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Whiplash

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Pathophysiology

An injury to the neck (the cervical vertebrae) resulting from rapid acceleration or deceleration (as in an automobile accident); a quick blow delivered with a whip or whiplike object

Whiplash injury
Whiplash injury

Neck sprain

Whiplash-a soft tissue injury to the neck-is also called neck sprain or neck strain.

Clinical features

It is characterized by a collection of symptoms that occur following damage to the neck, usually because of sudden extension and flexion.

Cause

The disorder commonly occurs as the result of an automobile accident and may include injury to intervertebral joints, discs, and ligaments, cervical muscles, and nerve roots.

Symptoms

Symptoms such as neck pain may be present directly after the injury or may be delayed for several days.

Other symptoms

  • In addition to neck pain, other symptoms may include neck stiffness, injuries to the muscles and ligaments (myofascial injuries), headache, dizziness, abnormal sensations such as burning or prickling (paresthesias), or shoulder or back pain.
  • In addition, some people experience cognitive, somatic, or psychological conditions such as memory loss, concentration impairment, nervousness/irritability, sleep disturbances, fatigue, or depression.

Prognosis

  • Generally, prognosis for individuals with whiplash is good.
  • The neck and head pain clears within a few days or weeks.
  • Most patients recover within 3 months after the injury, however, some may continue to have residual neck pain and headaches.

Treatment

  • Treatment for individuals with whiplash may include pain medications, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antidepressants, muscle relaxants, and a cervical collar (usually worn for 2 to 3 weeks).
  • Range of motion exercises, physical therapy, and cervical traction may also be prescribed.
  • Supplemental heat application may relieve muscle tension.
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