Physical medicine and rehabilitation

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Template:Multiple issues Template:Pp-protected

Template:Infobox occupation Physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R), also known as physiatry Template:IPAc-en or rehabilitation medicine, is a branch of medicine that aims to enhance and restore functional ability and quality of life to those with physical impairments or disabilities. A physician having completed training in this field is referred to as a physiatrist or rehabilitation medicine specialist. Physiatrists specialize in restoring optimal function to people with injuries to the muscles, bones, tissues, and nervous system (such as stroke patients).[1]

Scope of the field

Common conditions that are treated by the rehabilitation therapists include amputation, spinal cord injury, sports injury, stroke, musculoskeletal pain syndromes such as low back pain, fibromyalgia, and traumatic brain injury. Cardiopulmonary rehabilitation involves optimizing function in those afflicted with heart or lung disease. Chronic pain management is achieved through a multidisciplinary approach involving psychologists, physical therapists, occupational therapists, exercise therapists, anesthesiologist, and interventional procedures when indicated. In addition to the previous methodology, stroke is often treated with the help of a speech therapist and recreational therapist when possible.[2]

History

The term 'physiatry' was coined by Dr. Frank H. Krusen in 1938. The term was accepted by the American Medical Association in 1946. The field grew notably during World War II to accommodate the large number of injured soldiers.[3]

Treatment

The major concern that PM&R deals with as a medical field is the ability of a person to function optimally within the limitations placed upon them by a disabling impairment or disease process for which there is no known cure. The emphasis is not on the full restoration to the premorbid level of function, but rather the optimization of the quality of life for those not able to achieve full restoration. A team approach to chronic conditions is emphasized to coordinate care of patients. Comprehensive Rehabilitation is provided by specialists in this field, who act as a facilitator, team leader, and medical expert for rehabilitation.

Instrument list

Instrument Uses
Heating pads for application of superficial heat
Ice packs for application of cold
Traction devices to apply therapeutic force on affected regions like the neck
Water baths to apply heat or cold superficially
Paraffin wax bath to apply superficial heat
Short-wave diathermy to apply superficial heat
Infrared light to apply superficial heat
Electrotherapy unit to apply heat for muscles.
Stimulator for giving stimulation to superficial skin and hence giving heat to muscles for mobility.

Training

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Subspecialties

Six formal sub-specializations are recognized by the field in the United States:

Other subspecialties within the field that are recognized include the following:

  • Musculoskeletal pain management
  • Intervention physiatry
  • Surgical rehabilitation
  • Rheumatological rehabilitation
  • Obesity and other lifestyle disease modifications
  • Cardiopulmonary rehabilitation
  • Amputee care
  • Electrodiagnostics
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI)

See also

References

  1. Frontera, W.R. (ed.). (2010). Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Principles and Practice. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  2. Template:Cite book

External links

  • What Is PM&R? gives a PM&R resident's description of the specialty and its appeal as a physician


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