large doses of vitamins will prevent or cure physical or psychological disorders
  • megestrol acetate -  a synthetic progestational compound used to treat endometrial carcinoma
  • meltwater -  melted snow or ice
  • member -  an organization that is a member of another organization (especially a state that belongs to a group of nations); one of the persons who compose a social group (especially individuals who have joined and participates in a group organization); anything that belongs to a set or class; the male organ of copulation (`member' is a euphemism); an external body part that projects from the body
  • menadione -  a form of vitamin K
  • mepacrine -  a drug (trade name Atabrine) used to treat certain worm infestations and once used to treat malaria
  • merlin -  (Arthurian legend) the magician who acted as King Arthur's advisor; small falcon of Europe and America having dark plumage with black-barred tail; used in falconry
  • merops -  type genus of the Meropidae
  • mestranol -  a synthetic form of estrogen used in combination with a progestin in oral contraceptives
  • methamphetamine -  an amphetamine derivative (trade name Methedrine) used in the form of a crystalline hydrochloride; used as a stimulant to the nervous system and as an appetite suppressant
  • methionine -  a crystalline amino acid containing sulfur; found in most proteins and essential for nutrition
  • methyl -  the univalent radical CH3- derived from methane
  • methyl salicylate -  a liquid ester with a strong odor of wintergreen; applied externally for minor muscle and joint pain
  • methylene -  the bivalent radical CH2 derived from methane
  • methyltestosterone -  an androgenic compound contained in drugs that are used to treat testosterone deficiency and female breast cancer and to stimulate growth and weight gain
  • metronidazole -  antiprotozoal medication (trade name Flagyl) used to treat trichomoniasis and giardiasis
  • mexico -  a republic in southern North America; became independent from Spain in 1810
  • miconazole -  an antifungal agent usually administered in the form of a nitrate (trade name Monistat)
  • micronutrient -  a substance needed only in small amounts for normal body function (e.g., vitamins or minerals)
  • microtubule -  a microscopically small tubule
  • mifepristone -  an abortion-inducing drug (trade name RU_486) developed in France; when taken during the first five weeks of pregnancy it blocks the action of progesterone so that the uterus sloughs off the embryo
  • mineral -  of or containing or derived from minerals; composed of matter other than plant or animal; relating to minerals;  solid homogeneous inorganic substances occurring in nature having a definite chemical composition
  • mineral deficiency -  lack of a mineral micronutrient that is essential for normal nutrition or metabolism
  • mineral oil -  a distillate of petroleum (especially one used medicinally as a laxative or stool softener)
  • mineral water -  water naturally or artificially impregnated with mineral salts or gasses; often effervescent; often used therapeutically
  • minibar -  sideboard with compartments for holding bottles
  • mirage -  something illusory and unattainable; an optical illusion in which atmospheric refraction by a layer of hot air distorts or inverts reflections of distant objects
  • mitchell -  United States dancer who formed the first Black classical ballet company (born in 1934); United States labor leader; president of the United Mine Workers of America from 1898 to 1908 (1870-1919); United States writer noted for her novel about the South during the American Civil War (1900-1949); United States astronomer who studied sunspots and nebulae (1818-1889); United States aviator and general who was an early advocate of military air power (1879-1936); English aeronautical engineer (1895-1937)
  • molasses -  thick dark syrup produced by boiling down juice from sugar cane; especially during sugar refining
  • molecular -  relating to simple or elementary organization; relating to or produced by or consisting of molecules
  • molecular biology -  the branch of biology that studies the structure and activity of macromolecules essential to life (and especially with their genetic role)
  • molecule -  (physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound; (nontechnical usage) a tiny piece of anything
  • molybdenum -  a polyvalent metallic element that resembles chromium and tungsten in its properties; used to strengthen and harden steel
  • monosaccharide -  a sugar (like sucrose or fructose) that does not hydrolyse to give other sugars; the simplest group of carbohydrates
  • montan wax -  a hard wax obtained from lignite
  • morphine -  an alkaloid narcotic drug extracted from opium; a powerful, habit-forming narcotic used to relieve pain
  • mother -  a condition that is the inspiration for an activity or situation; a woman who has given birth to a child (also used as a term of address to your mother); a term of address for a mother superior; a term of address for an elderly woman; a stringy slimy substance consisting of yeast cells and bacteria; forms during fermentation and is added to cider or wine to produce vinegar; verb care for like a mother; make children
  • motor oil -  oil used to lubricate the moving parts of a motor
  • moveable feast -  a religious holiday that falls on different dates in different years
  • mucic acid -  a solid acid (C6H10O8) found in milk or sugar
  • mucilage -  a gelatinous substance secreted by plants; cement consisting of a sticky substance that is used as an adhesive
  • multivitamin -  a pill or tablet containing several vitamins
  • mushroom -  fleshy body of any of numerous edible fungi; a large cloud of rubble and dust shaped like a mushroom and rising into the sky after an explosion (especially of a nuclear bomb); any of various fleshy fungi of the subdivision Basidiomycota consisting of a cap at the end of a stem arising from an underground mycelium; common name for an edible agaric (contrasting with the inedible toadstool); verb grow and spread fast; pick or gather mushrooms
  • mustard oil -  oil obtained from mustard seeds and used in making soap
  • mycotoxin -  a toxin produced by a fungus
  • myofibril -  one of many contractile filaments that make up a striated muscle fiber
  • myosin -  the commonest protein in muscle; a globulin that combines with actin to form actomyosin
  • myristic acid -  a saturated fatty acid occurring naturally in animal and vegetable fats
  • nail-biting -  (of a situation) characterized by or causing suspense
  • nalidixic acid -  antibacterial agent used especially to treat genitourinary infections
  • naltrexone -  an oral antagonist against the action of opiates
  • nandrolone -  an androgen (trade names Durabolin or Kabolin) that is used to treat testosterone deficiency or breast cancer or osteoporosis
  • naphthol -  either of two phenols derived from naphthalene
  • naturopathy -  a method of treating disease using food and exercise and heat to assist the natural healing process
  • neomycin -  an antibiotic obtained from an actinomycete and used (as a sulphate under the trade name Neobiotic) as an intestinal antiseptic in surgery
  • neophobia -  a morbid fear of novelty
  • nerve growth factor -  a protein that is involved in the growth of peripheral nerve cells
  • niacin -  a B vitamin essential for the normal function of the nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract
  • nickel -  a United States coin worth one twentieth of a dollar; five dollars worth of a drug; a hard malleable ductile silvery metallic element that is resistant to corrosion; used in alloys; occurs in pentlandite and smaltite and garnierite and millerite; verb plate with nickel
  • nipple -  a flexible cap on a baby's feeding bottle or pacifier; the small projection of a mammary gland
  • nipple shield -  a rubber or plastic shield to protect the nipples of nursing women
  • nitrocellulose -  nitric acid esters; used in lacquers and explosives
  • nitrofurantoin -  derivative of nitrofuran used as an antibacterial medicine (trade name Macrodantin) effective against a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; used to treat infections of the urinary tract
  • nitroglycerin -  a heavy yellow poisonous oily explosive liquid obtained by nitrating glycerol; used in making explosives and medically as a vasodilator (trade names Nitrospan and Nitrostat)
  • noggin -  informal terms for a human head
  • norethandrolone -  a synthetic progestational hormone (trade name Norlutin) used in oral contraceptives and to treat endometriosis
  • norgestrel -  synthetic progestin used in oral contraceptives
  • novobiocin -  an antibiotic obtained from an actinomycete and used to treat infections by Gram-positive bacteria
  • nucleoprotein -  any of several substances found in the nuclei of all living cells; consists of a protein bound to a nucleic acid
  • nutrient -  of or providing nourishment;  any substance that can be metabolized by an organism to give energy and build tissue
  • nutrition -  the scientific study of food and drink (especially in humans); (physiology) the organic process of nourishing or being nourished; the processes by which an organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and maintenance; a source of materials to nourish the body
  • nutritionist -  a specialist in the study of nutrition
  • obesity -  more than average fatness
  • oenology -  the art of wine making
  • oil paint -  paint in which a drying oil is the vehicle
  • oleic acid -  a colorless oily liquid occurring as a glyceride; it is the major fatty acid in olive oil and canola oil; used in making soap and cosmetics and ointments and lubricating oils
  • oleoresin -  a naturally occurring mixture of a resin and an essential oil; obtained from certain plants
  • oligosaccharide -  any of the carbohydrates that yield only a few monosaccharide molecules on complete hydrolysis
  • olive oil -  oil from olives
  • omega -  the last (24th) letter of the Greek alphabet; the ending of a series or sequence
  • oncogene -  a gene that causes normal cells to change into cancerous tumor cells
  • ontario -  a prosperous and industrialized province in central Canada; the smallest of the Great Lakes
  • organelle -  a specialized part of a cell; analogous to an organ
  • organisation -  the act of forming something; the activity or result of distributing or disposing persons or things properly or methodically; the act of organizing a business or an activity related to a business; an ordered manner; orderliness by virtue of being methodical and well organized; an organized structure for arranging or classifying; a group of people who work together; the persons (or committees or departments etc.) who make up a body for the purpose of administering something
  • organization -  the activity or result of distributing or disposing persons or things properly or methodically; the act of organizing a business or an activity related to a business; an ordered manner; orderliness by virtue of being methodical and well organized; a group of people who work together; the act of forming something; an organized structure for arranging or classifying; the persons (or committees or departments etc.) who make up a body for the purpose of administering something
  • ortolan bunting -  brownish Old World bunting often eaten as a delicacy
  • osteomalacia -  abnormal softening of bones caused by deficiencies of phosphorus or calcium or vitamin D
  • ovalbumin -  the white part of an egg; the nutritive and protective gelatinous substance surrounding the yolk consisting mainly of albumin dissolved in water
  • overeating -  eating to excess (personified as one of the deadly sins)
  • overweight -  usually describes a large person who is fat but has a large frame to carry it;  the property of excessive fatness
  • oxidase -  any of the enzymes that catalyze biological oxidation
  • oxygenase -  an oxidoreductase that catalyzes the incorporation of molecular oxygen
  • oxytocin -  hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitocin); stimulates contractions of the uterus and ejection of milk
  • ozokerite -  a waxy mineral that is a mixture of hydrocarbons and occurs in association with petroleum; some varieties are used in making ceresin and candles
  • pablum -  a soft form of cereal for infants; worthless or oversimplified ideas
  • palmitic acid -  a saturated fatty acid that is the major fat in meat and dairy products
  • pancreatic juice -  a fluid secreted into the duodenum by the pancreas; important for breaking down starches and proteins and fats
  • pandemic -  existing everywhere; epidemic over a wide geographical area;  an epidemic that is geographically widespread; occurring throughout a region or even throughout the world
  • pantothenic acid -  a vitamin of the vitamin B complex that performs an important role in the oxidation of fats and carbohydrates and certain amino acids; occurs in many foods
  • papain -  a proteolytic enzyme obtained from the unripe papaya; used as a meat tenderizer
  • paraffin wax -  from crude petroleum; used for candles and for preservative or waterproof coatings
  • pasteurization -  partial sterilization of foods at a temperature that destroys harmful microorganisms without major changes in the chemistry of the food
  • patched -  mended usually clumsily by covering a hole with a patch; having spots or patches (small areas of contrasting color or texture)
  • pathologist -  a doctor who specializes in medical diagnosis
  • peanut oil -  a oil from peanuts; used in cooking and making soap
  • pectic acid -  a complex acid that occurs in ripe fruit and some vegetables
  • pectin -  any of various water-soluble colloidal carbohydrates that occur in ripe fruit and vegetables; used in making fruit jellies and jams
  • pellagra -  a disease caused by deficiency of niacin or tryptophan (or by a defect in the metabolic conversion of tryptophan to niacin); characterized by gastrointestinal disturbances and erythema and nervous or mental disorders; may be caused by malnutrition or alcoholism or other nutritional impairments
  • pentose -  any monosaccharide sugar containing five atoms of carbon per molecule
  • peptide -  amide combining the amino group of one amino acid with the carboxyl group of another; usually obtained by partial hydrolysis of protein
  • peptide bond -  the primary linkage of all protein structures; the chemical bond between the carboxyl groups and amino groups that unites a peptide
  • perfumery -  the art of making perfumes; an establishment where perfumes are made; store where perfumes are sold; perfumes in general
  • pericarditis -  inflammation of the pericardium
  • period -  a punctuation mark (.) placed at the end of a declarative sentence to indicate a full stop or after abbreviations; the end or completion of something; a unit of geological time during which a system of rocks formed; one of three periods of play in hockey games; the interval taken to complete one cycle of a regularly repeating phenomenon; a stage in the history of a culture having a definable place in space and time; the monthly discharge of blood from the uterus of nonpregnant women from puberty to menopause; an amount of time
  • petroleum -  a dark oil consisting mainly of hydrocarbons
  • phenacetin -  a white crystalline compound used as an analgesic and also as an antipyretic
  • phenol -  any of a class of weakly acidic organic compounds; molecule contains one or more hydroxyl groups; a toxic white soluble crystalline acidic derivative of benzene; used in manufacturing and as a disinfectant and antiseptic; poisonous if taken internally
  • phentolamine -  a virility drug (trade name Vasomax) to treat erectile dysfunction in men
  • phenylalanine -  an essential amino acid found in proteins and needed for growth of children and for protein metabolism in children and adults; abundant in milk and eggs; it is normally converted to tyrosine in the human body
  • phenylbutazone -  anti-inflammatory drug (trade name Butazolidin)
  • phosphate -  carbonated drink with fruit syrup and a little phosphoric acid; a salt of phosphoric acid
  • phospholipid -  any of various compounds composed of fatty acids and phosphoric acid and a nitrogenous base; an important constituent of membranes
  • phosphoprotein -  containing chemically bound phosphoric acid
  • phosphoric acid -  an acid used in fertilizers and soaps: H3PO4
  • phosphorus -  a multivalent nonmetallic element of the nitrogen family that occurs commonly in inorganic phosphate rocks and as organic phosphates in all living cells; is highly reactive and occurs in several allotropic forms; a planet (usually Venus) seen just before sunrise in the eastern sky
  • photosynthesis -  synthesis of compounds with the aid of radiant energy (especially in plants)
  • phycoerythrin -  red pigment in red algae
  • physician -  a licensed medical practitioner
  • physiology -  processes and functions of an organism; the branch of the biological sciences dealing with the functioning of organisms
  • physostigmine -  used in treatment of Alzheimer's disease and glaucoma
  • phytotoxin -  any substance produced by plants that is similar in its properties to extracellular bacterial toxin
  • picasso -  prolific and influential Spanish artist who lived in France (1881-1973)
  • pituitary -  of or relating to the pituitary gland; having abnormal size with overgrown extremities resulting from abnormal pituitary secretion;  the master gland of the endocrine system; located at the base of the brain
  • plank -  an endorsed policy in the platform of a political party; a stout length of sawn timber; made in a wide variety of sizes and used for many purposes; verb cook and serve on a plank; cover with planks; set (something or oneself) down with or as if with a noise
  • plant -  a living organism lacking the power of locomotion; buildings for carrying on industrial labor; something planted secretly for discovery by another; an actor situated in the audience whose acting is rehearsed but seems spontaneous to the audience; verb put firmly in the mind; place something or someone in a certain position in order to secretly observe or deceive; put or set (seeds, seedlings, or plants) into the ground; place into a river; fix or set securely or deeply; set up or lay the groundwork for
  • plant hormone -  (botany) a plant product that acts like a hormone
  • plant scientist -  a biologist specializing in the study of plants
  • plastic -  capable of being influenced or formed; forming or capable of forming or molding or fashioning; capable of being molded or modeled (especially of earth or clay or other soft material);  generic name for certain synthetic or semisynthetic materials that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or filaments or used for making e.g. coatings and adhesives
  • politician -  a person active in party politics; a leader engaged in civil administration; a schemer who tries to gain advantage in an organization in sly or underhanded ways
  • polyarteritis nodosa -  a progressive disease of connective tissue that is characterized by nodules along arteries; nodules may block the artery and result in inadequate circulation to the particular area
  • polydipsia -  excessive thirst (as in cases of diabetes or kidney dysfunction)
  • polygonatum -  sometimes placed in subfamily Convallariaceae
  • polymerase -  an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of new DNA and RNA from an existing strand of DNA or RNA
  • polymyositis -  myositis characterized by weakness of limb and neck muscles and much muscle pain and swelling; progression and severity vary among individuals
  • polysaccharide -  any of a class of carbohydrates whose molecules contain chains of monosaccharide molecules
  • potash -  a potassium compound often used in agriculture and industry
  • potassium -  a light soft silver-white metallic element of the alkali metal group; oxidizes rapidly in air and reacts violently with water; is abundant in nature in combined forms occurring in sea water and in carnallite and kainite and sylvite
  • potassium chloride -  salt of potassium (KCl) (trade names K-Dur 20, Kaochlor and K-lor and Klorvess and K-lyte); taken in tablet form to treat potassium deficiency
  • potomania -  an intense persistent desire to drink alcoholic beverages to excess
  • powder -  any of various cosmetic or medical preparations dispensed in the form of a pulverized powder; a solid substance in the form of tiny loose particles; a solid that has been pulverized; a mixture of potassium nitrate, charcoal, and sulfur in a 75:15:10 ratio which is used in gunnery, time fuses, and fireworks; verb apply powder to; make into a powder by breaking up or cause to become dust
  • powdered sugar -  sugar granulated into a fine powder
  • predation -  the act of preying by a predator who kills and eats the prey; an act of plundering and pillaging and marauding
  • predator -  any animal that lives by preying on other animals; someone who attacks in search of booty
  • prednisolone -  a glucocorticoid (trade names Pediapred or Prelone) used to treat inflammatory conditions
  • pregnanediol -  a compound found in women's urine during certain phases of the menstrual cycle and in the urine of pregnant women
  • procarbazine -  an antineoplastic drug used to treat Hodgkin's disease
  • progesterone -  a steroid hormone (trade name Lipo-Lutin) produced in the ovary; prepares and maintains the uterus for pregnancy
  • prolactin -  gonadotropic hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary; in females it stimulates growth of the mammary glands and lactation after parturition
  • propane -  colorless gas found in natural gas and petroleum; used as a fuel
  • prostaglandin -  a potent substance that acts like a hormone and is found in many bodily tissues (and especially in semen); produced in response to trauma and may affect blood pressure and metabolism and smooth muscle activity
  • protamine -  a simple protein found in fish sperm; rich in arginine; simpler in composition than globulin or albumin; counteracts the anticoagulant effect of heparin
  • protease -  any enzyme that catalyzes the splitting of proteins into smaller peptide fractions and amino acids by a process known as proteolysis
  • protease inhibitor -  an antiviral drug used against HIV; interrupts HIV replication by binding and blocking HIV protease; often used in combination with other drugs
  • protein -  any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from meat and eggs and milk and legumes
  • protein folding -  the process whereby a protein molecule assumes its intricate three-dimensional shape
  • proteolysis -  the hydrolysis of proteins into peptides and amino acids by cleavage of their peptide bonds
  • proteome -  the full complement of proteins produced by a particular genome
  • proteomics -  the branch of genetics that studies the full set of proteins encoded by a genome
  • provitamin -  vitamin precursor; a substance that is converted into a vitamin in animal tissues
  • proximate -  very close in space or time; closest in degree or order (space or time) especially in a chain of causes and effects
  • puddle -  a mixture of wet clay and sand that can be used to line a pond and that is impervious to water when dry; something resembling a pool of liquid; a small body of standing water (rainwater) or other liquid; verb make a puddle by splashing water; mess around, as in a liquid or paste; work a wet mixture, such as concrete or mud; dip into mud before planting; subject to puddling or form by puddling; wade or dabble in a puddle; eliminate urine; mix up or confuse; make into a puddle
  • pull-up -  an arm exercise performed by pulling yourself up on a horizontal bar until your chin is level with the bar; a roadside cafe especially for lorry drivers
  • push up - verb push upward; push upward
  • pussy -  "a purulent wound";  informal terms referring to a domestic cat; obscene terms for female genitals
  • putative -  commonly put forth or accepted as true on inconclusive grounds
  • putrefaction -  a state of decay usually accompanied by an offensive odor; moral perversion; impairment of virtue and moral principles; (biology) the process of decay caused by bacterial or fungal action
  • pyridoxal -  a B vitamin that is essential for metabolism of amino acids and starch
  • pyridoxamine -  a B vitamin that is essential for metabolism of amino acids and starch
  • pyridoxine -  a B vitamin that is essential for metabolism of amino acids and starch
  • pyrophosphate -  a salt or ester of pyrophosphoric acid
  • quinidine -  cardiac drug (trade names Quinidex and Quinora) used to treat certain heart arrhythmias
  • quinone -  any of a class of aromatic yellow compounds including several that are biologically important as coenzymes or acceptors or vitamins; used in making dyes
  • raffinose -  a trisaccharide that occurs in sugar beets and cotton seeds and certain cereals
  • receptor -  a cellular structure that is postulated to exist in order to mediate between a chemical agent that acts on nervous tissue and the physiological response; an organ having nerve endings (in the skin or viscera or eye or ear or nose or mouth) that respond to stimulation
  • reductase -  an enzyme that catalyses the biochemical reduction of some specified substance
  • refill -  a commercial product that refills a container with its appropriate contents; a prescription drug that is provided again; verb fill something that had previously been emptied
  • refractometer -  measuring instrument for measuring the refractive index of a substance
  • refrigeration -  deliberately lowering the body's temperature for therapeutic purposes; the process of cooling or freezing (e.g., food) for preservative purposes
  • refrigerator -  white goods in which food can be stored at low temperatures
  • refrigerator car -  a freight car that is equipped with refrigeration system
  • regurgitation -  recall after rote memorization; backflow of blood through a defective heart valve; the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth
  • reign -  royal authority; the dominion of a monarch; the period during which a monarch is sovereign; a period during which something or somebody is dominant or powerful; verb have sovereign power; be larger in number, quantity, power, status or importance
  • related -  connected by kinship, common origin, or marriage; being connected either logically or causally or by shared characteristics; having close kinship and appropriateness; similar or related in quality or character
  • relentless -  never-ceasing; not to be placated or appeased or moved by entreaty
  • reload - verb place a new load on; load anew with ammunition, "She reloaded the gun carefully"
  • remorse -  a feeling of deep regret (usually for some misdeed)
  • repeat -  an event that repeats; verb to say again or imitate; to say, state, or perform again; do over; happen or occur again; repeat an earlier theme of a composition; make or do or perform again
  • repressor -  an agent that represses
  • restaurant -  a building where people go to eat
  • retinol -  an unsaturated alcohol that occurs in marine fish-liver oils and is synthesized biologically from carotene
  • rheumatoid arthritis -  a chronic autoimmune disease with inflammation of the joints and marked deformities; something (possibly a virus) triggers an attack on the synovium by the immune system, which releases cytokines that stimulate an inflammatory reaction that can lead to the destruction of all components of the joint
  • rhizobiaceae -  a small family of rod-shaped bacteria
  • riboflavin -  a B vitamin that prevents skin lesions and weight loss
  • ribonuclease -  a transferase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ribonucleic acid
  • ribose -  a pentose sugar important as a component of ribonucleic acid
  • ricinoleic acid -  an oily fatty acid found in castor oil and used in soap
  • rickets -  childhood disease caused by deficiency of vitamin D and sunlight associated with impaired metabolism of calcium and phosphorus
  • robert falcon scott -  English explorer who reached the South Pole just a month after Amundsen; he and his party died on the return journey (1868-1912)
  • rock candy -  sugar in large hard clear crystals on a string; hard bright-colored stick candy (typically flavored with peppermint)
  • rolled oats -  meal made from rolled or ground oats
  • root cellar -  an excavation where root vegetables are stored
  • rose oil -  a volatile fragrant oil obtained from fresh roses by steam distillation
  • rotavirus -  the reovirus causing infant enteritis
  • royal jelly -  a secretion of the pharyngeal glands of bees that is fed to very young larvae and to bees destined to be queens
  • royal purple -  a shade of purple tinged with red
  • saccharic acid -  a white dicarboxylic acid formed from oxidation of sugar or starch
  • saccharin -  a crystalline substance 500 times sweeter than sugar; used as a calorie-free sweetener
  • sachs disease -  a hereditary disorder of lipid metabolism occuring most frequently in individuals of Jewish descent in eastern Europe; accumulation of lipids in nervous tissue results in death in early childhood
  • safflower -  thistlelike Eurasian plant widely grown for its red or orange flower heads and seeds that yield a valuable oil
  • safflower oil -  oil from seeds of the safflower plant; oil from safflower seeds used as food as well as in medicines and paints
  • salicylic acid -  a white crystalline substance with a bitter aftertaste; used as a fungicide or in making aspirin or dyes or perfumes
  • salt pork -  fat from the back and sides and belly of a hog carcass cured with salt
  • salting -  the act of adding salt to food
  • saponin -  any of various plant glucosides that form soapy lathers when mixed and agitated with water; used in detergents and foaming agents and emulsifiers
  • sarcoidosis -  a chronic disease of unknown cause marked by the formation of nodules in the lungs and liver and lymph glands and salivary glands
  • scalded milk -  milk heated almost to boiling
  • scheme -  an elaborate and systematic plan of action; a schematic or preliminary plan; an internal representation of the world; an organization of concepts and actions that can be revised by new information about the world; a statement that evades the question by cleverness or trickery; a group of independent but interrelated elements comprising a unified whole; verb form intrigues (for) in an underhand manner; devise a system or form a scheme for
  • schmaltz -  (Yiddish) excessive sentimentality in art or music
  • scientist -  a person with advanced knowledge of one or more sciences
  • scleritis -  inflammation of the sclera
  • scleroprotein -  a simple protein found in horny and cartilaginous tissues and in the lens of the eye
  • sculpture -  creating figures or designs in three dimensions; a three-dimensional work of plastic art; verb shape (a material like stone or wood) by whittling away at it; create by shaping stone or wood or any other hard material
  • scurvy -  of the most contemptible kind;  a condition caused by deficiency of ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
  • season -  one of the natural periods into which the year is divided by the equinoxes and solstices or atmospheric conditions; a recurrent time marked by major holidays; a period of the year marked by special events or activities in some field; verb make fit; lend flavor to; make more temperate, acceptable, or suitable by adding something else; moderate
  • sedative -  tending to soothe or tranquilize;  a drug that reduces excitability and calms a person
  • selenium -  a toxic nonmetallic element related to sulfur and tellurium; occurs in several allotropic forms; a stable grey metallike allotrope conducts electricity better in the light than in the dark and is used in photocells; occurs in sulfide ores (as pyrite)
  • senna obtusifolia -  cosmopolitan tropical herb or subshrub with yellow flowers and slender curved pods; a weed; sometimes placed in genus Cassia
  • serum albumin -  albumin occurring in blood serum; serves to maintain the somatic pressure of the blood
  • sesame oil -  oil obtained from sesame seeds
  • seven seas -  an informal expression for all of the oceans of the world
  • sexual practice -  activities associated with sexual intercourse
  • shelf life -  the length of time a packaged food or drug will last without deteriorating
  • shellac -  a thin varnish made by dissolving lac in ethanol; used to finish wood; lac purified by heating and filtering; usually in thin orange or yellow flakes but sometimes bleached white; verb cover with shellac
  • shelling -  the heavy fire of artillery to saturate an area rather than hit a specific target
  • sherbet -  an ice containing milk
  • shrill -  of colors that are bright and gaudy; being sharply insistent on being heard; having or emitting a high-pitched and sharp tone or tones; verb utter a shrill cry
  • silicon -  a tetravalent nonmetallic element; next to oxygen it is the most abundant element in the earth's crust; occurs in clay and feldspar and granite and quartz and sand; used as a semiconductor in transistors
  • sit-up -  an stomach exercise in which a person sits up from a supine position without using the arms for leverage
  • ski wax -  wax used on the bottom of skis
  • skyline -  the outline of objects seen against the sky; the line at which the sky and Earth appear to meet
  • sleep apnea -  apnea that occurs during sleep
  • slingshot -  a plaything consisting of a Y-shaped stick with elastic between the arms; used to propel small stones
  • smokehouse -  a small house where smoke is used to cure meat or fish
  • smoking -  emitting smoke in great volume;  the act of smoking tobacco or other substances; a hot vapor containing fine particles of carbon being produced by combustion
  • sobriety -  abstaining from excess; moderation in or abstinence from alcohol or other drugs; a manner that is serious and solemn; the state of being sober and not intoxicated by alcohol
  • sodium -  a silvery soft waxy metallic element of the alkali metal group; occurs abundantly in natural compounds (especially in salt water); burns with a yellow flame and reacts violently in water; occurs in sea water and in the mineral halite (rock salt)
  • soft diet -  a diet that does not require chewing; advised for those with intestinal disorders
  • soft drink -  nonalcoholic beverage (usually carbonated)
  • software -  (computer science) written programs or procedures or rules and associated documentation pertaining to the operation of a computer system and that are stored in read/write memory
  • spearmint -  common garden herb having clusters of small purplish flowers and yielding an oil used as a flavoring
  • special k -  street names for ketamine
  • spencer -  English philosopher and sociologist who applied the theory of natural selection to human societies (1820-1903)
  • sperm oil -  an animal oil found in the blubber of the sperm whale
  • spermaceti -  a white waxy substance from oil of the sperm whale
  • spironolactone -  a synthetic corticosteroid (trade name Aldactone) used to treat hypertension
  • spring -  a metal elastic device that returns to its shape or position when pushed or pulled or pressed; a point at which water issues forth; a natural flow of ground water; the season of growth; a light, self-propelled movement upwards or forwards; the elasticity of something that can be stretched and returns to its original length; verb develop suddenly; produce or disclose suddenly or unexpectedly; spring back; spring away from an impact; move forward by leaps and bounds; develop into a distinctive entity
  • sprouting -  the process whereby seeds or spores sprout and begin to grow
  • squat -  having a low center of gravity; built low to the ground; short and thick; as e.g. having short legs and heavy musculature;  the act of assuming or maintaining a crouching position with the knees bent and the buttocks near the heels; exercising by repeatedly assuming a crouching position with the knees bent; strengthens the leg muscles; a small worthless amount; verb sit on one's heels; occupy (a dwelling) illegally; be close to the earth, or be disproportionately wide
  • stachyose -  a tetrasaccharide found in the tubers of the Chinese artichoke
  • stacker -  a laborer who builds up a stack or pile
  • starch -  a complex carbohydrate found chiefly in seeds, fruits, tubers, roots and stem pith of plants, notably in corn, potatoes, wheat, and rice; an important foodstuff and used otherwise especially in adhesives and as fillers and stiffeners for paper and textiles; verb stiffen with starch
  • starvation -  the act of depriving of food or subjecting to famine; a state of extreme hunger resulting from lack of essential nutrients over a prolonged period
  • stearic acid -  a waxy saturated fatty acid; occurs widely as a glyceride in animal and vegetable fats
  • stearin -  an ester of glycerol and stearic acid
  • steroid -  any of several fat-soluble organic compounds having as a basis 17 carbon atoms in four rings; many have important physiological effects; any hormone affecting the development and growth of sex organs
  • steroid hormone -  any hormone affecting the development and growth of sex organs
  • sterol -  any of a group of natural steroid alcohols derived from plants or animals; they are waxy insoluble substances
  • stevia -  any plant of the genus Piqueria or the closely related genus Stevia; any plant of the genus Stevia or the closely related genus Piqueria having glutinous foliage and white or purplish flowers; Central and South America
  • straight -  right; in keeping with the facts; successive (without a break); following a correct or logical method; (of hair) having no waves or curls; not homosexual; erect in posture; having no deviations; free from curves or angles; characterized by honesty and fairness; neatly arranged; not disorderly; rigidly conventional or old-fashioned; without water; without evasion or compromise; accurately fitted; level; no longer coiled;  in a straight line; in a direct course; without deviation; in a forthright manner; candidly or frankly;  a poker hand with 5 consecutive cards (regardless of suit); a straight segment of a roadway or racecourse; a heterosexual person; someone having a sexual orientation to persons of the opposite sex
  • straw wine -  sweet wine from grapes partially sun-dried on the vine or on straw mats
  • streptomycin -  an antibiotic produced by the actinomycete Streptomyces griseus and used to treat tuberculosis
  • stride -  significant progress (especially in the phrase "make strides"); a step in walking or running; the distance covered by a step; verb cover or traverse by taking long steps; walk with long steps
  • strongman -  a powerful political figure who rules by the exercise of force or violence; a man who performs feats of strength at a fair or circus
  • structure -  a thing constructed; a complex entity constructed of many parts; the manner of construction of something and the arrangement of its parts; a particular complex anatomical part; the complex composition of knowledge as elements and their combinations; the people in a society considered as a system organized by a characteristic pattern of relationships; verb give a structure to
  • strychnine -  an alkaloid plant toxin extracted chiefly from nux vomica; formerly used as a stimulant
  • subfamily -  (biology) a taxonomic category below a family
  • substrate -  an indigenous language that contributes features to the language of an invading people who impose their language on the indigenous population; any stratum or layer lying underneath another; a surface on which an organism grows or is attached; the substance that is acted upon by an enzyme or ferment
  • subunit -  a monetary unit that is valued at a fraction (usually one hundredth) of the basic monetary unit
  • sucralfate -  medicine consisting of a tablet (trade name Carafate) used to treat peptic ulcers; said to bind to the ulcer site and coat it
  • sucrose -  a complex carbohydrate found in many plants and used as a sweetening agent
  • suffragist -  an advocate of the extension of voting rights (especially to women)
  • sugar -  a white crystalline carbohydrate used as a sweetener and preservative; informal terms for money; an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals; includes simple sugars with small molecules as well as macromolecular substances; are classified according to the number of monosaccharide groups they contain; verb sweeten with sugar
  • sugar beet -  white-rooted beet grown as a source of sugar; form of the common beet having a sweet white root from which sugar is obtained
  • sugar candy -  made by boiling pure sugar until it hardens
  • sugar daddy -  a wealthy older man who gives a young person expensive gifts in return for friendship or intimacy
  • sugar refinery -  a refinery for sugar
  • sugarcane -  tall tropical southeast Asian grass having stout fibrous jointed stalks; sap is a chief source of sugar; juicy canes whose sap is a source of molasses and commercial sugar; fresh canes are sometimes chewed for the juice
  • sugarloaf -  a large conical loaf of concentrated refined sugar
  • sulfamethoxazole -  a sulfonamide (trade name Gantanol) used to treat infections (especially infections of the urinary tract)
  • sulfate -  a salt or ester of sulphuric acid; verb convert into a sulfate
  • sulfonamide -  antibacterial consisting of any of several synthetic organic compounds capable of inhibiting the growth of bacteria that require PABA
  • sulfonylurea -  antidiabetic consisting of any of several drugs that reduce the level of glucose in the blood; used to treat diabetes mellitus
  • sulfur -  an abundant tasteless odorless multivalent nonmetallic element; best known in yellow crystals; occurs in many sulphide and sulphate minerals and even in native form (especially in volcanic regions); verb treat with sulphur in order to preserve
  • sunflower oil -  oil from sunflower seeds
  • superoxide dismutase -  an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of superoxide into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen
  • supplement -  a quantity added (e.g. to make up for a deficiency); a supplementary component that improves capability; textual matter that is added onto a publication; usually at the end; verb add as a supplement to what seems insufficient; serve as a supplement to; add to the very end
  • sweet -  pleasing to the senses; (used of wines) having a high residual sugar content; having or denoting the characteristic taste of sugar; having a natural fragrance; not containing or composed of salt water; having a sweet nature befitting an angel or cherub; pleasing to the ear; pleasing to the mind or feeling; with sweetening added; not soured or preserved;  in an affectionate or loving manner (`sweet' is sometimes a poetic or informal variant of `sweetly');  the taste experience when sugar dissolves in the mouth; a food rich in sugar; English phonetician; one of the founders of modern phonetics (1845-1912); the property of tasting as if it contains sugar; a dish served as the last course of a meal
  • sweet sorghum -  any of several sorghums cultivated as a source of syrup
  • sweetener -  anything that serves as an enticement; something added to foods to make them taste sweeter
  • syndrome -  a complex of concurrent things; a pattern of symptoms indicative of some disease
  • syrup -  a thick sweet sticky liquid
  • taffy -  chewy candy of sugar or syrup boiled until thick and pulled until glossy
  • takayasu's arteritis -  disorder characterized by the absence of a pulse in both arms and in the carotid arteries
  • tall oil -  an oil derived from wood pulp and used in making soaps or lubricants
  • tallow -  obtained from suet and used in making soap, candles and lubricants
  • tango -  a ballroom dance of Latin-American origin; music written in duple time for dancing the tango; verb dance a tango
  • tannin -  any of various complex phenolic substances of plant origin; used in tanning and in medicine
  • tap water -  water directly from the spigot
  • technology -  the practical application of science to commerce or industry; the discipline dealing with the art or science of applying scientific knowledge to practical problems
  • telomerase -  an enzyme in eukaryotic cells that can add telomeres to the ends of chromosomes after they divide
  • testosterone -  a potent androgenic hormone produced chiefly by the testes; responsible for the development of male secondary sex characteristics
  • tetrasaccharide -  any of a variety of carbohydrates that yield four monosaccharide molecules on complete hydrolysis
  • tetrose -  any monosaccharide sugar containing four atoms of carbon per molecule
  • theseus -  (Greek mythology) a hero and king of Athens who was noted for his many great deeds: killed Procrustes and the Minotaur and defeated the Amazons and united Attica
  • thiamine -  a B vitamin that prevents beriberi; maintains appetite and growth
  • thirst -  a physiological need to drink; strong desire for something (not food or drink); verb feel the need to drink; have a craving, appetite, or great desire for
  • threonine -  a colorless crystalline amino acid found in protein; occurs in the hydrolysates of certain proteins; an essential component of human nutrition
  • thyme -  leaves can be used as seasoning for almost any meat and stews and stuffings and vegetables; any of various mints of the genus Thymus
  • thymol -  a colorless crystalline solid used in perfume or preserving biological specimens or in embalming or medically as a fungicide or antiseptic
  • thyroxine -  hormone produced by the thyroid glands to regulate metabolism by controlling the rate of oxidation in cells
  • tilt -  the property possessed by a line or surface that departs from the vertical; a slight but noticeable partiality; pitching dangerously to one side; a contentious speech act; a dispute where there is strong disagreement; a combat between two mounted knights tilting against each other with blunted lances; verb charge with a tilt; heel over; move sideways or in an unsteady way; to incline or bend from a vertical position
  • timolol -  a beta blocker (trade name Blocadren) administered after heart attacks
  • tipper -  a person who leaves a tip; truck whose contents can be emptied without handling; the front end of the platform can be pneumatically raised so that the load is discharged by gravity
  • tobramycin -  an antibiotic (trade name Nebcin) that is especially effective against Gram-negative bacteria
  • tocopherol -  a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for normal reproduction; an important antioxidant that neutralizes free radicals in the body
  • toffee -  caramelized sugar cooled in thin sheets
  • tolazoline -  vasodilator that is used to treat spasms of peripheral blood vessels (as in acrocyanosis)
  • tolbutamide -  sulfonylurea; an oral antidiabetic drug (trade name Orinase) used in the treatment of adult-onset diabetes mellitus
  • tonic water -  lime- or lemon-flavored carbonated water containing quinine
  • toxin -  a poisonous substance produced during the metabolism and growth of certain microorganisms and some higher plant and animal species
  • trace element -  an element that occurs at very small quantities in the body but is nonetheless important for many biological processes
  • transporter -  a crane for moving material with dispatch as in loading and unloading ships; a long truck for carrying motor vehicles; a moving belt that transports objects (as in a factory)
  • treacle -  an expression that is excessively sweet and sentimental; a pale cane syrup
  • treaty -  a written agreement between two states or sovereigns
  • treponema -  spirochete that causes disease in humans (e.g. syphilis and yaws)
  • trial -  (law) legal proceedings consisting of the judicial examination of issues by a competent tribunal; (law) the determination of a person's innocence or guilt by due process of law; trying something to find out about it; an annoying or frustrating or catastrophic event; (sports) a preliminary competition to determine qualifications; the act of testing something; the act of undergoing testing
  • tributyrin -  a bitter oily triglyceride of butyric acid; a form of butyrin
  • triglyceride -  glyceride occurring naturally in animal and vegetable tissues; it consists of three individual fatty acids bound together in a single large molecule; an important energy source forming much of the fat stored by the body
  • triolein -  a naturally occuring glyceride of oleic acid that is found in fats and oils
  • triose -  any monosaccharide sugar containing three atoms of carbon per molecule
  • tripalmitin -  a triglyceride of palmitic acid
  • trisaccharide -  any of a variety of carbohydrates that yield three monosaccharide molecules on complete hydrolysis
  • tropical sprue -  a chronic disorder that occurs in tropical and non-tropical forms and in both children and adults; nutrients are not absorbed; symptoms include foul-smelling diarrhea and emaciation
  • tryptophan -  an amino acid that occurs in proteins; is essential for growth and normal metabolism; a precursor of niacin
  • tumor necrosis factor -  a proinflammatory cytokine that is produced by white blood cells (monocytes and macrophages); has an antineoplastic effect but causes inflammation (as in rheumatoid arthritis)
  • twist -  turning or twisting around (in place); social dancing in which couples vigorously twist their hips and arms in time to the music; was popular in the 1960s; a jerky pulling movement; any clever maneuver; the act of rotating rapidly; the act of winding or twisting; a hairdo formed by braiding or twisting the hair; an interpretation of a text or action; an unforeseen development; a miniature whirlpool or whirlwind resulting when the current of a fluid doubles back on itself; a circular segment of a curve; a sharp bend in a line produced when a line having a loop is pulled tight; a sharp strain on muscles or ligaments; verb twist suddenly so as to sprain; form into twists; practice sophistry; change the meaning of or be vague about in order to mislead or deceive; turn in the opposite direction; form into a spiral shape; do the twist; cause (a plastic object) to assume a crooked or angular form; twist or pull violently or suddenly, especially so as to remove (something) from that to which it is attached or from where it originates; to move in a twisting or contorted motion, (especially when struggling); extend in curves and turns
  • ubiquinone -  any of several quinones found in living cells and that function as coenzymes that transfer electrons from one molecule to another in cell respiration
  • ulcerative colitis -  a serious chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine and rectum characterized by recurrent episodes of abdominal pain and fever and chills and profuse diarrhea
  • ullage -  the amount that a container (as a wine bottle or tank) lacks of being full
  • undecylenic acid -  an acid that is a component of perspiration
  • underweight -  being very thin
  • united states -  North American republic containing 50 states - 48 conterminous states in North America plus Alaska in northwest North America and the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean; achieved independence in 1776; the executive and legislative and judicial branches of the federal government of the United States
  • urge -  a strong restless desire; an instinctive motive; verb force or impel in an indicated direction; urge on or encourage especially by shouts; push for something
  • uveitis -  inflammation of the uvea of the eye
  • valeric acid -  a clear liquid carboxylic acid used in perfumes and drugs
  • valine -  an essential amino acid found in proteins; important for growth in children and nitrogen balance in adults
  • vanadium -  a soft silvery white toxic metallic element used in steel alloys; it occurs in several complex minerals including carnotite and vanadinite
  • vanillin -  a crystalline compound found in vanilla beans and some balsam resins; used in perfumes and flavorings
  • vault -  the act of jumping over an obstacle; an arched brick or stone ceiling or roof; a burial chamber (usually underground); a strongroom or compartment (often made of steel) for safekeeping of valuables; verb bound vigorously; jump across or leap over (an obstacle)
  • vegetarianism -  a diet excluding all meat and fish
  • vitamin -  any of a group of organic substances essential in small quantities to normal metabolism
  • vitamin a -  any of several fat-soluble vitamins essential for normal vision; prevents night blindness or inflammation or dryness of the eyes
  • vitamin b -  originally thought to be a single vitamin but now separated into several B vitamins
  • vitamin c -  a vitamin found in fresh fruits (especially citrus fruits) and vegetables; prevents scurvy
  • vitamin d -  a fat-soluble vitamin that prevents rickets
  • vitamin e -  a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for normal reproduction; an important antioxidant that neutralizes free radicals in the body
  • vitamin k -  a fat-soluble vitamin that helps in the clotting of blood
  • vitus bering -  Danish explorer who explored the northern Pacific Ocean for the Russians and discovered the Bering Strait (1681-1741)
  • waist -  the narrowing of the body between the ribs and hips; the narrow part of the shoe connecting the heel and the wide part of the sole
  • walker -  an enclosing framework on casters or wheels; helps babies learn to walk; a light enclosing framework (trade name Zimmer) with rubber castors or wheels and handles; helps invalids or the handicapped or the aged to walk; a shoe designed for comfortable walking; United States writer (born in 1944); New Zealand runner who in 1975 became the first person to run a mile in less that 3 minutes and 50 seconds (born in 1952); a person who travels by foot
  • walnut oil -  oil from walnuts
  • water -  a fluid necessary for the life of most animals and plants; binary compound that occurs at room temperature as a clear colorless odorless tasteless liquid; freezes into ice below 0 degrees centigrade and boils above 100 degrees centigrade; widely used as a solvent; once thought to be one of four elements composing the universe (Empedocles); a facility that provides a source of water; the part of the earth's surface covered with water (such as a river or lake or ocean); liquid excretory product; verb secrete or form water, as tears or saliva; supply with water, as with channels or ditches or streams; fill with tears; provide with water
  • water filter -  a filter to remove impurities from the water supply
  • water supply -  a facility that provides a source of water
  • watering can -  a container with a handle and a spout with a perforated nozzle; used to sprinkle water over plants
  • weaning -  the act of substituting other food for the mother's milk in the diet of a child or young mammal
  • wednesday -  the fourth day of the week; the third working day
  • wernicke -  German neurologist best known for his studies of aphasia (1848-1905)
  • wet-nurse -  a woman hired to suckle a child of someone else; verb give suck to
  • whale oil -  a white to brown oil obtained from whale blubber; formerly used as an illuminant
  • wheatgrass -  a grass of the genus Agropyron
  • whole -  including all components without exception; being one unit or constituting the full amount or extent or duration; complete; (of siblings) having the same parents; acting together as a single undiversified whole; exhibiting or restored to vigorous good health; not impaired or diminished in any way; wholly unharmed; including everything;  to a complete degree or to the full or entire extent (`whole' is often used informally for `wholly');  an assemblage of parts that is regarded as a single entity; all of something including all its component elements or parts
  • wilson's disease -  a rare inherited disorder of copper metabolism; copper accumulates in the liver and then in the red blood cells and brain
  • winepress -  a press that is used to extract the juice from grapes
  • worker -  sterile member of a colony of social insects that forages for food and cares for the larvae; a person who works at a specific occupation; a person who acts and gets things done; a member of the working class (not necessarily employed)
  • wrench -  a hand tool that is used to hold or twist a nut or bolt; a sharp strain on muscles or ligaments; a jerky pulling movement; verb twist or pull violently or suddenly, especially so as to remove (something) from that to which it is attached or from where it originates; make a sudden twisting motion; twist suddenly so as to sprain; twist and compress, as if in pain or anguish
  • xanthophyll -  yellow carotenoid pigments in plants and animal fats and egg yolks
  • xerophthalmia -  abnormal dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea of the eyes; may be due to a systemic deficiency of vitamin A
  • zeaxanthin -  yellow carotenoid (isomeric with lutein and occurs widely with it) that is the main pigment in yellow Indian corn
  • zinc deficiency -  a deficiency caused by inadequate zinc in the diet or by liver disease or cystic fibrosis or other diseases
  • zinc sulfate -  a colorless water-soluble powder; used as a mordant or to preserve wood or for the electrodeposition of zinc
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