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Vaccination

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Vaccination is the process of administering weakened or dead pathogens called vaccine to a healthy person, with the intent of conferring immunity against a targeted form of a related disease agent.

H1N1 vaccination card
H1N1 vaccination card

Etiology

  • The term was coined by Edward Jenner and adapted by Louis Pasteur for his pioneering work in vaccination.
  • Vaccination (Latin: vacca—cow) is so named because the first vaccine was derived from a virus affecting cows: the cowpox virus, a relatively benign virus that provides a degree of immunity to smallpox, a contagious and deadly disease.
  • In common speech, 'vaccination' and 'immunization' generally have the same colloquial meaning.
  • Vaccination efforts were initially met with some resistance before early success brought widespread acceptance and mass vaccination campaigns were undertaken.

Success of vaccination programs

  • The eradication of smallpox, which was last seen in a natural case in 1977, is considered the most spectacular success of vaccination.
  • Some people assert that childhood vaccination plays a role in autoimmune disease and autism, though large-scale scientific studies have not shown any link.

List of diseases with vaccines

Viruses with vaccines: Dengue virus, Ebolavirus, H1N1 virus, Hantavirus, Hepatitis A virus, Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis E virus, Human papillomavirus, Influenza virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Measles virus, Mumps virus, Polio virus, Rabies virus, Rotavirus, Rubella virus, Tick-borne, encephalitis virus, Varicella zoster virus, Variola virus, Yellow fever virus

Poster for vaccination against smallpox
Poster for vaccination against smallpox

Bacterial diseases with vaccines: Bacillus anthracis, Bordetella pertussis, Brucella abortus, Clostridium tetani, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Coxiella burnetii, Haemophilus influenzae type B, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Neisseria meningitidis, Salmonella Typhi, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Vibrio cholerae

Vaccine development process
Vaccine development process

Vaccines under research

There are many vaccines that are being investigated including the following:

Viral vaccines under research

  • Adenovirus vaccine
  • COVID-19 vaccine
  • Coxsackie B virus vaccine
  • Cytomegalovirus vaccine
  • Chikungunya vaccine
  • Eastern Equine encephalitis virus vaccine for humans[6]
  • Enterovirus 71 vaccine
  • Epstein–Barr vaccine
  • H5N1 vaccine
  • Hepatitis C vaccine
  • HIV vaccine
  • HTLV-1 T-lymphotropic leukemia vaccine for humans
  • Marburg virus disease vaccine
  • MERS vaccine
  • Norovirus vaccine
  • Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine
  • SARS vaccine
  • West Nile virus vaccine for humans
  • Zika fever vaccine
COVID-19 Sputnik V Vaccine Representation
COVID-19 Sputnik V Vaccine Representation

Bacterial disease vaccines under research

  • Caries vaccine
  • Gonorrhea vaccine
  • Ehrlichiosis vaccine
  • Leprosy vaccine
  • Lyme disease vaccine
  • Staphylococcus aureus vaccine
  • Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine
  • Syphilis vaccine
  • Tularemia vaccine
  • Yersinia pestis vaccine

Parasitic disease vaccines under research

  • Chagas disease vaccine
  • Hookworm vaccine
  • Leishmaniasis vaccine
  • Malaria vaccine
  • Onchocerciasis river blindness vaccine
  • Schistosomiasis vaccine
  • Trypanosomiasis vaccine

Non-infectious disease vaccines under research

  • Alzheimer's disease amyloid protein vaccine
  • Breast cancer vaccine
  • Ovarian cancer vaccine
  • Prostate cancer vaccine

See also


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WikiMD Resources - Vaccination

Latest research (Pubmed)

PubMed


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