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Disease

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Editor-In-Chief: Prab R. Tumpati M.D.. Founder, WikiMD and W8MD Weight Loss, Sleep and MedSpa Centers. Dr. Tumpati is board certified physician practicing sleep medicine, obesity medicine, aesthetic medicine and internal medicine. Dr. Tumpati’s passion is prevention rather than cure. As a physician with fellowship training in Obesity Medicine, Dr. Tumpati has a unique approach to wellness, weight loss, aesthetics with a focus on prevention rather than cure. Dr. Tumpati believes in educating the public on the true science and art of medicine, nutrition, wellness and beauty.

A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function of part or all of an organism, and that is not due to any external injury.

List of diseases and disorders

  • abdomen    the region of the body of a vertebrate between the thorax and the pelvis; the cavity containing the major viscera; in mammals it is separated from the thorax by the diaphragm
  • Abdominal    of or relating to or near the abdomen;  the muscles of the abdomen
  • abdominal cavity    the cavity containing the major viscera; in mammals it is separated from the thorax by the diaphragm
  • Abetalipoproteinemia    a rare inherited disorder of fat metabolism; characterized by severe deficiency of beta lipoproteins and abnormal red blood cells (acanthocytes) and abnormally low cholesterol levels
  • Abnormal    much greater than the normal; not normal; not typical or usual or regular or conforming to a norm; departing from the normal in e.g. intelligence and development
  • abnormality    behavior that breaches the rule or etiquette or custom or morality; marked strangeness as a consequence of being abnormal; retardation sufficient to fall outside the normal range of intelligence; an abnormal condition
  • Abortion    termination of pregnancy; failure of a plan
  • Abscess    symptom consisting of a localized collection of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue
  • absent    lost in thought; showing preoccupation; not in a specified place physically or mentally; verb go away or leave
  • acanthosis    an abnormal but benign thickening of the prickle cell layer of the skin (as in psoriasis)
  • accommodation    (physiology) the automatic adjustment in focal length of the lens of the eye; the act of providing something (lodging or seat or food) to meet a need; living quarters provided for public convenience; in the theories of Jean Piaget: the modification of internal representations in order to accommodate a changing knowledge of reality; a settlement of differences; making or becoming suitable; adjusting to circumstances
  • Acetonuria    excessive amounts of ketone bodies in the urine as in diabetes mellitus or starvation
  • Achondroplasia    an inherited skeletal disorder beginning before birth; cartilage is converted to bone resulting in dwarfism
  • Acidosis    abnormally high acidity (excess hydrogen ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues
  • Acne    an inflammatory disease involving the sebaceous glands of the skin; characterized by papules or pustules or comedones
  • acoustic nerve    a composite sensory nerve supplying the hair cells of the vestibular organ and the hair cells of the cochlea
  • acquired    gotten through environmental forces
  • Acromegaly    enlargement of bones of hands and feet and face; often accompanied by headache and muscle pain and emotional disturbances; caused by overproduction of growth hormone by the anterior pituitary gland (due to a tumor)
  • Actinomycosis    disease of cattle that can be transmitted to humans; results from infection with actinomycetes; characterized by hard swellings that exude pus through long sinuses
  • Acute    having or experiencing a rapid onset and short but severe course; of critical importance and consequence; extremely sharp or intense; having or demonstrating ability to recognize or draw fine distinctions; of an angle; less than 90 degrees; ending in a sharp point;  a mark (') placed above a vowel to indicate pronunciation
  • Acute kidney failure    renal failure associated with burns or other trauma or with acute infection or obstruction of the urinary tract
  • addiction    (Roman law) a formal award by a magistrate of a thing or person to another person (as the award of a debtor to his creditor); a surrender to a master; an abnormally strong craving; being abnormally tolerant to and dependent on something that is psychologically or physically habit forming (especially alcohol or narcotic drugs)
  • Adenocarcinoma    malignant tumor originating in glandular epithelium
  • Adenomyosis    the presence of endometrium elsewhere than in the lining of the uterus; causes premenstrual pain and dysmenorrhea
  • Adenovirus    any of a group of viruses including those that in humans cause upper respiratory infections or infectious pinkeye
  • administration    the act of administering medication; a method of tending to (especially business) matters; the persons (or committees or departments etc.) who make up a body for the purpose of administering something; the tenure of a president
  • adolescence    in the state that someone is in between puberty and adulthood; the time period between the beginning of puberty and adulthood
  • adrenal gland    either of a pair of complex endocrine glands situated near the kidney
  • adulthood    the state (and responsibilities) of a person who has attained maturity; the period of time in your life after your physical growth has stopped and you are fully developed
  • aetiology    the philosophical study of causation; the cause of a disease
  • affect    the conscious subjective aspect of feeling or emotion; verb act physically on; have an effect upon; have an effect upon; have an emotional or cognitive impact upon; make believe with the intent to deceive; connect closely and often incriminatingly
  • Agenesis    imperfect development; nondevelopment of a part
  • agent    an active and efficient cause; capable of producing a certain effect; a businessman who buys or sells for another in exchange for a commission; a representative who acts on behalf of other persons or organizations; any agent or representative of a federal agency or bureau; a substance that exerts some force or effect; the semantic role of the animate entity that instigates or causes the happening denoted by the verb in the clause
  • Agoraphobia    a morbid fear of open spaces (as fear of being caught alone in some public place)
  • albuminuria    the presence of excessive protein (chiefly albumin but also globulin) in the urine; usually a symptom of kidney disorder
  • alcohol    a liquor or brew containing alcohol as the active agent; any of a series of volatile hydroxyl compounds that are made from hydrocarbons by distillation
  • Alkalosis    abnormally high alkalinity (low hydrogen ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues
  • Alkaptonuria    a rare recessive metabolic anomaly marked by ochronosis and the presence of alkapton in the urine
  • Allergic    having an allergy or peculiar or excessive susceptibility (especially to a specific factor); characterized by or caused by allergy
  • Allergy    hypersensitivity reaction to a particular allergen; symptoms can vary greatly in intensity
  • Alopecia    loss of hair (especially on the head) or loss of wool or feathers; in humans it can result from heredity or hormonal imbalance or certain diseases or drugs and treatments (chemotherapy for cancer)
  • Alpha    early testing stage of a software or hardware product; first in order of importance;  the 1st letter of the Greek alphabet; the beginning of a series or sequence
  • alveolus    a tiny sac for holding air in the lungs; formed by the terminal dilation of tiny air passageways; a bony socket in the alveolar ridge that holds a tooth
  • amino acid    organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group
  • amniotic cavity    the fluid filled cavity that surrounds the developing embryo
  • amniotic fluid    the serous fluid in which the embryo is suspended inside the amnion
  • Amoebiasis    infection by a disease causing ameba
  • ampulla    a flask that has two handles; used by Romans for wines or oils; the dilated portion of a canal or duct especially of the semicircular canals of the ear
  • amputation    a surgical removal of all or part of a limb; a condition of disability resulting from the loss of one or more limbs
  • Amyloidosis    a disorder characterized by deposit of amyloid in organs or tissues; often secondary to chronic rheumatoid arthritis or tuberculosis or multiple myeloma
  • Anaemia    a deficiency of red blood cells; a lack of vitality
  • anaesthesia    loss of bodily sensation with or without loss of consciousness
  • Anaphylaxis    hypersensitivity reaction to the ingestion or injection of a substance (a protein or drug) resulting from prior contact with a substance
  • anemia    genus of terrestrial or lithophytic ferns having pinnatifid fronds; chiefly of tropical America; a deficiency of red blood cells; a lack of vitality
  • Anencephaly    a defect in brain development resulting in small or missing brain hemispheres
  • Angina    any disease of the throat or fauces marked by spasmodic attacks of intense suffocative pain; a heart condition marked by paroxysms of chest pain due to reduced oxygen to the heart
  • Angiosarcoma    a rare malignant neoplasm arising from vascular tissue; usually occurs in the breast and skin and is believed to originate from the endothelial cells of blood vessels
  • ankle    a gliding joint between the distal ends of the tibia and fibula and the proximal end of the talus
  • Ankylosis    abnormal adhesion and rigidity of the bones of a joint
  • Anorchia    absence of one of both testes
  • anorectal    pertaining to the anus and rectum considered together
  • Anorexia    a prolonged disorder of eating due to loss of appetite
  • another    any of various alternatives; some other
  • Anthrax    a disease of humans that is not communicable; caused by infection with Bacillus anthracis followed by septicemia; a highly infectious animal disease (especially cattle and sheep); it can be transmitted to people
  • antidiuretic hormone    hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitressin) and also by nerve endings in the hypothalamus; affects blood pressure by stimulating capillary muscles and reduces urine flow by affecting reabsorption of water by kidney tubules
  • antidiuretic hormone    hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitressin) and also by nerve endings in the hypothalamus; affects blood pressure by stimulating capillary muscles and reduces urine flow by affecting reabsorption of water by kidney tubules
  • Anuria    inability to urinate
  • anus    excretory opening at the end of the alimentary canal
  • Anxiety    a vague unpleasant emotion that is experienced in anticipation of some (usually ill defined) misfortune; a relatively permanent state of anxiety occurring in a variety of mental disorders
  • anxiety disorder    a cover term for a variety of mental disorders in which severe anxiety is a salient symptom
  • aplasia    failure of some tissue or organ to develop
  • Aplastic anaemia    anemia characterized by pancytopenia resulting from failure of the bone marrow; can be caused by neoplasm or by toxic exposure
  • appendix    a vestigial process that extends from the lower end of the cecum and that resembles a small pouch; supplementary material that is collected and appended at the back of a book
  • Apraxia    inability to make purposeful movements
  • arousal    the act of arousing; awakening from sleep; a state of heightened physiological activity; mutual sexual fondling prior to sexual intercourse
  • Ascariasis    infestation of the human intestine with Ascaris roundworms
  • Ascites    accumulation of serous fluid in peritoneal cavity
  • Aspergillosis    disease especially in agricultural workers caused by inhalation of Aspergillus spores causing lumps in skin and ears and respiratory organs; an opportunistic infection by a fungus of the genus Aspergillus; characterized by inflammation and lesions of the ear and other organs; severe respiratory disease of birds that takes the form of an acute rapidly fatal pneumonia in young chickens and turkeys
  • asphyxia    a condition in which insufficient or no oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged on a ventilatory basis; caused by choking or drowning or electric shock or poison gas
  • Asphyxiation    killing by depriving of oxygen; the condition of being deprived of oxygen (as by having breathing stopped)
  • associated    related to or accompanying; joined in some kind of relationship (as a colleague or ally or companion etc.)
  • association    the act of consorting with or joining with others; the process of bringing ideas or events together in memory or imagination; (ecology) a group of organisms (plants and animals) that live together in a certain geographical region and constitute a community with a few dominant species; a formal organization of people or groups of people; (chemistry) any process of combination (especially in solution) that depends on relatively weak chemical bonding; a relation resulting from interaction or dependence; the state of being connected together as in memory or imagination; a social or business relationship
  • Asthma    respiratory disorder characterized by wheezing; usually of allergic origin
  • asymmetry    (mathematics) a lack of symmetry
  • Ataxia    inability to coordinate voluntary muscle movements; unsteady movements and staggering gait
  • Atopic eczema    a severe form of dermatitis characterized by atopy
  • Atrophy    any weakening or degeneration (especially through lack of use); a decrease in size of an organ caused by disease or disuse; verb undergo atrophy
  • Aura    an indication of radiant light drawn around the head of a saint; a sensation (as of a cold breeze or bright light) that precedes the onset of certain disorders such as a migraine attack or epileptic seizure; a distinctive but intangible quality surrounding a person or thing
  • auricle    the externally visible cartilaginous structure of the external ear; a small conical pouch projecting from the upper anterior part of each atrium of the heart
  • Autism    (psychiatry) an abnormal absorption with the self; marked by communication disorders and short attention span and inability to treat others as people
  • Autoimmune    of or relating to the immune response of the body against substance normally present in the body
  • autonomic nervous system    the part of the nervous system of vertebrates that controls involuntary actions of the smooth muscles and heart and glands
  • axis    the center around which something rotates; the 2nd cervical vertebra; serves as a pivot for turning the head; a straight line through a body or figure that satisfies certain conditions; in World War II the alliance of Germany and Italy in 1936 which later included Japan and other nations; the main stem or central part about which plant organs or plant parts such as branches are arranged; a group of countries in special alliance
  • bacteria    (microbiology) single celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission; important as pathogens and for biochemical properties; taxonomy is difficult; often considered plants
  • Bacterial    relating to or caused by bacteria
  • base    debased; not genuine; illegitimate; having or showing an ignoble lack of honor or morality; of low birth or station (`base' is archaic in this sense); not adhering to ethical or moral principles; (used of metals) consisting of or alloyed with inferior metal; serving as or forming a base;  a support or foundation; place that runner must touch before scoring; (electronics) the part of a transistor that separates the emitter from the collector; installation from which a military force initiates operations; a flat bottom on which something is intended to sit; the principal ingredient of a mixture; the place where you are stationed and from which missions start and end; (anatomy) the part of an organ nearest its point of attachment; the bottom or lowest part; (numeration system) the positive integer that is equivalent to one in the next higher counting place; the bottom side of a geometric figure from which the altitude can be constructed; any of various water soluble compounds capable of turning litmus blue and reacting with an acid to form a salt and water; lowest support of a structure; the stock of basic facilities and capital equipment needed for the functioning of a country or area; the fundamental assumptions from which something is begun or developed or calculated or explained; (linguistics) the form of a word after all affixes are removed; a lower limit; a terrorist network intensely opposed to the United States that dispenses money and logistical support and training to a wide variety of radical Islamic terrorist groups; has cells in more than 50 countries; the most important or necessary part of something; verb use as a basis for; found on; assign to a station; use (purified cocaine) by burning it and inhaling the fumes
  • Becker muscular dystrophy    a form of muscular dystrophy that sets in in adolescence or adulthood and progresses slowly but will affect all voluntary muscles; characterized by generalized weakness and muscle wasting that affects limb and trunk muscles first; similar to Duchenne's muscular dystrophy but less severe; inheritance is X linked recessive (carried by females but affecting only males)
  • behaviour    manner of acting or controlling yourself; (psychology) the aggregate of the responses or reactions or movements made by an organism in any situation; (behavioral attributes) the way a person behaves toward other people; the action or reaction of something (as a machine or substance) under specified circumstances
  • Belching    the forceful expulsion of something from inside; a reflex that expels wind noisily from the stomach through the mouth
  • Benign    pleasant and beneficial in nature or influence; kindness of disposition or manner; not dangerous to health; not recurrent or progressive (especially of a tumor)
  • beta    preliminary or testing stage of a software or hardware product; second in order of importance;  the 2nd letter of the Greek alphabet; beets
  • Bipolar    having two poles; of, pertaining to, or occurring in both polar regions; of or relating to manic depressive illness
  • Birth    the event of being born; the time when something begins (especially life); the process of giving birth; the kinship relation of an offspring to the parents; verb cause_to_be_born
  • bladder    a bag that fills with air; a distensible membranous sac (usually containing liquid or gas)
  • Blastomycosis    any of several infections of the skin or mucous membrane caused by Blastomyces
  • blood    temperament or disposition; the fluid (red in vertebrates) that is pumped by the heart; people viewed as members of a group; the descendants of one individual; a dissolute man in fashionable society; verb smear with blood, as in a hunting initiation rite, where the face of a person is smeared with the blood of the kill
  • body part    any part of an organism such as an organ or extremity
  • bone    consisting of or made up of bone;  a shade of white the color of bleached bones; rigid connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrates; the porous calcified substance from which bones are made; verb remove the bones from; study intensively, as before an exam
  • bone marrow    the fatty network of connective tissue that fills the cavities of bones; very tender and very nutritious tissue from marrowbones
  • Botulism    food poisoning from ingesting botulin; not infectious; affects the CNS; can be fatal if not treated promptly
  • brachial plexus    a network of nerves formed by cervical and thoracic spinal nerves and supplying the arm and parts of the shoulder
  • brain    that part of the central nervous system that includes all the higher nervous centers; enclosed within the skull; continuous with the spinal cord; mental ability; the brain of certain animals used as meat; that which is responsible for one's thoughts and feelings; the seat of the faculty of reason; someone who has exceptional intellectual ability and originality; verb kill by smashing someone's skull; hit on the head
  • Brain death    death when respiration and other reflexes are absent; consciousness is gone; organs can be removed for transplantation before the heartbeat stops
  • brain stem    the part of the brain continuous with the spinal cord and comprising the medulla oblongata and pons and midbrain and parts of the hypothalamus
  • breast    the front part of the trunk from the neck to the abdomen; either of two soft fleshy milk secreting glandular organs on the chest of a woman; meat carved from the breast of a fowl; verb reach the summit; meet at breast level; confront bodily
  • breathing    passing or able to pass air in and out of the lungs normally; sometimes used in combination;  the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation; the process of taking in oxygen from inhaled air and releasing carbon dioxide by exhalation
  • Bronchitis    inflammation of the membranes lining the bronchial tubes
  • bronchus    either of the two main branches of the trachea
  • Brucellosis    infectious bacterial disease of human beings transmitted by contact with infected animals or infected meat or milk products; characterized by fever and headache; an infectious disease of domestic animals often resulting in spontaneous abortion; transmittable to human beings
  • bruising    brutally forceful and compelling; causing mental or emotional injury
  • Bulimia    pathologically insatiable hunger (especially when caused by brain lesions); a disorder of eating seen among young women who go on eating binges and then feel guilt and depression and self condemnation
  • Burn    damage inflicted by fire; a place or area that has been burned (especially on a person's body); an injury caused by exposure to heat or chemicals or radiation; pain that feels hot as if it were on fire; a browning of the skin resulting from exposure to the rays of the sun; verb burn with heat, fire, or radiation; undergo combustion; cause to undergo combustion; destroy by fire; feel strong emotion, especially anger or passion; feel hot or painful; spend (significant amounts of money); burn at the stake; cause to burn or combust; shine intensely, as if with heat; get a sunburn by overexposure to the sun; burn, sear, or freeze (tissue) using a hot iron or electric current or a caustic agent; use up (energy); create by duplicating data; cause a sharp or stinging pain or discomfort
  • Burns    celebrated Scottish poet (1759 1796); United States comedian and film actor (1896 1996)
  • bursa    a small fluid filled sac located between movable parts of the body especially at joints; a city in northwestern Turkey
  • Bursitis    inflammation of a bursa; frequently in the shoulder
  • Cachexia    any general reduction in vitality and strength of body and mind resulting from a debilitating chronic disease
  • caesarean section    the delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus (from the belief that Julius Caesar was born that way)
  • caffeine    a bitter alkaloid found in coffee and tea that is responsible for their stimulating effects
  • Calcification    a process that impregnates something with calcium (or calcium salts); an inflexible and unchanging state; tissue hardened by deposition of lime salts
  • calcitonin    thyroid hormone that tends to lower the level of calcium in the blood plasma and inhibit resorption of bone
  • calcium    a white metallic element that burns with a brilliant light; the fifth most abundant element in the earth's crust; an important component of most plants and animals
  • Calculus    the branch of mathematics that is concerned with limits and with the differentiation and integration of functions; a hard lump produced by the concretion of mineral salts; found in hollow organs or ducts of the body; an incrustation that forms on the teeth and gums
  • California    a state in the western United States on the Pacific; the 3rd largest state; known for earthquakes
  • cancer    type genus of the family Cancridae; the fourth sign of the zodiac; the sun is in this sign from about June 21 to July 22; a small zodiacal constellation in the northern hemisphere; between Leo and Gemini; (astrology) a person who is born while the sun is in Cancer; any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division; it may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream
  • Candidiasis    an infection caused by fungi of the genus Monilia or Candida (especially Candida albicans)
  • cannabis    the most commonly used illicit drug; considered a soft drug, it consists of the dried leaves of the hemp plant; smoked or chewed for euphoric effect; any plant of the genus Cannabis; a coarse bushy annual with palmate leaves and clusters of small green flowers; yields tough fibers and narcotic drugs
  • Carcinoma    any malignant tumor derived from epithelial tissue; one of the four major types of cancer
  • cardiac    of or relating to the heart
  • Cardiac arrest    absence of systole; failure of the ventricles of the heart to contract (usually caused by ventricular fibrillation) with consequent absence of the heart beat leading to oxygen lack and eventually to death
  • Cardiac tamponade    mechanical compression of the heart resulting from large amounts of fluid collecting in the pericardial space and limiting the heart's normal range of motion
  • Cardiomyopathy    a disorder (usually of unknown origin) of the heart muscle (myocardium)
  • care    activity involved in maintaining something in good working order; the work of providing treatment for or attending to someone or something; attention and management implying responsibility for safety; a cause for feeling concern; judiciousness in avoiding harm or danger; an anxious feeling; verb feel concern or interest; provide care for; be concerned with; prefer or wish to do something; be in charge of, act on, or dispose of
  • Cataract    a large waterfall; violent rush of water over a precipice; clouding of the natural lens of the eye
  • Catatonia    extreme tonus; muscular rigidity; a common symptom in catatonic schizophrenia; a form of schizophrenia characterized by a tendency to remain in a fixed stuporous state for long periods; the catatonia may give way to short periods of extreme excitement
  • cauda    any taillike structure
  • cause    a justification for something existing or happening; events that provide the generative force that is the origin of something; any entity that produces an effect or is responsible for events or results; a series of actions advancing a principle or tending toward a particular end; a comprehensive term for any proceeding in a court of law whereby an individual seeks a legal remedy; verb give rise to; cause to happen or occur, not always intentionally; cause to do; cause to act in a specified manner
  • cavum    (anatomy) a natural hollow or sinus within the body
  • Cellulitis    an inflammation of body tissue (especially that below the skin) characterized by fever and swelling and redness and pain
  • central nervous system    the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
  • Cerebral palsy    a loss or deficiency of motor control with involuntary spasms caused by permanent brain damage present at birth
  • cerebrospinal fluid    clear liquid produced in the ventricles of the brain; fills and protects cavities in the brain and spinal cord
  • certain    exercising or taking care great enough to bring assurance; established beyond doubt or question; definitely known; having or feeling no doubt or uncertainty; confident and assured; certain to occur; destined or inevitable; definite but not specified or identified; reliable in operation or effect; established irrevocably
  • Cervicitis    inflammation of the uterine cervix
  • chest    box with a lid; used for storage; usually large and sturdy; furniture with drawers for keeping clothes; the part of the human torso between the neck and the diaphragm or the corresponding part in other vertebrates
  • CHILD    a young person of either sex; a human offspring (son or daughter) of any age; an immature childish person; a member of a clan or tribe
  • childbirth    the parturition process in human beings; having a baby; the process of giving birth to a child
  • childhood    the state of a child between infancy and adolescence; the time of person's life when they are a child
  • Chimaera    a deep sea fish with a tapering body, smooth skin, and long threadlike tail; a grotesque product of the imagination; (Greek mythology) fire breathing female monster with a lion's head and a goat's body and a serpent's tail; daughter of Typhon
  • chlamydia    coccoid rickettsia infesting birds and mammals; cause infections of eyes and lungs and genitourinary tract; a sexually transmitted infection caused by bacteria of the genus Chlamydia
  • Cholera    an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food
  • cholestasis    a condition in which little or no bile is secreted or the flow of bile into the digestive tract is obstructed
  • choroid    a highly vascular membrane in the eye between the retina and the sclera
  • chronic    being long lasting and recurrent or characterized by long suffering
  • ciliary body    the part of the tunic of the eye between the choroid coat and the iris
  • circulatory system    the organs and tissues involved in circulating blood and lymph through the body
  • cirrhosis    a chronic disease interfering with the normal functioning of the liver; the major cause is chronic alcoholism
  • classified    arranged into classes; official classification of information or documents; withheld from general circulation;  a short ad in a newspaper or magazine (usually in small print) and appearing along with other ads of the same type
  • Cleft lip    a congenital cleft in the middle of the upper lip
  • Clinical    scientifically detached; unemotional; relating to a clinic or conducted in or as if in a clinic and depending on direct observation of patients
  • clitoris    a female sexual organ homologous to the penis
  • coagulation    the process of forming semisolid lumps in a liquid
  • cocaine    a narcotic (alkaloid) extracted from coca leaves; used as a surface anesthetic or taken for pleasure; can become powerfully addictive
  • Coccidioidomycosis    an infection of the lungs and skin characterized by excessive sputum and nodules
  • Coenzyme Q    any of several quinones found in living cells and that function as coenzymes that transfer electrons from one molecule to another in cell respiration
  • cold    lacking the warmth of life; of a seeker; far from the object sought; unconscious from a blow or shock or intoxication; feeling or showing no enthusiasm; having lost freshness through passage of time; used of physical coldness; having a low or inadequate temperature or feeling a sensation of coldness or having been made cold by e.g. ice or refrigeration; extended meanings; especially of psychological coldness; without human warmth or emotion; without compunction or human feeling; sexually unresponsive; so intense as to be almost uncontrollable; no longer new; uninteresting; marked by errorless familiarity; (color) giving no sensation of warmth;  the sensation produced by low temperatures; a mild viral infection involving the nose and respiratory passages (but not the lungs); the absence of heat
  • colitis    inflammation of the colon
  • collapse    a mishap caused by something suddenly falling down or caving in; an abrupt failure of function or health; the act of throwing yourself down; a sudden large decline of business or the prices of stocks (especially one that causes additional failures); verb lose significance, effectiveness, or value; break down, literally or metaphorically; cause to burst; fold or close up; collapse due to fatigue, an illness, or a sudden attack; suffer a nervous breakdown; fall apart
  • colon    the part of the large intestine between the cecum and the rectum; it extracts moisture from food residues before they are excreted; a punctuation mark (:) used after a word introducing a series or an example or an explanation (or after the salutation of a business letter); a port city at the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal; the basic unit of money in Costa Rica; equal to 100 centimos; the basic unit of money in El Salvador; equal to 100 centavos
  • complaint    (civil law) the first pleading of the plaintiff setting out the facts on which the claim for relief is based; an expression of grievance or resentment; (formerly) a loud cry (or repeated cries) of pain or rage or sorrow; (criminal law) a pleading describing some wrong or offense; an often persistent bodily disorder or disease; a cause for complaining
  • Complex    complicated in structure; consisting of interconnected parts;  a conceptual whole made up of complicated and related parts; (psychoanalysis) a combination of emotions and impulses that have been rejected from awareness but still influence a person's behavior; a compound described in terms of the central atom to which other atoms are bound or coordinated; a whole structure (as a building) made up of interconnected or related structures
  • complication    the act or process of complicating; a development that complicates a situation; a situation or condition that is complex or confused; any disease or disorder that occurs during the course of (or because of) another disease; puzzling complexity
  • Compression    applying pressure; encoding information while reducing the bandwidth or bits required; the process or result of becoming smaller or pressed together; an increase in the density of something
  • Concussion    any violent blow; injury to the brain caused by a blow; usually resulting in loss of consciousness
  • confetti    small pieces or streamers of colored paper that are thrown around on festive occasions (as at a wedding)
  • Congenital    present at birth but not necessarily hereditary; acquired during fetal development
  • conjunctiva    a transparent membrane covering the eyeball and under surface of the eyelid
  • connective    connecting or tending to connect;  an instrumentality that connects; an uninflected function word that serves to conjoin words or phrases or clauses or sentences
  • connective tissue    tissue of mesodermal origin consisting of e.g. collagen fibroblasts and fatty cells; supports organs and fills spaces between them and forms tendons and ligaments
  • consciousness    an alert cognitive state in which you are aware of yourself and your situation; having knowledge of
  • contact    close interaction; the act of touching physically; (electronics) a junction where things (as two electrical conductors) touch or are in physical contact; a thin curved glass or plastic lens designed to fit over the cornea in order to correct vision or to deliver medication; a communicative interaction; the physical coming together of two or more things; a person who is in a position to give you special assistance; the state or condition of touching or of being in immediate proximity; a channel for communication between groups; verb be in or establish communication with; be in direct physical contact with; make contact
  • Contact dermatitis    a delayed type of allergic reaction of the skin resulting from skin contact with a specific allergen (such as poison ivy)
  • contact lens    a thin curved glass or plastic lens designed to fit over the cornea in order to correct vision or to deliver medication
  • context    discourse that surrounds a language unit and helps to determine its interpretation; the set of facts or circumstances that surround a situation or event
  • coordination    the regulation of diverse elements into an integrated and harmonious operation; the skillful and effective interaction of movements; the grammatical relation of two constituents having the same grammatical form
  • cornea    transparent anterior portion of the outer covering of the eye; it covers the lens and iris and is continuous with the sclera
  • coronary artery    the artery that branches from the aorta to supply blood to the heart
  • Coronary thrombosis    obstruction of blood flow in a coronary artery by a blood clot (thrombus)
  • corpus callosum    a broad transverse nerve tract connecting the two cerebral hemispheres
  • Cough    the act of exhaling air suddenly with a noise; sudden expulsion of air from the lungs that clears the air passages; a common symptom of upper respiratory infection or bronchitis or pneumonia or tuberculosis; verb exhale abruptly, as when one has a chest cold or congestion
  • Cowpox    a viral disease of cattle causing a mild skin disease affecting the udder; formerly used to inoculate humans against smallpox
  • cranium    the part of the skull that encloses the brain
  • Cryptococcosis    a fungal infection characterized by nodular lesions first in the lungs and spreading to the nervous system
  • Cryptorchidism    failure of one or both testes to move into the scrotum as the male fetus develops
  • Cyst    a closed sac that develops abnormally in some body structure; a small anatomically normal sac or bladderlike structure (especially one containing fluid)
  • Cystic    of or relating to or resembling a cyst; of or relating to a normal cyst (as the gallbladder or urinary bladder)
  • Cystic fibrosis    the most common congenital disease; the child's lungs and intestines and pancreas become clogged with thick mucus; caused by defect in a single gene; there is no cure
  • Cystitis    inflammation of the urinary bladder and ureters
  • Cytological    of or relating to the science of cytology
  • Cytomegalovirus    any of a group of herpes viruses that enlarge epithelial cells and can cause birth defects; can affect humans with impaired immunological systems
  • damage    the act of damaging something or someone; loss of military equipment; the occurrence of a change for the worse; any harm or injury resulting from a violation of a legal right; the amount of money needed to purchase something; verb inflict damage upon
  • days    the time during which someone's life continues
  • Deafness    partial or complete loss of hearing
  • death    the act of killing; the event of dying or departure from life; the personification of death; the permanent end of all life functions in an organism or part of an organism; the absence of life or state of being dead; the time at which life ends; continuing until dead; the time when something ends; a final state
  • deficiency    lack of an adequate quantity or number; the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable
  • Degeneration    passing from a more complex to a simpler biological form; the process of declining from a higher to a lower level of effective power or vitality or essential quality; the state of being degenerate in mental or moral qualities
  • Degenerative    (of illness) marked by gradual deterioration of organs and cells along with loss of function
  • degradation    changing to a lower state (a less respected state); a low or downcast state
  • Delirium    a usually brief state of excitement and mental confusion often accompanied by hallucinations; state of violent mental agitation
  • delivery    the act of delivering a child; the act of delivering or distributing something (as goods or mail); the voluntary transfer of something (title or possession) from one party to another; the event of giving birth; recovery or preservation from loss or danger; (baseball) the act of throwing a baseball by a pitcher to a batter; your characteristic style or manner of expressing yourself orally
  • Dementia    mental deterioration of organic or functional origin
  • Dengue    an infectious disease of the tropics transmitted by mosquitoes and characterized by rash and aching head and joints
  • Dengue fever    an infectious disease of the tropics transmitted by mosquitoes and characterized by rash and aching head and joints
  • deprivation    act of depriving someone of food or money or rights; the disadvantage that results from losing something; a state of extreme poverty
  • derived    formed or developed from something else; not original
  • dermal    of or relating to or located in the dermis; relating to or existing on or affecting the skin; of or relating to a cuticle or cuticula
  • Dermatitis    inflammation of the skin; skin becomes itchy and may develop blisters
  • Dermatophytosis    fungal infection of the skin (especially of moist parts covered by clothing)
  • dermis    the deep vascular inner layer of the skin
  • Dermoid cyst    a cystic tumor (usually benign) with a wall lined with epithelium and a cavity containing other material
  • Deviated nasal septum    abnormal shift in location of the nasal septum; a common condition causing obstruction of the nasal passages and difficulty in breathing and recurrent nosebleeds
  • device    any clever maneuver; an instrumentality invented for a particular purpose; an emblematic design (especially in heraldry); any ornamental pattern or design (as in embroidery); something in an artistic work designed to achieve a particular effect
  • Diabetes mellitus    diabetes caused by a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin and characterized by polyuria
  • Diabetic acidosis    acidosis with an accumulation of ketone bodies; occurs primarily in diabetes mellitus
  • Diabetic coma    coma that can develop in inadequately treated cases of diabetes mellitus
  • diagnosis    identifying the nature or cause of some phenomenon
  • diaphragm    a mechanical device in a camera that controls size of aperture of the lens; electro acoustic transducer that vibrates to receive or produce sound waves; a contraceptive device consisting of a flexible dome shaped cup made of rubber or plastic; it is filled with spermicide and fitted over the uterine cervix; (anatomy) a muscular partition separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities; functions in respiration
  • digestive tract    tubular passage of mucous membrane and muscle extending about 8.3 meters from mouth to anus; functions in digestion and elimination
  • Diphtheria    acute contagious infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae; marked by the formation of a false membrane in the throat and other air passages causing difficulty in breathing
  • Diplegia    paralysis of corresponding parts on both sides of the body
  • Direct    lacking compromising or mitigating elements; exact; direct in spatial dimensions; proceeding without deviation or interruption; straight and short; (of a current) flowing in one direction only; extended senses; direct in means or manner or behavior or language or action; similar in nature or effect or relation to another quantity; moving from west to east on the celestial sphere; or for planets around the sun in the same direction as the Earth; having no intervening persons, agents, conditions; in precisely the same words used by a writer or speaker; being an immediate result or consequence; in a straight unbroken line of descent from parent to child;  without deviation; verb command with authority; give directions to; point somebody into a certain direction; guide the actors in (plays and films); be in charge of; plan and direct (a complex undertaking); specifically design a product, event, or activity for a certain public; put an address on (an envelope); intend (something) to move towards a certain goal; aim or direct at; as of blows, weapons, or objects such as photographic equipment; lead, as in the performance of a composition; direct the course; determine the direction of travelling; cause to go somewhere; take somebody somewhere
  • disease    an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning
  • dislocation    the act of disrupting an established order so it fails to continue; an event that results in a displacement or discontinuity; a displacement of a part (especially a bone) from its normal position (as in the shoulder or the vertebral column)
  • Disorder    a disturbance of the peace or of public order; condition in which there is a disturbance of normal functioning; a condition in which things are not in their expected places; verb bring disorder to; disturb in mind or make uneasy or cause to be worried or alarmed
  • Displacement    act of removing from office or employment; to move something from its natural environment; (psychiatry) a defense mechanism that transfers affect or reaction from the original object to some more acceptable one; (chemistry) a reaction in which an elementary substance displaces and sets free a constituent element from a compound; act of taking the place of another especially using underhanded tactics; the act of uniform movement; an event in which something is displaced without rotation
  • dissection    cutting so as to separate into pieces; detailed critical analysis or examination one part at a time (as of a literary work); a minute and critical analysis
  • distant    apart in space; separate or apart in time; separated in space or coming from or going to a distance; far apart in relevance or relationship; remote in manner
  • Diverticulitis    inflammation of a diverticulum in the digestive tract (especially the colon); characterized by painful abdominal cramping and fever and constipation
  • Diverticulosis    presence of multiple diverticula in the walls of the colon
  • Diverticulum    a herniation through the muscular wall of a tubular organ (especially the colon)
  • Dizziness    a reeling sensation; a feeling that you are about to fall
  • Dracunculiasis    a painful and debilitating infestation contracted by drinking stagnant water contaminated with Guinea worm larvae that can mature inside a human's abdomen until the worm emerges through a painful blister in the person's skin
  • drug    a substance that is used as a medicine or narcotic; verb administer a drug to; use recreational drugs
  • ductus arteriosus    a blood vessel in a fetus that bypasses pulmonary circulation by connecting the pulmonary artery directly to the ascending aorta; normally closes at birth
  • duodenum    the part of the small intestine between the stomach and the jejunum
  • dying    in or associated with the process of passing from life or ceasing to be; eagerly desirous;  the time when something ends
  • Dysfunction    (medicine) any disturbance in the function of an organ or body part
  • Dyspepsia    a disorder of digestive function characterized by discomfort or heartburn or nausea
  • Dysphagia    condition in which swallowing is difficult or painful
  • Ebola    a severe and often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys and chimpanzees) caused by the Ebola virus; characterized by high fever and severe internal bleeding; can be spread from person to person; is largely limited to Africa
  • Eclampsia    a toxic condition characterized by convulsions and possibly coma during or immediately after pregnancy
  • ectoparasite    any external parasitic organism (as fleas)
  • Ectopia    abnormal position of a part or organ (especially at the time of birth)
  • Ectopic pregnancy    pregnancy resulting from gestation elsewhere than in the uterus
  • ectrodactyly    congenital abnormality involving the absence of some fingers or toes
  • eczema    generic term for inflammatory conditions of the skin; particularly with vesiculation in the acute stages
  • Effects    property of a personal character that is portable but not used in business
  • effusion    flow under pressure; an unrestrained expression of emotion
  • elastin    a fibrous scleroprotein found in elastic tissues such as the walls of arteries
  • elbow    the joint of a mammal or bird that corresponds to the human elbow; the part of a sleeve that covers the elbow joint; a sharp bend in a road or river; a length of pipe with a sharp bend in it; hinge joint between the forearm and upper arm and the corresponding joint in the forelimb of a quadruped; verb shove one's elbow into another person's ribs; push one's way with the elbows
  • electricity    keen and shared excitement; a physical phenomenon associated with stationary or moving electrons and protons; energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor
  • Emphysema    an abnormal condition of the lungs marked by decreased respiratory function; associated with smoking or chronic bronchitis or old age
  • encephalitis    inflammation of the brain usually caused by a virus; symptoms include headache and neck pain and drowsiness and nausea and fever (`phrenitis' is no longer in scientific use)
  • Encopresis    involuntary defecation not attributable to physical defects or illness
  • Endocrine    of or belonging to endocrine glands or their secretions;  any of the glands of the endocrine system that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream; the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect
  • Endometriosis    the presence of endometrium elsewhere than in the lining of the uterus; causes premenstrual pain and dysmenorrhea
  • energy    an imaginative lively style (especially style of writing); enterprising or ambitious drive; forceful exertion; (physics) the capacity of a physical system to do work; the units of energy are joules or ergs; a healthy capacity for vigorous activity; the federal department responsible for maintaining a national energy policy of the United States; created in 1977
  • Enteritis    inflammation of the intestine (especially the small intestine); usually characterized by diarrhea
  • Enterobiasis    an infestation with or a resulting infection caused by the pinworm Enterobius vermicularis; occurs especially in children
  • Enterovirus    any of a group of picornaviruses that infect the gastrointestinal tract and can spread to other areas (especially the nervous system)
  • Enuresis    inability to control the flow of urine and involuntary urination
  • Eosinopenia    a decrease in the number of eosinophils in the blood
  • Eosinophilia    a symptom of allergic states; increased eosinophils in the blood
  • Epidemic myalgia    an acute infectious disease occurring in epidemic form and featuring paroxysms of pain (usually in the chest)
  • epidermis    the outer layer of the skin covering the exterior body surface of vertebrates
  • epididymis    a convoluted tubule in each testis; carries sperm to vas deferens
  • epiglottitis    inflammation of the epiglottis; characterized by fever and a severe sore throat and difficulty in swallowing
  • Epilepsy    a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by loss of consciousness and convulsions
  • Epiphora    repetition of the ends of two or more successive sentences, verses, etc.
  • Epispadias    a congenital abnormality in males in which the urethra is on the upper surface of the penis
  • eruption    the emergence of a tooth as it breaks through the gum; (of volcanos) pouring out fumes of lava (or a deposit so formed); symptom consisting of a breaking out and becoming visible; a sudden very loud noise; a sudden violent spontaneous occurrence (usually of some undesirable condition); the sudden occurrence of a violent discharge of steam and volcanic material
  • erysipelas    an acute streptococcal infection characterized by deep red inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes
  • Erythema    abnormal redness of the skin resulting from dilation of blood vessels (as in sunburn or inflammation)
  • Essential hypertension    persistent and pathological high blood pressure for which no specific cause can be found
  • Eustachian tube    either of the paired tubes connecting the middle ears to the nasopharynx; equalizes air pressure on the two sides of the eardrum
  • evidence    your basis for belief or disbelief; knowledge on which to base belief; an indication that makes something evident; (law) all the means by which any alleged matter of fact whose truth is investigated at judicial trial is established or disproved; verb provide evidence for; stand as proof of; show by one's behavior, attitude, or external attributes; give evidence; provide evidence for
  • Exanthema    eruption on the skin occurring as a symptom of a disease
  • except   verb prevent from being included or considered or accepted; take exception to
  • excess    more than is needed, desired, or required;  immoderation as a consequence of going beyond sufficient or permitted limits; a quantity much larger than is needed; excessive indulgence; the state of being more than full
  • exposure    the act of subjecting someone to an influencing experience; abandoning without shelter or protection (as by leaving as infant out in the open); presentation to view in an open or public manner; the act of exposing film to light; vulnerability to the elements; to the action of heat or cold or wind or rain; aspect re light or wind; the disclosure of something secret; the intensity of light falling on a photographic film or plate; a picture of a person or scene in the form of a print or transparent slide; recorded by a camera on light sensitive material; the state of being vulnerable or exposed
  • eyeball    the ball shaped capsule containing the vertebrate eye; verb look at
  • eyelid    either of two folds of skin that can be moved to cover or open the eye
  • face    a vertical surface of a building or cliff; the side upon which the use of a thing depends (usually the most prominent surface of an object); the striking or working surface of an implement; the general outward appearance of something; status in the eyes of others; the front of the human head from the forehead to the chin and ear to ear; the part of an animal corresponding to the human face; a part of a person that is used to refer to a person; the feelings expressed on a person's face; impudent aggressiveness; a specific size and style of type within a type family; a contorted facial expression; a surface forming part of the outside of an object; verb cover the front or surface of; line the edge (of a garment) with a different material; turn so as to face; turn the face in a certain direction; turn so as to expose the face; be opposite; deal with (something unpleasant) head on; present somebody with something, usually to accuse or criticize; oppose, as in hostility or a competition; be oriented in a certain direction, often with respect to another reference point; be opposite to
  • Facial    of or pertaining to the outside surface of an object; of or concerning the face;  care for the face that usually involves cleansing and massage and the application of cosmetic creams; cranial nerve that supplies facial muscles
  • facial nerve    cranial nerve that supplies facial muscles
  • Failed    unable to meet financial obligations
  • Failure    an unexpected omission; an act that fails; an event that does not accomplish its intended purpose; a person with a record of failing; someone who loses consistently; loss of ability to function normally; lack of success; inability to discharge all your debts as they come due
  • fallopian tube    either of a pair of tubes conducting the egg from the ovary to the uterus
  • Fallot    French physician who described cardiac anomalies including Fallot's tetralogy (1850 1911)
  • fascia    a sheet or band of fibrous connective tissue separating or binding together muscles and organs etc
  • Fascioliasis    infestation with the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica; liver damage sometimes occurs; related to liver rot
  • Fasciolopsiasis    infestation with the large intestinal fluke Fasciolopsis buski; common in eastern Asia
  • Fatigue    (always used with a modifier) boredom resulting from overexposure to something; temporary loss of strength and energy resulting from hard physical or mental work; used of materials (especially metals) in a weakened state caused by long stress; labor of a nonmilitary kind done by soldiers (cleaning or digging or draining or so on); verb exhaust or get tired through overuse or great strain or stress; get tired of something or somebody
  • Fear    an emotion experienced in anticipation of some specific pain or danger (usually accompanied by a desire to flee or fight); a profound emotion inspired by a deity; an anxious feeling; verb be afraid or scared of; be frightened of; be uneasy or apprehensive about; be sorry; used to introduce an unpleasant statement; be afraid or feel anxious or apprehensive about a possible or probable situation or event; regard with feelings of respect and reverence; consider hallowed or exalted or be in awe of
  • Feeding    the act of supplying food and nourishment; the act of consuming food
  • femur    the longest and thickest bone of the human skeleton; extends from the pelvis to the knee
  • fetus    an unborn or unhatched vertebrate in the later stages of development showing the main recognizable features of the mature animal
  • fever    intense nervous anticipation; a rise in the temperature of the body; frequently a symptom of infection
  • Filariasis    a disease caused by nematodes in the blood or tissues of the body causing blockage of lymphatic vessels
  • Finding    the decision of a court on issues of fact or law; something that is found; the act of determining the properties of something
  • findings    a collection of tools and other articles used by an artisan to make jewelry or clothing or shoes
  • Fissure    (anatomy) a long narrow slit or groove that divides an organ into lobes; a long narrow opening; a long narrow depression in a surface; verb break into fissures or fine cracks
  • fistula    an abnormal passage leading from a suppurating cavity to the body surface; a chronic inflammation of the withers of a horse
  • Flatulence    a state of excessive gas in the alimentary canal; pompously embellished language
  • floor    the inside lower horizontal surface (as of a room or hallway); a structure consisting of a room or set of rooms at a single position along a vertical scale; a large room in a stock exchange where the trading is done; the legislative hall where members debate and vote and conduct other business; the parliamentary right to address an assembly; a lower limit; the occupants of a floor; the bottom surface of any a cave or lake etc.; the ground on which people and animals move about; verb knock down with force; surprise greatly; knock someone's socks off
  • flow    the act of flowing or streaming; continuous progression; the motion characteristic of fluids (liquids or gases); any uninterrupted stream or discharge; the amount of fluid that flows in a given time; dominant course (suggestive of running water) of successive events or ideas; the monthly discharge of blood from the uterus of nonpregnant women from puberty to menopause; something that resembles a flowing stream in moving continuously; verb cover or swamp with water; move or progress freely as if in a stream; cause to flow; be abundantly present; undergo menstruation; fall or flow in a certain way; move along, of liquids
  • fluid    subject to change; variable; affording change (especially in social status); in cash or easily convertible to cash; characteristic of a fluid; capable of flowing and easily changing shape; smooth and unconstrained in movement;  a continuous amorphous substance that tends to flow and to conform to the outline of its container: a liquid or a gas; a substance that is fluid at room temperature and pressure
  • Focal    having or localized centrally at a focus; of or relating to a focus
  • foetal distress    an abnormal condition of a fetus; usually discovered during pregnancy and characterized by an abnormal heart rhythm
  • foetus    an unborn or unhatched vertebrate in the later stages of development showing the main recognizable features of the mature animal
  • foot    travel by walking; any of various organs of locomotion or attachment in invertebrates; a support resembling a pedal extremity; the part of the leg of a human being below the ankle joint; the lower part of anything; a member of a surveillance team who works on foot or rides as a passenger; a linear unit of length equal to 12 inches or a third of a yard; the pedal extremity of vertebrates other than human beings; lowest support of a structure; (prosody) a group of 2 or 3 syllables forming the basic unit of poetic rhythm; an army unit consisting of soldiers who fight on foot; verb add a column of numbers; walk; pay for something
  • forceps    an extractor consisting of a pair of pincers used in medical treatment (especially for the delivery of babies)
  • forearm    the part of the superior limb between the elbow and the wrist; verb arm in advance of a confrontation
  • Fracture    the act of cracking something; breaking of hard tissue such as bone; (geology) a crack in the earth's crust resulting from the displacement of one side with respect to the other; verb fracture a bone of; break (a bone); become fractured; violate or abuse; break into pieces; interrupt, break, or destroy
  • fragrance    a pleasingly sweet olfactory property; a distinctive odor that is pleasant
  • friction    effort expended in moving one object over another with pressure; the resistance encountered when one body is moved in contact with another; a state of conflict between persons
  • Frostbite    destruction of tissue by freezing and characterized by tingling, blistering and possibly gangrene
  • Fructose    a simple sugar found in honey and in many ripe fruits
  • fumes    gases ejected from an engine as waste products
  • fungal    of or relating to fungi
  • gait    a person's manner of walking; a horse's manner of moving; the rate of moving (especially walking or running)
  • Galactose    a simple sugar found in lactose
  • Galactosemia    a genetic disease (autosomal recessive) in which an enzyme needed to metabolize galactose is deficient or absent; typically develops shortly after birth
  • gallbladder    a muscular sac attached to the liver that secretes bile and stores it until needed for digestion
  • Gangrene    necrotic tissue; a mortified or gangrenous part or mass; the localized death of living cells (as from infection or the interruption of blood supply); verb undergo necrosis
  • Gas gangrene    (pathology) a deadly form of gangrene usually caused by clostridium bacteria that produce toxins that cause tissue death; can be used as a bioweapon
  • gastrin    polypeptide hormone secreted by the mucous lining of the stomach; induces the secretion of gastric juice
  • Gastritis    inflammation of the lining of the stomach; nausea and loss of appetite and discomfort after eating
  • Gastroenteritis    inflammation of the stomach and intestines; can be caused by Salmonella enteritidis
  • gastrointestinal tract    tubular passage of mucous membrane and muscle extending about 8.3 meters from mouth to anus; functions in digestion and elimination
  • Genetic    of or relating to the science of genetics; pertaining to or referring to origin; tending to occur among members of a family usually by heredity; of or relating to or produced by or being a gene
  • genital    of or relating to the external sex organs
  • genitourinary system    the system that includes all organs involved in reproduction and in the formation and voidance of urine
  • gestation    the conception and development of an idea or plan; the period during which an embryo develops (about 266 days in humans); the state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth when a woman carries a developing fetus in her uterus
  • Giardiasis    infection of the intestines with protozoa found in contaminated food and water; characterized by diarrhea and nausea and flatulence and abdominal discomfort
  • giddiness    an impulsive scatterbrained manner; a reeling sensation; a feeling that you are about to fall
  • gingival    of or relating to the gums
  • Glanders    a destructive and contagious bacterial disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans
  • glasses    optical instrument consisting of a pair of lenses for correcting defective vision
  • Glaucoma    increased pressure in the eyeball due to obstruction of the outflow of aqueous humor; damages the optic disc and impairs vision (sometimes progressing to blindness)
  • glossopharyngeal nerve    sensory nerve to the pharynx and back of the tongue; motor fibers innervate muscles that elevate the pharynx and larynx; includes parasympathetic fibers to the otic ganglion
  • glucagon    a hormone secreted by the pancreas; stimulates increases in blood sugar levels in the blood (thus opposing the action of insulin)
  • Glycosuria    the presence of abnormally high levels of sugar in the urine
  • Gout    a painful inflammation of the big toe and foot caused by defects in uric acid metabolism resulting in deposits of the acid and its salts in the blood and joints
  • graft    the act of grafting something onto something else; (surgery) tissue or organ transplanted from a donor to a recipient; in some cases the patient can be both donor and recipient; the practice of offering something (usually money) in order to gain an illicit advantage; verb cause to grow together parts from different plants; place the organ of a donor into the body of a recipient
  • Granulation    the act of forming something into granules or grains; new connective tissue and tiny blood vessels that form on the surfaces of a wound during the healing process
  • Granuloma    a tumor composed of granulation tissue resulting from injury or inflammation or infection
  • growth hormone    a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland; promotes growth in humans
  • haematopoietic    pertaining to the formation of blood or blood cells
  • Haemophilia    congenital tendency to uncontrolled bleeding; usually affects males and is transmitted from mother to son
  • Haemoptysis    coughing up blood from the respiratory tract; usually indicates a severe infection of the bronchi or lungs
  • haemorrhage    flow of blood from a ruptured blood vessels
  • haemorrhagic fever    a group of illnesses caused by a viral infection (usually restricted to a specific geographic area); fever and gastrointestinal symptoms are followed by capillary hemorrhage
  • Haemothorax    accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity (the space between the lungs and the walls of the chest)
  • hair    a filamentous projection or process on an organism; any of the cylindrical filaments characteristically growing from the epidermis of a mammal; a covering for the body (or parts of it) consisting of a dense growth of threadlike structures (as on the human head); helps to prevent heat loss; filamentous hairlike growth on a plant; cloth woven from horsehair or camelhair; used for upholstery or stiffening in garments; a very small distance or space
  • hair follicle    a small tubular cavity containing the root of a hair; small muscles and sebaceous glands are associated with them
  • Hand    physical assistance; terminal part of the forelimb in certain vertebrates (e.g. apes or kangaroos); a rotating pointer on the face of a timepiece; the (prehensile) extremity of the superior limb; ability; one of two sides of an issue; a round of applause to signify approval; the cards held in a card game by a given player at any given time; a position given by its location to the side of an object; a member of the crew of a ship; a unit of length equal to 4 inches; used in measuring horses; something written by hand; a card player in a game of bridge; a hired laborer on a farm or ranch; verb guide or conduct or usher somewhere; place into the hands or custody of
  • hands    (with `in') guardianship over; in divorce cases it is the right to house and care for and discipline a child; the force of workers available
  • head    a single domestic animal; a projection out from one end; (nautical) a toilet on board a boat or ship; the striking part of a tool; (usually plural) the obverse side of a coin that usually bears the representation of a person's head; that part of a skeletal muscle that is away from the bone that it moves; the upper part of the human body or the front part of the body in animals; contains the face and brains; the rounded end of a bone that bits into a rounded cavity in another bone to form a joint; (grammar) the word in a grammatical constituent that plays the same grammatical role as the whole constituent; the front of a military formation or procession; the top of something; the foam or froth that accumulates at the top when you pour an effervescent liquid into a container; a rounded compact mass; a user of (usually soft) drugs; a person who is in charge; an individual person; the pressure exerted by a fluid; the length or height based on the size of a human or animal head; the tip of an abscess (where the pus accumulates); oral stimulation of the genitals; a membrane that is stretched taut over a drum; (computer science) a tiny electromagnetic coil and metal pole used to write and read magnetic patterns on a disk; that which is responsible for one's thoughts and feelings; the seat of the faculty of reason; a line of text serving to indicate what the passage below it is about; the subject matter at issue; a V shaped mark at one end of an arrow pointer; forward movement; a difficult juncture; the source of water from which a stream arises; the part in the front or nearest the viewer; a natural elevation (especially a rocky one that juts out into the sea); the educator who has executive authority for a school; a dense clusters of flowers or foliage; verb remove the head of; to go or travel towards; be in charge of; form a head or come or grow to a head; be in the front of or on top of; be the first or leading member of (a group) and excel; take its rise; direct the course; determine the direction of travelling; travel in front of; go in advance of others
  • heart    a playing card in the major suit that has one or more red hearts on it; an inclination or tendency of a certain kind; the courage to carry on; the hollow muscular organ located behind the sternum and between the lungs; its rhythmic contractions move the blood through the body; the locus of feelings and intuitions; a firm rather dry variety meat (usually beef or veal); a plane figure with rounded sides curving inward at the top and intersecting at the bottom; conventionally used on playing cards and valentines; the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience; a positive feeling of liking; an area that is approximately central within some larger region
  • Heart failure    inability of the heart to pump enough blood to sustain normal bodily functions
  • Heartburn    a painful burning sensation in the chest caused by gastroesophageal reflux (backflow from the stomach irritating the esophagus); symptomatic of an ulcer or a diaphragmatic hernia or other disorder
  • heat    the trait of being intensely emotional; the sensation caused by heat energy; a preliminary race in which the winner advances to a more important race; a form of energy that is transferred by a difference in temperature; utility to warm a building; the presence of heat; applies to nonhuman mammals: a state or period of heightened sexual arousal and activity; verb make hot or hotter; gain heat or get hot; provide with heat; arouse or excite feelings and passions
  • Hemochromatosis    pathology in which iron accumulates in the tissues; characterized by bronzed skin and enlarged liver and diabetes mellitus and abnormalities of the pancreas and the joints
  • hemorrhage    flow of blood from a ruptured blood vessels; verb lose blood from one's body
  • hemorrhagic fever    a group of illnesses caused by a viral infection (usually restricted to a specific geographic area); fever and gastrointestinal symptoms are followed by capillary hemorrhage
  • Hepatitis A    an acute but benign form of viral hepatitis caused by an RNA virus that does not persist in the blood serum and is usually transmitted by ingesting food or drink that is contaminated with fecal matter
  • Hepatitis B    an acute (sometimes fatal) form of viral hepatitis caused by a DNA virus that tends to persist in the blood serum and is transmitted by sexual contact or by transfusion or by ingestion of contaminated blood or other bodily fluids
  • Hepatitis C    a viral hepatitis clinically indistinguishable from hepatitis B but caused by a single stranded RNA virus; usually transmitted by parenteral means (as injection of an illicit drug or blood transfusion or exposure to blood or blood products)
  • herbal    of or relating to herbs;  tea like drink made of leaves of various herbs
  • Herpes simplex    a herpes virus that affects the skin and nervous system; an infection caused by the herpes simples virus; affects the skin and nervous system; produces small temporary (but sometimes painful) blisters on the skin and mucous membranes
  • Heterotaxy    any abnormal position of the organs of the body
  • Hookworm disease    infestation of the intestines by hookworms which enter the body (usually) through the skin
  • Hydrocele    disorder in which serous fluid accumulates in a body sac (especially in the scrotum)
  • Hydrocephalus    an abnormal condition in which cerebrospinal fluid collects in the ventricles of the brain; in infants it can cause abnormally rapid growth of the head and bulging fontanelles and a small face; in adults the symptoms are primarily neurological
  • Hydroxy    being or containing a hydroxyl group
  • Hypercalcemia    the presence of abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood; usually the result of excessive bone resorption in hyperparathyroidism or Paget's disease
  • hypercalciuria    the presence of abnormally high levels of calcium in the urine; usually the result of excessive bone resorption in hyperparathyroidism or osteoporosis
  • Hyperlipoproteinemia    any of various disorders of lipoprotein and cholesterol metabolism that result in high levels of lipoprotein and cholesterol in the circulating blood
  • Hyperparathyroidism    excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone resulting in abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood; can affect many systems of the body (especially causing bone resorption and osteoporosis)
  • hyperpyrexia    extremely high fever (especially in children)
  • hypertension    a common disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater)
  • Hypertrophy    abnormal enlargement of a body part or organ; verb undergo hypertrophy
  • Hypochondriasis    chronic and abnormal anxiety about imaginary symptoms and ailments
  • hypoglossal nerve    supplies intrinsic muscles of the tongue and other tongue muscles
  • Hypoglycaemia    abnormally low blood sugar usually resulting from excessive insulin or a poor diet
  • Hypoparathyroidism    inadequate secretion of parathyroid hormone resulting in abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood
  • Hypoplasia    underdevelopment of an organ because of a decrease in the number of cells
  • Hypospadias    an abnormal condition in males in which the urethra opens on the under surface of the penis
  • Hypothyroidism    an underactive thyroid gland; a glandular disorder resulting from insufficient production of thyroid hormones
  • Hypotonia    (of muscular tissue) the state of being hypotonic
  • Ichthyosis    any of several congenital diseases in which the skin is fishlike (dry and scaly)
  • identified    having the identity known or established
  • immune    (usually followed by `to') not affected by a given influence; relating to or conferring immunity (to disease or infection); secure against; relating to the condition of immunity;  a person who is immune to a particular infection
  • immune system    a system (including the thymus and bone marrow and lymphoid tissues) that protects the body from foreign substances and pathogenic organisms by producing the immune response
  • immunodeficiency    immunological disorder in which some part of the body's immune system is inadequate and resistance to infectious diseases is reduced
  • immunodeficiency    immunological disorder in which some part of the body's immune system is inadequate and resistance to infectious diseases is reduced
  • Immunoglobulin G    one of the five major classes of immunoglobulins; the main antibody defense against bacteria
  • Impairment    damage that results in a reduction of strength or quality; the act of making something futile and useless (as by routine); the occurrence of a change for the worse; the condition of being unable to perform as a consequence of physical or mental unfitness; a symptom of reduced quality or strength
  • Impetigo    a very contagious infection of the skin; common in children; localized redness develops into small blisters that gradually crust and erode
  • implant    a prosthesis placed permanently in tissue; verb become attached to and embedded in the uterus; fix or set securely or deeply; put firmly in the mind
  • in situ    being in the original position; not having been moved
  • independent    not dependent on or conditioned by or relative to anything else; not contingent; free from external control and constraint; (of a clause) capable of standing syntactically alone as a complete sentence; not controlled by a party or interest group; (of political bodies) not controlled by outside forces;  a writer or artist who sells services to different employers without a long term contract with any of them; a neutral or uncommitted person (especially in politics)
  • induced    brought about or caused; not spontaneous
  • infancy    the earliest state of immaturity; the early stage of growth or development
  • infantile    being or befitting or characteristic of an infant; of or relating to infants or infancy; indicating a lack of maturity
  • infarction    localized necrosis resulting from obstruction of the blood supply
  • infection    (international law) illegality that taints or contaminates a ship or cargo rendering it liable to seizure; moral corruption or contamination; an incident in which an infectious disease is transmitted; (medicine) the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms and their multiplication which can lead to tissue damage and disease; (phonetics) the alteration of a speech sound under the influence of a neighboring sound; the pathological state resulting from the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms; the communication of an attitude or emotional state among a number of people
  • infectious    easily spread; caused by infection or capable of causing infection; of or relating to infection
  • Infectious mononucleosis    an acute disease characterized by fever and swollen lymph nodes and an abnormal increase of mononuclear leucocytes or monocytes in the bloodstream; not highly contagious; some believe it can be transmitted by kissing
  • infestation    a swarm of insects that attack plants; the state of being invaded or overrun by parasites
  • Inflammation    arousal to violent emotion; a response of body tissues to injury or irritation; characterized by pain and swelling and redness and heat; the act of setting something on fire; the state of being emotionally aroused and worked up
  • Influenza    an acute febrile highly contagious viral disease
  • Inguinal hernia    hernia in which a loop of intestine enters the inguinal canal; the most common type of hernia in males
  • inhalation    the act of inhaling; the drawing in of air (or other gases) as in breathing; a medication to be taken by inhaling it
  • injection    the forceful insertion of a substance under pressure; the act of putting a liquid into the body by means of a syringe; any solution that is injected (as into the skin)
  • injury    an act that injures someone; an accident that results in physical damage or hurt; any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc.; a casualty to military personnel resulting from combat
  • innate immunity    immunity to disease that occurs as part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
  • inner ear    a complex system of interconnecting cavities; concerned with hearing and equilibrium
  • Insomnia    an inability to sleep; chronic sleeplessness
  • insufficiency    lack of an adequate quantity or number; (pathology) inability of a bodily part or organ to function normally; a lack of competence
  • integument    an outer protective covering such as the skin of an animal or a cuticle or seed coat or rind or shell
  • intervertebral disc    a fibrocartilaginous disc serving as a cushion between all of the vertebrae of the spinal column (except between the first two)
  • Intestinal    of or relating to or inside the intestines
  • Intestinal obstruction    blockage of the intestine (especially the ileum) that prevents the contents of the intestine from passing to the lower bowel
  • intestine    the part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus
  • invasion    the act of invading; the act of an army that invades for conquest or plunder; (pathology) the spread of pathogenic microorganisms or malignant cells to new sites in the body; any entry into an area not previously occupied
  • ionizing radiation    high energy radiation capable of producing ionization in substances through which it passes
  • iris    diaphragm consisting of thin overlapping plates that can be adjusted to change the diameter of a central opening; muscular diaphragm that controls the size of the pupil; it forms the colored portion of the eye; plants with sword shaped leaves and erect stalks bearing bright colored flowers composed of three petals and three drooping sepals
  • Irritable bowel syndrome    recurrent abdominal pain and diarrhea (often alternating with periods of constipation); often associated with emotional stress
  • irritant    something that causes irritation and annoyance
  • joint    involving both houses of a legislature; united or combined; affecting or involving two or more;  marijuana leaves rolled into a cigarette for smoking; junction by which parts or objects are joined together; a disreputable place of entertainment; (anatomy) the point of connection between two bones or elements of a skeleton (especially if it allows motion); a piece of meat roasted or for roasting and of a size for slicing into more than one portion; the shape or manner in which things come together and a connection is made; verb separate (meat) at the joint; fasten with a joint; provide with a joint; fit as if by joints
  • Keloid    raised pinkish scar tissue at the site of an injury; results from excessive tissue repair
  • keratinisation    organic process by which keratin is deposited in cells and the cells become horny (as in nails and hair)
  • Keratosis pilaris    keratosis characterized by hard conical elevations in the openings of sebaceous glands (especially of arms and thighs)
  • kidney    either of two bean shaped excretory organs that filter wastes (especially urea) from the blood and excrete them and water in urine
  • Kidney failure    inability of the kidneys to excrete wastes and to help maintain the electrolyte balance
  • Klebsiella    a genus of nonmotile rod shaped Gram negative enterobacteria; some cause respiratory and other infections
  • Kleptomania    an irresistible impulse to steal in the absence of any economic motive
  • knee    the part of a trouser leg that provides the cloth covering for the knee; hinge joint in the human leg connecting the tibia and fibula with the femur and protected in front by the patella; joint between the femur and tibia in a quadruped; corresponds to the human knee
  • known    apprehended with certainty
  • labour    productive work (especially physical work done for wages); a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages; a political party formed in Great Britain in 1900; characterized by the promotion of labor's interests and the socialization of key industries; concluding state of pregnancy; from the onset of labor to the birth of a child; verb undergo the efforts of childbirth; strive and make an effort to reach a goal; work hard
  • Lack    the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable; verb be without
  • lactation    the production and secretion of milk by the mammary glands; the period following birth during which milk is secreted; feeding an infant by giving suck at the breast
  • large intestine    beginning with the cecum and ending with the rectum; includes the cecum and the colon and the rectum; extracts moisture from food residues which are later excreted as feces
  • larynx    a cartilaginous structure at the top of the trachea; contains elastic vocal cords that are the source of the vocal tone in speech
  • Lassa    the sacred city of Lamaism; known as the Forbidden City for its former inaccessibility and hostility to strangers
  • late    having died recently; being or occurring at an advanced period of time or after a usual or expected time; at or toward an end or late period or stage of development; of a later stage in the development of a language or literature; used especially of dead languages; of the immediate past or just previous to the present time; (used especially of persons) of the immediate past; after the expected or usual time; delayed;  later than usual or than expected; at an advanced age or stage; in the recent past; to an advanced time
  • Lecithin    a yellow phospholipid essential for the metabolism of fats; found in egg yolk and in many plant and animal cells; used commercially as an emulsifier
  • left atrium    the left upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the pulmonary veins
  • Legionnaires' disease    acute (sometimes fatal) lobar pneumonia caused by bacteria of a kind first recognized after an outbreak of the disease at an American Legion convention in Philadelphia in 1976; characterized by fever and muscle and chest pain and headache and chills and a dry cough
  • Leiomyosarcoma    sarcoma of smooth muscle; occurs most often digestive tract or uterus or bladder or prostate
  • Leishmaniasis    sores resulting from a tropical infection by protozoa of the genus Leishmania which are spread by sandflies
  • length    a section of something that is long and narrow; the linear extent in space from one end to the other; the longest horizontal dimension of something that is fixed in place; the property of being the extent of something from beginning to end; continuance in time; size of the gap between two places
  • lens    a transparent optical device used to converge or diverge transmitted light and to form images; electronic equipment that uses a magnetic or electric field in order to focus a beam of electrons; biconvex transparent body situated behind the iris in the eye; it focuses light waves on the retina; (metaphor) a channel through which something can be seen or understood; genus of small erect or climbing herbs with pinnate leaves and small inconspicuous white flowers and small flattened pods: lentils
  • Leprosy    chronic granulomatous communicable disease occurring in tropical and subtropical regions; characterized by inflamed nodules beneath the skin and wasting of body parts; caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae
  • Leptospirosis    an infectious disease cause by leptospira and transmitted to humans from domestic animals; characterized by jaundice and fever
  • level    oriented at right angles to the plumb; being on a precise horizontal plane; not showing abrupt variations; of the score in a contest; having a surface without slope, tilt in which no part is higher or lower than another;  indicator that establishes the horizontal when a bubble is centered in a tube of liquid; height above ground; an abstract place usually conceived as having depth; a structure consisting of a room or set of rooms at a single position along a vertical scale; a flat surface at right angles to a plumb line; a position on a scale of intensity or amount or quality; a specific identifiable position in a continuum or series or especially in a process; a relative position or degree of value in a graded group; verb become level or even; talk frankly with; lay it on the line; aim at; tear down so as to make flat with the ground; direct into a position for use; make level or straight
  • liability    the quality of being something that holds you back; the state of being legally obliged and responsible; an obligation to pay money to another party
  • light    characterized by or emitting light; (used of color) having a relatively small amount of coloring agent; (of sleep) easily disturbed; demanding little effort; not burdensome; having relatively few calories; easily assimilated in the alimentary canal; not rich or heavily seasoned; of comparatively little physical weight or density; designed for ease of movement or to carry little weight; psychologically light; especially free from sadness or troubles; not great in degree or quantity or number; (physics, chemistry) not having atomic weight greater than average; of little intensity or power or force; moving easily and quickly; nimble; of the military or industry; using (or being) relatively small or light arms or equipment; intended primarily as entertainment; not serious or profound; having little importance; less than the correct or legal or full amount often deliberately so; casual and unrestrained in sexual behavior; (used of soil) loose and large grained in consistency; (of sound or color) free from anything that dulls or dims; silly or trivial; used of vowels or syllables; proced with little or no stress; marked by temperance in indulgence; very thin and insubstantial; weak and likely to lose consciousness;  with few burdens;  any device serving as a source of illumination; the visual effect of illumination on objects or scenes as created in pictures; public awareness; mental understanding as an enlightening experience; a particular perspective or aspect of a situation; a visual warning signal; an illuminated area; a person regarded very fondly; (physics) electromagnetic radiation that can produce a visual sensation; having abundant light or illumination; a condition of spiritual awareness; divine illumination; a device for lighting or igniting fuel or charges or fires; merriment expressed by a brightness or gleam or animation of countenance; the quality of being luminous; emitting or reflecting light; a divine presence believed by Quakers to enlighten and guide the soul; verb make lighter or brighter; begin to smoke; get off (a horse); to come to rest, settle; fall to somebody by assignment or lot; cause to start burning; subject to fire or great heat
  • limb    the graduated arc that is attached to an instrument for measuring angles; either of the two halves of a bow from handle to tip; one of the jointed appendages of an animal used for locomotion or grasping: arm; leg; wing; flipper; (astronomy) the circumferential edge of the apparent disc of the sun or the moon or a planet; any of the main branches arising from the trunk or a bough of a tree; any projection that is thought to resemble a human arm
  • Listeriosis    an infectious disease of animals and humans (especially newborn or immunosuppressed persons) caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes; in sheep and cattle the infection frequently involves the central nervous system and causes various neurological symptoms
  • liver    having a reddish brown color;  large and complicated reddish brown glandular organ located in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity; secretes bile and functions in metabolism of protein and carbohydrate and fat; synthesizes substances involved in the clotting of the blood; synthesizes vitamin A; detoxifies poisonous substances and breaks down worn out erythrocytes; liver of an animal used as meat; someone who lives in a place; a person who has a special life style
  • lumbar    of or relating to or near the part of the back between the ribs and the hipbones
  • lumbosacral plexus    a nerve plexus formed by the ventral divisions of the coccygeal and sacral and lumbar nerves; supplies the lower limbs and perineum and coccygeal area
  • lump    a compact mass; a large piece of something without definite shape; an awkward stupid person; abnormal protuberance or localized enlargement; verb put together indiscriminately; group or chunk together in a certain order or place side by side
  • lung    either of two saclike respiratory organs in the chest of vertebrates; serves to remove carbon dioxide and provide oxygen to the blood
  • Lupus erythematosus    a chronic inflammatory collagen disease affecting connective tissue (skin or joints)
  • lymph node    the source of lymph and lymphocytes
  • lymphedema    swelling (usually in the legs) caused by lymph accumulating in the tissues
  • lymphoid    resembling lymph or lymphatic tissues
  • lymphoma    a neoplasm of lymph tissue that is usually malignant; one of the four major types of cancer
  • Lyssavirus    a neurotropic non arbovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae that causes rabies
  • Macrocephaly    an abnormally large head; differs from hydrocephalus because there is no increased intracranial pressure and the overgrowth is symmetrical
  • malaria    an infective disease caused by sporozoan parasites that are transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito; marked by paroxysms of chills and fever
  • Male    being the sex (of plant or animal) that produces gametes (spermatozoa) that perform the fertilizing function in generation; for or pertaining to or composed of men or boys; characteristic of a man;  an animal that produces gametes (spermatozoa) that can fertilize female gametes (ova); the capital of Maldives in the center of the islands; a person who belongs to the sex that cannot have babies
  • Male hypogonadism    the state of being a eunuch (either because of lacking testicles or because they failed to develop)
  • Malfunction    a failure to function normally; verb fail to function or function improperly
  • Malignant hyperthermia    hereditary condition in which certain anesthetics (e.g., halothane) cause high body temperatures and muscle rigidity
  • Malignant neoplasm    a tumor that is malignant and tends to spread to other parts of the body
  • malnutrition    a state of poor nutrition; can result from insufficient or excessive or unbalanced diet or from inability to absorb foods
  • Manitoba    one of the three prairie provinces in central Canada
  • Maple syrup urine disease    an inherited disorder of metabolism in which the urine has a odor characteristic of maple syrup; if untreated it can lead to mental retardation and death in early childhood
  • Marburg disease    a viral disease of green monkeys caused by the Marburg virus; when transmitted to humans it causes serious or fatal illness
  • mass    gathered or tending to gather into a mass or whole;  (Roman Catholic Church and Protestant Churches) the celebration of the Eucharist; the property of a body that causes it to have weight in a gravitational field; a sequence of prayers constituting the Christian Eucharistic rite; a musical setting for a Mass; an ill structured collection of similar things (objects or people); a body of matter without definite shape; the property of something that is great in magnitude; the common people generally; (often followed by `of') a large number or amount or extent; verb join together into a mass or collect or form a mass
  • mastoid    relating to or resembling a nipple; of or relating to or in the region of the mastoid process;  process of the temporal bone behind the ear at the base of the skull
  • mastoid process    process of the temporal bone behind the ear at the base of the skull
  • Maternal    characteristic of a mother; relating to or derived from one's mother; relating to or characteristic of or befitting a parent; related on the mother's side
  • MDMA    a stimulant drug that is chemically related to mescaline and amphetamine and is used illicitly for its euphoric and hallucinogenic effects; it was formerly used in psychotherapy but in 1985 it was declared illegal in the United States
  • Measles    an acute and highly contagious viral disease marked by distinct red spots followed by a rash; occurs primarily in children
  • mediastinum    the part of the thoracic cavity between the lungs that contains the heart and aorta and esophagus and trachea and thymus
  • medical care    professional treatment for illness or injury
  • medication    the act of treating with medicines or remedies; (medicine) something that treats or prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease
  • melaena    abnormally dark tarry feces containing blood (usually from gastrointestinal bleeding)
  • Melanoma    any of several malignant neoplasms (usually of the skin) consisting of melanocytes
  • meninges    a membrane (one of 3) that envelops the brain and spinal cord
  • Meningitis    infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the meninges (the tissues that surround the brain or spinal cord) usually caused by a bacterial infection; symptoms include headache and stiff neck and fever and nausea
  • menstrual cycle    a recurring cycle (beginning at menarche and ending at menopause) in which the endometrial lining of the uterus prepares for pregnancy; if pregnancy does not occur the lining is shed at menstruation
  • Mental    affected by a disorder of the mind; involving the mind or an intellectual process; of or relating to the chin or liplike structure in insects and certain mollusks; of or relating to the mind; of or relating to the chin or median part of the lower jaw
  • mental disorder    (psychiatry) a psychological disorder of thought or emotion; a more neutral term than mental illness
  • mention    an official recognition of merit; a remark that calls attention to something or someone; a short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted passage; verb commend; make reference to; make mention of
  • Metabolic    undergoing metamorphosis; of or relating to metabolism
  • metabolism    the organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life; the marked and rapid transformation of a larva into an adult that occurs in some animals
  • methamphetamine    an amphetamine derivative (trade name Methedrine) used in the form of a crystalline hydrochloride; used as a stimulant to the nervous system and as an appetite suppressant
  • Methyl    the univalent radical CH3 derived from methane
  • micro    extremely small in scale or scope or capability
  • microcephaly    an abnormally small head and underdeveloped brain
  • middle    between an earlier and a later period of time; of a stage in the development of a language or literature between earlier and later stages; equally distant from the extremes; being neither at the beginning nor at the end in a series;  the middle area of the human torso (usually in front); an intermediate part or section; time between the beginning and the end of a temporal period; an area that is approximately central within some larger region; verb put in the middle
  • middle ear    the main cavity of the ear; between the eardrum and the inner ear
  • Migraine    a severe recurring vascular headache; occurs more frequently in women than men
  • Miliaria    obstruction of the sweat ducts during high heat and humidity
  • Miliary tuberculosis    acute tuberculosis characterized by the appearance of tiny tubercles on one or more organs of the body (presumably resulting from tubercle bacilli being spread in the bloodstream)
  • Miscellaneous    constituting a grab bag category; consisting of a haphazard assortment of different kinds (even to the point of incongruity)
  • Mitral valve prolapse    cardiopathy resulting from the mitral valve not regulating the flow of blood between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart
  • Mitral valve stenosis    obstruction or narrowing of the mitral valve (as by scarring from rheumatic fever)
  • mobility    the quality of moving freely
  • Molar pregnancy    an abnormality during pregnancy; chorionic villi around the fetus degenerate and form clusters of fluid filled sacs; usually associated with the death of the fetus
  • Molluscum contagiosum    a virus disease of the skin marked by round white swellings; transmitted from person to person (most often in children or in adults with impaired immune function)
  • morbidity    an abnormally gloomy or unhealthy state of mind; the relative incidence of a particular disease; the quality of being unhealthful and generally bad for you
  • mortality    the quality or state of being mortal; the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 per year
  • mother    a condition that is the inspiration for an activity or situation; a woman who has given birth to a child (also used as a term of address to your mother); a term of address for a mother superior; a term of address for an elderly woman; a stringy slimy substance consisting of yeast cells and bacteria; forms during fermentation and is added to cider or wine to produce vinegar; verb care for like a mother; make children
  • mouth    the opening of a jar or bottle; the externally visible part of the oral cavity on the face and the system of organs surrounding the opening; the opening through which food is taken in and vocalizations emerge; the point where a stream issues into a larger body of water; an opening that resembles a mouth (as of a cave or a gorge); a person conceived as a consumer of food; an impudent or insolent rejoinder; a spokesperson (as a lawyer); verb articulate silently; form words with the lips only; touch with the mouth; express in speech
  • Mucocutaneous    of or relating to the mucous membranes and skin
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis    any of a group of genetic disorders involving a defect in the metabolism of mucopolysaccharides resulting in greater than normal levels of mucopolysaccharides in tissues
  • mucous membrane    mucus secreting membrane lining all body cavities or passages that communicate with the exterior
  • multiple    having or involving or consisting of more than one part or entity or individual;  the product of a quantity by an integer
  • Multiple sclerosis    a chronic progressive nervous disorder involving loss of myelin sheath around certain nerve fibers
  • Mumps    an acute contagious viral disease characterized by fever and by swelling of the parotid glands
  • muscle    authority or power or force (especially when used in a coercive way); animal tissue consisting predominantly of contractile cells; one of the contractile organs of the body; possessing muscular strength; a bully employed as a thug or bodyguard; verb make one's way by force
  • Muscular dystrophy    any of several hereditary diseases of the muscular system characterized by weakness and wasting of skeletal muscles
  • musculoskeletal system    the system of muscles and tendons and ligaments and bones and joints and associated tissues that move the body and maintain its form
  • Myasthenia    any muscular weakness; a chronic progressive disease characterized by chronic fatigue and muscular weakness (especially in the face and neck); caused by a deficiency of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions
  • Mycoplasma    any of a group of small parasitic bacteria that lack a cell walls and can survive without oxygen; can cause pneumonia and urinary tract infection
  • Myelitis    inflammation of the spinal cord
  • Myeloid    of or relating to bone marrow; of or relating to the spinal cord
  • Myiasis    infestation of the body by the larvae of flies (usually through a wound or other opening) or any disease resulting from such infestation
  • Myocarditis    inflammation of the myocardium (the muscular tissue of the heart)
  • myocardium    the middle muscular layer of the heart wall
  • myopathy    any pathology of the muscles that is not attributable to nerve dysfunction
  • myopia    (ophthalmology) eyesight abnormality resulting from the eye's faulty refractive ability; distant objects appear blurred
  • Myotonia    abnormally long muscular contractions; slow relaxation of a muscle after a contraction
  • Myotonic dystrophy    a severe form of muscular dystrophy marked by generalized weakness and muscular wasting that affects the face and feet and hands and neck; difficult speech and difficulty with the hands that spreads to the arms and shoulders and legs and hips; the onset can be any time from birth to middle age and the progression is slow; inheritance is autosomal dominant
  • nail    a thin pointed piece of metal that is hammered into materials as a fastener; horny plate covering and protecting part of the dorsal surface of the digits; a former unit of length for cloth equal to 1/16 of a yard; verb attach something somewhere by means of nails; complete a pass; take into custody; hit hard; locate exactly; succeed at easily; succeed in obtaining a position
  • Narcolepsy    a sleep disorder characterized by sudden and uncontrollable episodes of deep sleep
  • nasal cavity    either of the two cavities lying between the floor of the cranium and the roof of the mouth and extending from the face to the pharynx
  • nasal sinus    any of the paired sinuses in the bones of the face adjacent to the nasal cavity that are lined with mucous membrane that is continuous with the lining of the nasal cavities
  • nasopharynx    cavity forming the upper part of the pharynx
  • nature    the complex of emotional and intellectual attributes that determine a person's characteristic actions and reactions; the essential qualities or characteristics by which something is recognized; a particular type of thing; the natural physical world including plants and animals and landscapes etc.; a causal agent creating and controlling things in the universe
  • Nausea    disgust so strong it makes you feel sick; the state that precedes vomiting
  • neck    an opening in a garment for the neck of the wearer; a part of the garment near the wearer's neck; the part of an organism that connects the head to the rest of the body; a cut of meat from the neck of an animal; a narrow elongated projecting strip of land; verb kiss, embrace, or fondle with sexual passion
  • negative    expressing or consisting of a negation or refusal or denial; having the quality of something harmful or unpleasant; characterized by or displaying negation or denial or opposition or resistance; having no positive features; less than zero; reckoned in a direction opposite to that regarded as positive; not indicating the presence of microorganisms or disease or a specific condition; having a negative electric charge; involving disadvantage or harm; designed or tending to discredit, especially without positive or helpful suggestions;  a piece of photographic film showing an image with black and white tones reversed; a reply of denial; verb vote against; refuse to endorse; refuse to assent
  • Neonatal    relating to or affecting the infant during the first month after birth
  • neonate    a baby from birth to four weeks
  • nephrocalcinosis    renal lithiasis in which calcium deposits form in the renal parenchyma and result in reduced kidney function and blood in the urine
  • Nephrotic syndrome    a syndrome characterized by edema and large amounts of protein in the urine and usually increased blood cholesterol; usually associated with glomerulonephritis or with a complication of various systemic diseases
  • nerves    control of your emotions; an uneasy psychological state
  • nervous system    the sensory and control apparatus consisting of a network of nerve cells
  • neural    of or relating to neurons; of or relating to the nervous system
  • neurogenic    arising in or stimulated by nerve tissues
  • neuropathy    any pathology of the peripheral nerves
  • neurotoxin    any toxin that affects neural tissues
  • newborn    having just or recently arisen or come into existence; recently borne;  a baby from birth to four weeks
  • Newfoundland    a breed of very large heavy dogs with a thick coarse usually black coat; highly intelligent and vigorous swimmers; developed in Newfoundland; an island in the north Atlantic
  • nicotine    an alkaloid poison that occurs in tobacco; used in medicine and as an insecticide
  • Non    negation of a word or group of words
  • nose    a front that resembles a human nose (especially the front of an aircraft); the front or forward projection of a tool or weapon; the organ of smell and entrance to the respiratory tract; the prominent part of the face of man or other mammals; a natural skill; the sense of smell (especially in animals); a symbol of inquisitiveness; a small distance; a projecting spout from which a fluid is discharged; verb defeat by a narrow margin; push or move with the nose; advance the forward part of with caution; rub noses; catch the scent of; get wind of; search or inquire in a meddlesome way
  • Nutritional    of or relating to or providing nutrition
  • Nystagmus    involuntary movements of the eyeballs; its presence or absence is used to diagnose a variety of neurological and visual disorders
  • obesity    more than average fatness
  • Obsessive compulsive    characterized by obsessions and compulsions;  a person with obsessive compulsive characteristics
  • Obstruction    getting in someone's way; the act of obstructing; any structure that makes progress difficult; the state or condition of being obstructed; something immaterial that stands in the way and must be circumvented or surmounted
  • Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy    a form of muscular dystrophy that usually begins between early adulthood and middle age and first affects muscles of the eyelid and throat; progresses slowly with swallowing problems common as the disease progresses; inheritance is autosomal dominant
  • Oedema    swelling from excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue
  • Oesophagitis    inflammation of the esophagus; often caused by gastroesophageal reflux
  • oesophagus    the passage between the pharynx and the stomach
  • olfactory nerve    a collective term for numerous olfactory filaments in the nasal mucosa
  • oliguria    production of an abnormally small amount of urine; abnormally small production of urine; can be a symptom of kidney disease or obstruction of the urinary tract or edema or an imbalance of fluids and electrolytes in the body
  • omentum    a fold of peritoneum supporting the viscera
  • Omphalocele    protrusion of the intestine and omentum through a hernia in the abdominal wall near the navel; usually self correcting after birth
  • Onchocerciasis    infestation with slender threadlike roundworms (filaria) deposited under the skin by the bite of black fleas; when the eyes are involved it can result in blindness; common in Africa and tropical America
  • oophoritis    inflammation of one or both ovaries
  • Opisthorchiasis    infestation with flukes obtained from eating raw fish; common in eastern Asia
  • optic chiasm    the crossing of the optic nerves from the two eyes at the base of the brain
  • optic nerve    the cranial nerve that serves the retina
  • oral    a stage in psychosexual development when the child's interest is concentrated in the mouth; fixation at this stage is said to result in dependence, selfishness, and aggression; of or involving the mouth or mouth region or the surface on which the mouth is located; using speech rather than writing; of or relating to or affecting or for use in the mouth;  an examination conducted by word of mouth
  • oral cavity    the opening through which food is taken in and vocalizations emerge
  • orbit    the (usually elliptical) path described by one celestial body in its revolution about another; the path of an electron around the nucleus of an atom; an area in which something acts or operates or has power or control: "the range of a supersonic jet"; the bony cavity in the skull containing the eyeball; a particular environment or walk of life; verb move in an orbit
  • Orbital    of or relating to the eye socket; of or relating to an orbit
  • Orchitis    inflammation of one or both testes; characterized by pain and swelling
  • organs    edible viscera of a butchered animal
  • oropharynx    cavity formed by the pharynx at the back of the mouth
  • Ossification    hardened conventionality; the developmental process of bone formation; the process of becoming rigidly fixed in a conventional pattern of thought or behavior; the calcification of soft tissue into a bonelike material
  • osteitis    inflammation of a bone as a consequence of infection or trauma or degeneration
  • Osteoarthritis    chronic breakdown of cartilage in the joints; the most common form of arthritis occurring usually after middle age
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta    autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue characterized by brittle bones that fracture easily
  • Osteomyelitis    an inflammation of bone and bone marrow (usually caused by bacterial infection)
  • Osteopetrosis    an inherited disorder characterized by an increase in bone density; in severe forms the bone marrow cavity may be obliterated
  • Osteoporosis    abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium; most common in postmenopausal women
  • Osteosarcoma    malignant bone tumor; most common in children and young adults where it tends to affect the femur
  • Otalgia    an ache localized in the middle or inner ear
  • other    very unusual; different in character or quality from the normal or expected; recently past; not the same one or ones already mentioned or implied; belonging to the distant past
  • Otitis externa    inflammation of the external ear (including auricle and ear canal)
  • Otitis media    inflammation of the middle ear; common in children
  • Otosclerosis    hereditary disorder in which ossification of the labyrinth of the inner ear causes tinnitus and eventual deafness
  • ovary    (vertebrates) one of usually two organs that produce ova and secrete estrogen and progesterone; the organ that bears the ovules of a flower
  • Overlap    the property of partial coincidence in time; a representation of common ground between theories or phenomena; a flap that lies over another part; verb coincide partially or wholly; extend over and cover a part of
  • Overweight    usually describes a large person who is fat but has a large frame to carry it;  the property of excessive fatness
  • Pacemaker    an implanted electronic device that takes over the function of the natural cardiac pacemaker; a specialized bit of heart tissue that controls the heartbeat; a horse used to set the pace in racing; a leading instance in its field
  • Pain    a somatic sensation of acute discomfort; emotional distress; a fundamental feeling that people try to avoid; a bothersome annoying person; a symptom of some physical hurt or disorder; something or someone that causes trouble; a source of unhappiness; verb cause emotional anguish or make miserable; cause bodily suffering to and make sick or indisposed
  • palate    the upper surface of the mouth that separates the oral and nasal cavities
  • palate    the upper surface of the mouth that separates the oral and nasal cavities
  • pancreas    a large elongated exocrine gland located behind the stomach; secretes pancreatic juice and insulin
  • Panic disorder    an anxiety disorder characterized by unpredictable panic attacks; the attacks are usually severe but brief
  • Paraplegia    paralysis of the lower half of the body (most often as a result of trauma)
  • Paratyphoid Fever    any of a variety of infectious intestinal diseases resembling typhoid fever
  • Parkinsonism    a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by tremor and impaired muscular coordination
  • parotid gland    a large salivary gland that produces 50% of daytime saliva; in human beings it is located in front of and below each ear
  • Parvovirus    any of a group of viruses containing DNA in an icosahedral protein shell and causing disease in dogs and cattle; not known to be associated with any human disease
  • Pasteurellosis    an acute infectious disease characterized by pneumonia and blood infection
  • patella    type genus of the family Patellidae: common European limpets; a small flat triangular bone in front of the knee that protects the knee joint
  • Pediculosis    infestation with lice (Pediculus humanus) resulting in severe itching
  • pelvic girdle    the structure of the vertebrate skeleton supporting the lower limbs in humans and the hind limbs or corresponding parts in other vertebrates
  • pelvis    a structure shaped like a funnel in the outlet of the kidney into which urine is discharged before passing into the ureter; the structure of the vertebrate skeleton supporting the lower limbs in humans and the hind limbs or corresponding parts in other vertebrates
  • Pemphigus    a skin disease characterized by large thin walled blisters (bullae) arising from normal skin or mucous membrane
  • penis    the male organ of copulation (`member' is a euphemism)
  • Peptic ulcer    an ulcer of the mucous membrane lining of the alimentary tract
  • Perforation    the act of punching a hole (especially a row of holes as for ease of separation); a line of small holes for tearing at a particular place; a hole made in something
  • perinatal    occurring during the period around birth (5 months before and 1 month after)
  • perineum    the general region between the anus and the genital organs
  • peripheral    on or near an edge or constituting an outer boundary; the outer area; related to the key issue but not of central importance;  (computer science) electronic equipment connected by cable to the CPU of a computer
  • peritoneum    a transparent membrane that lines the abdominal cavity in mammals and covers most of the viscera
  • Pertussis    a disease of the respiratory mucous membrane
  • pharyngitis    inflammation of the fauces and pharynx
  • pharynx    the passage to the stomach and lungs; in the front part of the neck below the chin and above the collarbone
  • phencyclidine    a drug used as an anesthetic by veterinarians; illicitly taken (originally in the form of powder or `dust') for its effects as a hallucinogen
  • Phenylketonuria    a genetic disorder of metabolism; lack of the enzyme needed to turn phenylalanine into tyrosine results in an accumulation of phenylalanine in the body fluids which causes various degrees of mental deficiency
  • phimosis    an abnormal tightness of the foreskin preventing retraction over the glans
  • Phonophobia    a morbid fear of sounds including your own voice
  • photophobia    a morbid fear of light; pain in the eye resulting from exposure to bright light (often associated with albinism)
  • phrenic nerve    one of a pair of nerves that arises from cervical spinal roots and passes down the thorax to innervate the diaphragm and control breathing
  • physical    having substance or material existence; perceptible to the senses; concerned with material things; characterized by energetic bodily activity; according with material things or natural laws (other than those peculiar to living matter); involving the body as distinguished from the mind or spirit; relating to the sciences dealing with matter and energy; especially physics; impelled by physical force especially against resistance
  • Pica    magpies; eating earth or clay or chalk; occurs in some primitive tribes or sometimes in cases of nutritional deficiency; a linear unit (1/6 inch) used in printing
  • Picornavirus    a group of single strand RNA viruses with a protein coat
  • pinna    division of a usually pinnately divided leaf; the externally visible cartilaginous structure of the external ear
  • pituitary gland    the master gland of the endocrine system; located at the base of the brain
  • placenta    the vascular structure in the uterus of most mammals providing oxygen and nutrients for and transferring wastes from the developing fetus; that part of the ovary of a flowering plant where the ovules form
  • Plague    an annoyance; any large scale calamity (especially when thought to be sent by God); any epidemic disease with a high death rate; a serious (sometimes fatal) infection of rodents caused by Yersinia pestis and accidentally transmitted to humans by the bite of a flea that has bitten an infected animal; a swarm of insects that attack plants; verb annoy continually or chronically; cause to suffer a blight
  • Plasma    colorless watery fluid of blood and lymph containing no cells and in which erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets are suspended; (physical chemistry) a fourth state of matter distinct from solid or liquid or gas and present in stars and fusion reactors; a gas becomes a plasma when it is heated until the atoms lose all their electrons, leaving a highly electrified collection of nuclei and free electrons; a green slightly translucent variety of chalcedony used as a gemstone
  • Plasmodium vivax    parasitic protozoan of the genus Plasmodium that causes malaria in humans
  • pleura    the thin serous membrane around the lungs and inner walls of the chest
  • Pleural    of or relating to the pleura or the walls of the thorax
  • Pleurisy    inflammation of the pleura of the lungs (especially the parietal layer)
  • plexus    a network of intersecting blood vessels or intersecting nerves or intersecting lymph vessels
  • Pneumoconiosis    chronic respiratory disease caused by inhaling metallic or mineral particles
  • Pneumocystis pneumonia    pneumonia occurring in infants or in persons with impaired immune systems (as AIDS victims)
  • pneumonia    respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma (excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants
  • Pneumonitis    inflammation of the lungs; caused by a virus or an allergic reaction
  • Pneumothorax    abnormal presence of air in the pleural cavity resulting in the collapse of the lung; may be spontaneous (due to injury to the chest) or induced (as a treatment for tuberculosis)
  • poisoning    the act of giving poison to a person or animal with the intent to kill; the physiological state produced by a poison or other toxic substance
  • poliomyelitis    an acute viral disease marked by inflammation of nerve cells of the brain stem and spinal cord
  • Polydactyly    birth defect characterized by the presence of more than the normal number of fingers or toes
  • Polyp    one of two forms that coelenterates take e.g. a hydra or coral: usually sedentary and has a hollow cylindrical body usually with a ring of tentacles around the mouth; a small vascular growth on the surface of a mucous membrane
  • Polyuria    renal disorder characterized by the production of large volumes of pale dilute urine; often associated with diabetes
  • Porphyria    a genetic abnormality of metabolism causing abdominal pains and mental confusion
  • porphyrin    any of various pigments distributed widely in living tissues
  • poxvirus    any of a group of viruses that can cause pox diseases in vertebrates
  • Pre eclampsia    abnormal state of pregnancy characterized by hypertension and fluid retention and albuminuria; can lead to eclampsia if untreated
  • pregnancy    the state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth when a woman carries a developing fetus in her uterus
  • pressure    a force that compels; the somatic sensation that results from applying force to an area of skin; the force applied to a unit area of surface; measured in pascals (SI unit) or in dynes (cgs unit); an oppressive condition of physical or mental or social or economic distress; the act of pressing; the exertion of pressure; the state of demanding notice or attention; verb to cause to do through pressure or necessity, by physical, moral or intellectual means :"She forced him to take a job in the city"; exert pressure on someone through threats
  • procedure    a mode of conducting legal and parliamentary proceedings; a particular course of action intended to achieve a result; a process or series of acts especially of a practical or mechanical nature involved in a particular form of work; a set sequence of steps, part of larger computer program
  • proctitis    inflammation of the rectum; marked by bloody stools and a frequent urge to defecate; frequently associated with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis
  • Prolapse    the slipping or falling out of place of an organ (as the uterus); verb slip or fall out of place, as of body parts
  • prostate    relating to the prostate gland;  a firm partly muscular chestnut sized gland in males at the neck of the urethra; produces a viscid secretion that is the fluid part of semen
  • proteinuria    the presence of excessive protein (chiefly albumin but also globulin) in the urine; usually a symptom of kidney disorder
  • Prurigo    chronic inflammatory disease of the skin characterized by blister capped papules and intense itching
  • Pruritus    an intense itching sensation that can have various causes (as by allergies or infection or lymphoma or jaundice etc.)
  • Psittacosis    an atypical pneumonia caused by a rickettsia microorganism and transmitted to humans from infected birds; infectious disease of birds
  • Psoriatic arthritis    a form of rheumatoid arthritis usually affecting fingers and toes and associated with psoriasis
  • Psychological    mental or emotional as opposed to physical in nature; of or relating to or determined by psychology
  • puberty    the time of life when sex glands become functional
  • puerperium    time period following childbirth when the mother's uterus shrinks and the other functional and anatomic changes of pregnancy are resolved
  • pulp    the soft inner part of a tooth; an inexpensive magazine printed on poor quality paper; any soft or soggy mass; a soft moist part of a fruit; a mixture of cellulose fibers; verb reduce to pulp; remove the pulp from, as from a fruit
  • pupil    contractile aperture in the iris of the eye; a young person attending school (up through senior high school); a learner who is enrolled in an educational institution
  • purine    a colorless crystalline organic base containing nitrogen; the parent compound of various biologically important substances; any of several bases that are derivatives of purine
  • purpura    any of several blood diseases causing subcutaneous bleeding
  • Pycnodysostosis    a form of dwarfism accompanied by fragile bones and bad teeth
  • Pyridoxamine    a B vitamin that is essential for metabolism of amino acids and starch
  • pyrimidine    a heterocyclic organic compound with a penetrating odor; any of several basic compounds derived from pyrimidine
  • Pyromania    an uncontrollable desire to set fire to things
  • Pyuria    presence of white blood cells in the urine; symptom of urinary tract infection
  • Q fever    an acute disease resembling influenza
  • Rabies    an acute viral disease of the nervous system of warm blooded animals (usually transmitted by the bite of a rabid animal); rabies is fatal if the virus reaches the brain
  • radiation    the act of spreading outward from a central source; a radial arrangement of nerve fibers connecting different parts of the brain; the spread of a group of organisms into new habitats; energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles; the spontaneous emission of a stream of particles or electromagnetic rays in nuclear decay; (medicine) the treatment of disease (especially cancer) by exposure to a radioactive substance; syndrome resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation (e.g., exposure to radioactive chemicals or to nuclear explosions); low doses cause diarrhea and nausea and vomiting and sometimes loss of hair; greater exposure can cause sterility and cataracts and some forms of cancer and other diseases; severe exposure can cause death within hours
  • radiotherapy    (medicine) the treatment of disease (especially cancer) by exposure to a radioactive substance
  • rectum    the terminal section of the alimentary canal; from the sigmoid flexure to the anus
  • Red eye   verb travel on an overnight flight
  • reflex    without volition or conscious control;  an automatic instinctive unlearned reaction to a stimulus
  • refraction    the change in direction of a propagating wave (light or sound) when passing from one medium to another; the amount by which a propagating wave is bent
  • Refractory anaemia    any of various anemic conditions that are not successfully treated by any means other than blood transfusions (and that are not associated with another primary disease)
  • rejection    the act of rejecting something; the speech act of rejecting; (medicine) an immunological response that refuses to accept substances or organisms that are recognized as foreign; the state of being rejected
  • Relapsing fever    marked by recurring high fever and transmitted by the bite of infected lice or ticks; characterized by episodes of high fever and chills and headache and muscle pain and nausea that recur every week or ten days for several months
  • related    connected by kinship, common origin, or marriage; being connected either logically or causally or by shared characteristics; having close kinship and appropriateness; similar or related in quality or character
  • related to    being connected either logically or causally or by shared characteristics
  • REM sleep    a recurring sleep state during which dreaming occurs; a state of rapidly shifting eye movements during sleep
  • Renal    of or relating to the kidneys
  • Renal colic    sharp pain in the lower back that radiates into the groin; associated with the passage of a renal calculus through the ureter
  • renal failure    inability of the kidneys to excrete wastes and to help maintain the electrolyte balance
  • renal pelvis    a structure shaped like a funnel in the outlet of the kidney into which urine is discharged before passing into the ureter
  • resistant    impervious to being affected; incapable of absorbing or mixing with; disposed to or engaged in defiance of established authority; relating to or conferring immunity (to disease or infection); able to tolerate environmental conditions or physiological stress
  • Respiratory syncytial virus    a paramyxovirus that forms syncytia in tissue culture and that is responsible for severe respiratory diseases such as bronchiolitis and bronchial pneumonia (especially in children)
  • respiratory system    the system for taking in oxygen and giving off carbon dioxide; in terrestrial animals this is accomplished by breathing
  • Restless legs syndrome    feeling of uneasiness and restlessness in the legs after going to bed (sometimes causing insomnia); may be relieved temporarily by walking or moving the legs
  • retina    the light sensitive membrane covering the back wall of the eyeball; it is continuous with the optic nerve
  • Rheumatism    any painful disorder of the joints or muscles or connective tissues; a chronic autoimmune disease with inflammation of the joints and marked deformities; something (possibly a virus) triggers an attack on the synovium by the immune system, which releases cytokines that stimulate an inflammatory reaction that can lead to the destruction of all components of the joint
  • Rheumatoid arthritis    a chronic autoimmune disease with inflammation of the joints and marked deformities; something (possibly a virus) triggers an attack on the synovium by the immune system, which releases cytokines that stimulate an inflammatory reaction that can lead to the destruction of all components of the joint
  • Rhinosporidiosis    fungal infection of the nose; often acquired while swimming
  • Ribose    a pentose sugar important as a component of ribonucleic acid
  • rickets    childhood disease caused by deficiency of vitamin D and sunlight associated with impaired metabolism of calcium and phosphorus
  • Rickettsialpox    mild infectious rickettsial disease caused by a bacterium of the genus Rickettsia transmitted to humans by the bite a mite that lives on rodents; characterized by chills and fever and headache and skin lesions that resemble chickenpox
  • Rift Valley fever    an infection common in Africa caused by a bunyavirus; transmitted by mosquitoes or by handling infected animals
  • right atrium    the right upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the venae cavae and coronary sinus
  • Rosacea    a skin disease of adults (more often women) in which blood vessels of the face enlarge resulting in a flushed appearance
  • Roseola    any red eruption of the skin
  • Rotavirus    the reovirus causing infant enteritis
  • Rubella    a contagious viral disease that is a milder form of measles lasting three or four days; can be damaging to a fetus during the first trimester
  • rupture    the act of making a sudden noisy break; a personal or social separation (as between opposing factions); state of being torn or burst open; verb separate or cause to separate abruptly
  • sacral    of or relating to sacred rites; of or relating to or near the sacrum
  • Salivary gland    any of three pairs of glands in the mouth and digestive system that secrete saliva for digestion
  • Salmonella    rod shaped Gram negative enterobacteria; cause typhoid fever and food poisoning; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Salmonellosis    a kind of food poisoning caused by eating foods contaminated with Salmonella typhimurium
  • Salpingitis    inflammation of a Fallopian tube (usually the result of infection spreading from the vagina or uterus) or of a Eustachian tube
  • Sandfly fever    a mild viral disease transmitted by the bite of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasii
  • Sarcoidosis    a chronic disease of unknown cause marked by the formation of nodules in the lungs and liver and lymph glands and salivary glands
  • Sarcoma    a usually malignant tumor arising from connective tissue (bone or muscle etc.); one of the four major types of cancer
  • Scabies    a contagious skin infection caused by the itch mite; characterized by persistent itching and skin irritation
  • scalp    the skin that covers the top of the head; verb remove the scalp of; sell illegally, as on the black market
  • Scarlet fever    an acute communicable disease (usually in children) characterized by fever and a red rash
  • Schistosomiasis    an infestation with or a resulting infection caused by a parasite of the genus Schistosoma; common in the tropics and Far East; symptoms depend on the part of the body infected
  • Schizophrenia    any of several psychotic disorders characterized by distortions of reality and disturbances of thought and language and withdrawal from social contact
  • sclera    whitish fibrous membrane (albuginea) that with the cornea forms the outer covering of the eyeball
  • scoliosis    an abnormal lateral curve to the vertebral column
  • SCOT    a native or inhabitant of Scotland
  • scrotum    the external pouch that contains the testes
  • Scrub typhus    transmitted by larval mites and widespread in Asia
  • sebaceous gland    a cutaneous gland that secretes sebum (usually into a hair follicle) for lubricating hair and skin
  • secretion    a functionally specialized substance (especially one that is not a waste) released from a gland or cell; the organic process of synthesizing and releasing some substance
  • Seizure    the taking possession of something by legal process; a sudden occurrence (or recurrence) of a disease; the act of forcibly dispossessing an owner of property; the act of taking of a person by force
  • sensitivity    the ability to respond to affective changes in your interpersonal environment; the ability to respond to physical stimuli or to register small physical amounts or differences; (physiology) responsiveness to external stimuli; the faculty of sensation; sensitivity to emotional feelings (of self and others); susceptibility to a pathogen
  • Sensory    involving or derived from the senses; of a nerve fiber or impulse originating outside and passing toward the central nervous system; relating to or concerned in sensation
  • Sepsis    the presence of pus forming bacteria or their toxins in the blood or tissues
  • Serratia    a genus of motile peritrichous bacteria that contain small Gram negative rod
  • SESAME    East Indian annual erect herb; source of sesame seed or benniseed and sesame oil
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome    a respiratory disease of unknown etiology that apparently originated in mainland China in 2003; characterized by fever and coughing or difficulty breathing or hypoxia; can be fatal
  • Severe combined immunodeficiency    a congenital disease affecting T cells that can result from a mutation in any one of several different genes; children with it are susceptible to infectious disease; if untreated it is lethal within the first year or two of life
  • Shigella    rod shaped Gram negative enterobacteria; some are pathogenic for warm blooded animals; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Shigellosis    an acute infection of the intestine by shigella bacteria; characterized by diarrhea and fever and abdominal pains
  • Shock    the violent interaction of individuals or groups entering into combat; an unpleasant or disappointing surprise; an instance of agitation of the earth's crust; a bushy thick mass (especially hair); a pile of sheaves of grain set on end in a field to dry; stalks of Indian corn set up in a field; (pathology) bodily collapse or near collapse caused by inadequate oxygen delivery to the cells; characterized by reduced cardiac output and rapid heartbeat and circulatory insufficiency and pallor; a reflex response to the passage of electric current through the body; a mechanical damper; absorbs energy of sudden impulses; the feeling of distress and disbelief that you have when something bad happens accidentally; verb subject to electrical shocks; collect or gather into shocks; collide violently; strike with horror or terror; surprise greatly; knock someone's socks off; strike with disgust or revulsion; inflict a trauma upon
  • shoulder    narrow edge of land (usually unpaved) along the side of a road; the part of the body between the neck and the upper arm; a ball and socket joint between the head of the humerus and a cavity of the scapula; a cut of beef from the shoulder of the animal; verb push with the shoulders; carry a burden, either real or metaphoric; lift onto one's shoulders
  • shoulder girdle    the bony arch formed by the collarbones and shoulder blades in humans
  • Siemens    German electrical engineer (1816 1892); engineer who was a brother of Ernst Werner von Siemens and who moved to England (1823 1883); a unit of conductance equal to the reciprocal of an ohm
  • simplex    allowing communication in only one direction at a time, or in telegraphy allowing only one message over a line at a time; having only one part or element
  • sinus    any of various air filled cavities especially in the bones of the skull; a wide channel containing blood; does not have the coating of an ordinary blood vessel; an abnormal passage leading from a suppurating cavity to the body surface
  • site    physical position in relation to the surroundings; the piece of land on which something is located (or is to be located); a computer connected to the internet that maintains a series of web pages on the World Wide Web; verb assign a location to
  • size    (used in combination) sized;  the property resulting from being one of a series of graduated measurements (as of clothing); the physical magnitude of something (how big it is); a large magnitude; the actual state of affairs; any glutinous material used to fill pores in surfaces or to stiffen fabrics; verb make to a size; bring to a suitable size; sort according to size; cover or stiffen or glaze a porous material with size or sizing (a glutinous substance)
  • skeleton    the internal supporting structure that gives an artifact its shape; a scandal that is kept secret; something reduced to its minimal form; the hard structure (bones and cartilages) that provides a frame for the body of an animal
  • skin    an outer surface (usually thin); a bag serving as a container for liquids; it is made from the hide of an animal; a natural protective body covering and site of the sense of touch; a person's skin regarded as their life; the tissue forming the hard outer layer (of e.g. a fruit); body covering of a living animal; the rind of a fruit or vegetable; verb strip the skin off; bruise, cut, or injure the skin or the surface of; remove the bark of a tree; climb awkwardly, as if by scrambling
  • skull    the bony skeleton of the head of vertebrates
  • small intestine    the longest part of the alimentary canal; where digestion is completed
  • Smallpox    a highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever and weakness and skin eruption with pustules that form scabs that slough off leaving scars
  • smell    the act of perceiving the odor of something; the faculty that enables us to distinguish scents; the sensation that results when olfactory receptors in the nose are stimulated by particular chemicals in gaseous form; any property detected by the olfactory system; the general atmosphere of a place or situation and the effect that it has on people; verb emit an odor; smell bad; inhale the odor of; perceive by the olfactory sense
  • source    a facility where something is available; anything that provides inspiration for later work; a document (or organization) from which information is obtained; (technology) a process by which energy or a substance enters a system; a publication (or a passage from a publication) that is referred to; the place where something begins, where it springs into being; anything (a person or animal or plant or substance) in which an infectious agent normally lives and multiplies; someone who originates or causes or initiates something; a person who supplies information; verb specify the origin of; get (a product) from another country or business
  • specification    (patent law) a document drawn up by the applicant for a patent of invention that provides an explicit and detailed description of the nature and use of an invention; a detailed description of design criteria for a piece of work; naming explicitly; a restriction that is insisted upon as a condition for an agreement
  • speech    (language) communication by word of mouth; the exchange of spoken words; something spoken; the mental faculty or power of vocal communication; a lengthy rebuke; words making up the dialogue of a play; your characteristic style or manner of expressing yourself orally; the act of delivering a formal spoken communication to an audience
  • spermatocele    a swelling on the epididymis or the testis; usually contains spermatozoa
  • spinal cord    a major part of the central nervous system which conducts sensory and motor nerve impulses to and from the brain; a long tubelike structure extending from the base of the brain through the vertebral canal to the upper lumbar region
  • spine    a sharp rigid animal process or appendage; as a porcupine quill or a ridge on a bone or a ray of a fish fin; the part of a book's cover that encloses the inner side of the book's pages and that faces outward when the book is shelved; a small sharp pointed tip resembling a spike on a stem or leaf; the series of vertebrae forming the axis of the skeleton and protecting the spinal cord; any sharply pointed projection
  • spleen    a large dark red oval organ on the left side of the body between the stomach and the diaphragm; produces cells involved in immune responses; a feeling of resentful anger
  • Spondylolisthesis    a forward dislocation of one vertebra over the one beneath it producing pressure on spinal nerves
  • Sporotrichosis    a chronic fungal infection of the skin and lymph nodes
  • Spotted fever    any of several severe febrile diseases characterized by skin rashes or spots on the skin
  • sprain    a painful injury to a joint caused by a sudden wrenching of its ligaments; verb twist suddenly so as to sprain
  • Staphylococcus    spherical Gram positive parasitic bacteria that tend to form irregular colonies; some cause boils or septicemia or infections
  • stated    declared as fact; explicitly stated
  • Status epilepticus    a condition in which there are continuing attacks of epilepsy without intervals of consciousness; can lead to brain damage and death
  • Stenosis    abnormal narrowing of a bodily canal or passageway
  • sternum    the flat bone that articulates with the clavicles and the first seven pairs of ribs
  • Stiffness    firm resoluteness in purpose or opinion or action; the property of moving with pain or difficulty; the physical property of being inflexible and hard to bend; excessive sternness; the inelegance of someone stiff and unrelaxed (as by embarrassment)
  • stomach    an enlarged and muscular saclike organ of the alimentary canal; the principal organ of digestion; an appetite for food; an inclination or liking for things involving conflict or difficulty or unpleasantness; the region of the body of a vertebrate between the thorax and the pelvis; verb bear to eat; put up with something or somebody unpleasant
  • strabismus    abnormal alignment of one or both eyes
  • strain    an intense or violent exertion; (physics) deformation of a physical body under the action of applied forces; injury to a muscle (often caused by overuse); results in swelling and pain; (psychology) nervousness resulting from mental stress; the act of singing; an effortful attempt to attain a goal; a lineage or race of people; the general meaning or substance of an utterance; a succession of notes forming a distinctive sequence; a special variety of domesticated animals within a species; (biology) a group of organisms within a species that differ in trivial ways from similar groups; difficulty that causes worry or emotional tension; verb use to the utmost; exert vigorously or to full capacity; become stretched or tense or taught; cause to be tense and uneasy or nervous or anxious; alter the shape of (something) by stress; to exert much effort or energy; rub through a strainer or process in an electric blender; remove by passing through a filter; separate by passing through a sieve or other straining device to separate out coarser elements; test the limits of
  • Streptococcus    spherical Gram positive bacteria occurring in pairs or chains; cause e.g. scarlet fever and tonsillitis
  • stress    the relative prominence of a syllable or musical note (especially with regard to stress or pitch); (physics) force that produces strain on a physical body; difficulty that causes worry or emotional tension; special emphasis attached to something; (psychology) a state of mental or emotional strain or suspense; verb put stress on; utter with an accent; to stress, single out as important; test the limits of
  • Stroke    a light touch with the hands; a single complete movement; (sports) the act of swinging or striking at a ball with a club or racket or bat or cue or hand; any one of the repeated movements of the limbs and body used for locomotion in swimming or rowing; a mark made by a writing implement (as in cursive writing); a light touch; the oarsman nearest the stern of the shell who sets the pace for the rest of the crew; a sudden loss of consciousness resulting when the rupture or occlusion of a blood vessel leads to oxygen lack in the brain; a punctuation mark (/) used to separate related items of information; the maximum movement available to a pivoted or reciprocating piece by a cam; verb treat gingerly or carefully; strike a ball with a smooth blow; row at a particular rate; touch lightly and with affection, with brushing motions
  • structural    concerned with systematic structure in a particular field of study; affecting or involved in structure or construction; relating to or having or characterized by structure; relating to or caused by structure, especially political or economic structure; relating to or concerned with the morphology of plants and animals; pertaining to geological structure
  • structure    a thing constructed; a complex entity constructed of many parts; the manner of construction of something and the arrangement of its parts; a particular complex anatomical part; the complex composition of knowledge as elements and their combinations; the people in a society considered as a system organized by a characteristic pattern of relationships; verb give a structure to
  • substance    that which has mass and occupies space; the stuff of which an object consists; the idea that is intended; the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience; what a communication that is about something is about; considerable capital (wealth or income)
  • sudden death    (sports) overtime in which play is stopped as soon as one contestant scores; e.g. football and golf
  • Sunburn    redness of the skin caused by exposure to the rays of the sun; a browning of the skin resulting from exposure to the rays of the sun; verb get a sunburn by overexposure to the sun
  • surgery    a room where a doctor or dentist can be consulted; the branch of medical science that treats disease or injury by operative procedures; a medical procedure involving an incision with instruments; performed to repair damage or arrest disease in a living body; a room in a hospital equipped for the performance of surgical operations
  • surgical    performed with great precision; relating to or requiring or amenable to treatment by surgery especially as opposed to medicine; of or relating to or involving or used in surgery
  • suspect    not as expected;  someone who is under suspicion; a person or institution against whom an action is brought in a court of law; the person being sued or accused; verb imagine to be the case or true or probable; hold in suspicion; believe to be guilty; regard as untrustworthy; regard with suspicion; have no faith or confidence in
  • sweating    being wet with perspiration;  the process of the sweat glands of the skin secreting a salty fluid
  • symptom    anything that accompanies X and is regarded as an indication of X's existence; (medicine) any sensation or change in bodily function that is experienced by a patient and is associated with a particular disease
  • Symptomatic    relating to or according to or affecting a symptom or symptoms; characteristic or indicative of e.g. a disease
  • Syncope    (phonology) the loss of sounds in the interior of a word (as in `fo'c'sle' for `forecastle'); a spontaneous loss of consciousness caused by insufficient blood to the brain
  • Syndactyly    birth defect in which there is partial or total webbing connecting two or more fingers or toes
  • syndrome    a complex of concurrent things; a pattern of symptoms indicative of some disease
  • synovium    a thin membrane in synovial (freely moving) joints that lines the joint capsule and secretes synovial fluid
  • Syphilis    a common venereal disease caused by the treponema pallidum spirochete; symptoms change through progressive stages; can be congenital (transmitted through the placenta)
  • systemic    affecting an entire system
  • Taenia    tapeworms parasitic in humans which uses the pig as its intermediate host; a narrow headband or strip of ribbon worn as a headband
  • taste    a kind of sensing; distinguishing substances by means of the taste buds; the faculty of distinguishing sweet, sour, bitter, and salty properties in the mouth; the sensation that results when taste buds in the tongue and throat convey information about the chemical composition of a soluble stimulus; delicate discrimination (especially of aesthetic values); a brief experience of something; a small amount eaten or drunk; a strong liking; verb experience briefly; perceive by the sense of taste; distinguish flavors; have flavor; taste of something; take a sample of; have a distinctive or characteristic taste
  • Taylor    12th President of the United States; died in office (1784 1850); United States film actress (born in England) who was a childhood star; as an adult she often co starred with Richard Burton (born in 1932); United States composer and music critic (1885 1966)
  • teeth    the kind and number and arrangement of teeth (collectively) in a person or animal
  • tendon    a cord or band of inelastic tissue connecting a muscle with its bony attachment
  • Tenosynovitis    inflammation of a tendon and its enveloping sheath
  • Termination    the act of ending something; a coming to an end of a contract period; the end of a word (a suffix or inflectional ending or final morpheme); something that results; a place where something ends or is complete
  • testis    one of the two male reproductive glands that produce spermatozoa and secrete androgens
  • Tetanus    a sustained muscular contraction resulting from a rapid series of nerve impulses; an acute and serious infection of the central nervous system caused by bacterial infection of open wounds; spasms of the jaw and laryngeal muscles may occur during the late stages
  • Tetralogy    a series of four related works (plays or operas or novels)
  • thigh    the part of the leg between the hip and the knee; the upper joint of the leg of a fowl
  • thorax    part of an insect's body that bears the wings and legs; the part of the human torso between the neck and the diaphragm or the corresponding part in other vertebrates; the middle region of the body of an arthropod between the head and the abdomen
  • thought    the organized beliefs of a period or group or individual; the process of using your mind to consider something carefully; the content of cognition; the main thing you are thinking about; a personal belief or judgment that is not founded on proof or certainty
  • throat    a passage resembling a throat in shape or function; an opening in the vamp of a shoe at the instep; the passage to the stomach and lungs; in the front part of the neck below the chin and above the collarbone
  • thrombocytopenia    a blood disease characterized by an abnormally small number of platelets in the blood
  • Thrombocytosis    increase in the number of platelets in the blood which tends to cause clots to form; associated with many neoplasms and chronic infections and other diseases
  • thymus    large genus of Old World mints: thyme; a ductless glandular organ at the base of the neck that produces lymphocytes and aids in producing immunity; atrophies with age
  • thyroid    suggestive of a thyroid disorder; of or relating to the thyroid gland;  located near the base of the neck
  • thyroid hormone    any of several closely related compounds that are produced by the thyroid gland and are active metabolically
  • Thyrotoxicosis    an overactive thyroid gland; pathologically excessive production of thyroid hormones or the condition resulting from excessive production of thyroid hormones
  • tightness    lack of movement or room for movement; extreme stinginess; the spatial property of being crowded together; a tight feeling in some part of the body; a state occasioned by scarcity of money and a shortage of credit
  • Tinea    type genus of the Tineidae: clothes moths; infections of the skin or nails caused by fungi and appearing as itching circular patches
  • Tinnitus    a ringing or booming sensation in one or both ears; a symptom of an ear infection or Meniere's disease
  • toenail    the nail at the end of a toe; verb drive obliquely
  • tongue    the flap of material under the laces of a shoe or boot; a mobile mass of muscular tissue covered with mucous membrane and located in the oral cavity; a manner of speaking; the tongue of certain animals used as meat; any long thin projection that is transient; metal striker that hangs inside a bell and makes a sound by hitting the side; a human written or spoken language used by a community; opposed to e.g. a computer language; a narrow strip of land that juts out into the sea; verb lick or explore with the tongue; articulate by tonguing, as when playing wind instruments
  • tonsil    either of two masses of lymphatic tissue one on each side of the oral pharynx
  • tonus    the elastic tension of living muscles, arteries, etc. that facilitate response to stimuli
  • Tooth    a means of enforcement; toothlike structure in invertebrates found in the mouth or alimentary canal or on a shell; something resembling the tooth of an animal; one of a number of uniform projections on a gear; hard bonelike structures in the jaws of vertebrates; used for biting and chewing or for attack and defense
  • Torsion    a twisting force; a tortuous and twisted shape or position
  • Torticollis    an unnatural condition in which the head leans to one side because the neck muscles on that side are contracted
  • Toxic shock syndrome    syndrome resulting from a serious acute (sometimes fatal) infection associated with the presence of staphylococcus; characterized by fever and diarrhea and nausea and diffuse erythema and shock; occurs especially in menstruating women using highly absorbent tampons
  • toxicity    the degree to which something is poisonous; grave harmfulness or deadliness
  • Toxoplasmosis    infection caused by parasites transmitted to humans from infected cats; if contracted by a pregnant woman it can result in serious damage to the fetus
  • trachea    membranous tube with cartilaginous rings that conveys inhaled air from the larynx to the bronchi; one of the tubules forming the respiratory system of most insects and many arachnids
  • Tracheobronchitis    common respiratory infection characterized by inflammation of the trachea and the bronchi
  • Trachoma    a chronic contagious viral disease marked by inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea of the eye and the formation of scar tissue
  • transfusion    the action of pouring a liquid from one vessel to another; the introduction of blood or blood plasma into a vein or artery
  • transport    an exchange of molecules (and their kinetic energy and momentum) across the boundary between adjacent layers of a fluid or across cell membranes; the commercial enterprise of moving goods and materials; something that serves as a means of transportation; a mechanism that transports magnetic tape across the read/write heads of a tape playback/recorder; a state of being carried away by overwhelming emotion; verb move while supporting, either in a vehicle or in one's hands or on one's body; transport commercially; move something or somebody around; usually over long distances; send from one person or place to another; hold spellbound
  • trauma    an emotional wound or shock often having long lasting effects; any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc.
  • tremor    an involuntary vibration (as if from illness or fear); a small earthquake; shaking or trembling (usually resulting from weakness or stress or disease); verb shake with seismic vibrations
  • Trench fever    marked by pain in muscles and joints and transmitted by lice
  • tricarboxylic acid cycle    in all plants and animals: a series of enzymatic reactions in mitochondria involving oxidative metabolism of acetyl compounds to produce high energy phosphate compounds that are the source of cellular energy
  • Trichinosis    infestation by trichina larvae that are transmitted by eating inadequately cooked meat (especially pork); larvae migrate from the intestinal tract to the muscles where they become encysted
  • Trichuriasis    infestation by a roundworm; common in tropical areas with poor sanitation
  • trigeminal nerve    the main sensory nerve of the face and motor nerve for the muscles of mastication
  • trunk    luggage consisting of a large strong case used when traveling or for storage; the main stem of a tree; usually covered with bark; the bole is usually the part that is commercially useful for lumber; a long flexible snout as of an elephant; compartment in an automobile that carries luggage or shopping or tools; the body excluding the head and neck and limbs
  • tuberculosis    infection transmitted by inhalation or ingestion of tubercle bacilli and manifested in fever and small lesions (usually in the lungs but in various other parts of the body in acute stages)
  • Tularaemia    a highly infectious disease of rodents (especially rabbits and squirrels) and sometimes transmitted to humans by ticks or flies or by handling infected animals
  • Tularemia    a highly infectious disease of rodents (especially rabbits and squirrels) and sometimes transmitted to humans by ticks or flies or by handling infected animals
  • type    a small metal block bearing a raised character on one end; produces a printed character when inked and pressed on paper; a subdivision of a particular kind of thing; all of the tokens of the same symbol; printed characters; (biology) the taxonomic group whose characteristics are used to define the next higher taxon; a person of a specified kind (usually with many eccentricities); verb identify as belonging to a certain type; write by means of a keyboard with types
  • Type    a small metal block bearing a raised character on one end; produces a printed character when inked and pressed on paper; a subdivision of a particular kind of thing; all of the tokens of the same symbol; printed characters; (biology) the taxonomic group whose characteristics are used to define the next higher taxon; a person of a specified kind (usually with many eccentricities); verb identify as belonging to a certain type; write by means of a keyboard with types
  • Typhoid fever    serious infection marked by intestinal inflammation and ulceration; caused by Salmonella typhosa ingested with food or water
  • Typhus fever    rickettsial disease transmitted by body lice and characterized by skin rash and high fever
  • Tyrosinemia    autosomal recessive defect in tyrosine metabolism resulting in liver and kidney disturbances and mental retardation
  • Ulcer    a circumscribed inflammatory and often suppurating lesion on the skin or an internal mucous surface resulting in necrosis of tissue
  • Ulcerative    of or relating to or characterized by ulceration
  • Ulcerative colitis    a serious chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine and rectum characterized by recurrent episodes of abdominal pain and fever and chills and profuse diarrhea
  • ultraviolet radiation    radiation lying in the ultraviolet range; wave lengths shorter than light but longer than X rays
  • umbilical cord    membranous duct connecting the fetus with the placenta
  • Umbilical hernia    protrusion of the intestine and omentum through a hernia in the abdominal wall near the navel; usually self correcting after birth
  • umbilicus    scar where the umbilical cord was attached
  • uncertain    ambiguous (especially in the negative); not established beyond doubt; still undecided or unknown; lacking or indicating lack of confidence or assurance; not certain to occur; not inevitable; not consistent or dependable; not established or confirmed; subject to change
  • unknown    not known; not known to exist; being or having an unknown or unnamed source; not known before; not famous or acclaimed;  a variable whose values are solutions of an equation; an unknown and unexplored region; anyone who does not belong in the environment in which they are found
  • upper    higher in place or position; superior in rank or accomplishment; the topmost one of two;  piece of leather or synthetic material that forms the part of a shoe or boot above the sole that encases the foot; a central nervous system stimulant that increases energy and decreases appetite; used to treat narcolepsy and some forms of depression; the higher of two berths
  • Urea    the chief solid component of mammalian urine; synthesized from ammonia and carbon dioxide and used as fertilizer and in animal feed and in plastics
  • ureter    either of a pair of thick walled tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
  • urethra    duct through which urine is discharged in most mammals and which serves as the male genital duct
  • Urethritis    inflammation of the urethra; results in painful urination
  • urinary    of or relating to the function or production or secretion of urine; of or relating to the urinary system of the body
  • urinary system    the system that includes all organs involved in reproduction and in the formation and voidance of urine
  • urinary tract    the organs and tubes involved in the production and excretion of urine
  • urine    liquid excretory product
  • Urticaria    an itchy skin eruption characterized by weals with pale interiors and well defined red margins; usually the result of an allergic response to insect bites or food or drugs
  • uterus    a hollow muscular organ in the pelvic cavity of females; contains the developing fetus
  • Vaccinia    a local infection induced in humans by inoculation with the virus causing cowpox in order to confer resistance to smallpox; normally lasts three weeks and leaves a pitted scar; a viral disease of cattle causing a mild skin disease affecting the udder; formerly used to inoculate humans against smallpox
  • vagina    the lower part of the female reproductive tract; a moist canal in female mammals extending from the labia minora to the uterus
  • Vaginal discharge    discharge of secretions from the cervical glands of the vagina; normally clear or white
  • Vaginitis    inflammation of the vagina (usually associated with candidiasis)
  • vagus nerve    a mixed nerve that supplies the pharynx and larynx and lungs and heart and esophagus and stomach and most of the abdominal viscera
  • Varicella    an acute contagious disease caused by herpes varicella zoster virus; causes a rash of vesicles on the face and body
  • vas deferens    a duct that carries spermatozoa from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct
  • Vasomotor    relating to the nerves and muscles that cause the blood vessels to constrict or dilate
  • venomous    marked by deep ill will; deliberately harmful; harsh or corrosive in tone; extremely poisonous or injurious; producing venom
  • ventricle    a chamber of the heart that receives blood from an atrium and pumps it to the arteries; one of four connected cavities in the brain; is continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord and contains cerebrospinal fluid
  • ventricular septal defect    a common congenital heart defect; an abnormal opening in the septum dividing the ventricles allows blood to pass directly from the left to the right ventricle; large openings may cause congestive heart failure
  • vertebra    one of the bony segments of the spinal column
  • Vertebral    of or relating to or constituting vertebrae
  • vertebral column    the series of vertebrae forming the axis of the skeleton and protecting the spinal cord
  • vestibulocochlear nerve    a composite sensory nerve supplying the hair cells of the vestibular organ and the hair cells of the cochlea
  • Vibrio    curved rodlike motile bacterium
  • viral    relating to or caused by a virus
  • Viral haemorrhagic fever    a group of illnesses caused by a viral infection (usually restricted to a specific geographic area); fever and gastrointestinal symptoms are followed by capillary hemorrhage
  • virus    (virology) ultramicroscopic infectious agent that replicates itself only within cells of living hosts; many are pathogenic; a piece of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) wrapped in a thin coat of protein; a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same computer; a harmful or corrupting agency
  • viscosity    resistance of a liquid to sheer forces (and hence to flow)
  • visual acuity    sharpness of vision; the visual ability to resolve fine detail (usually measured by a Snellen chart)
  • visual cortex    the cortical area that receives information from the lateral geniculate body of the thalamus
  • visual field    all of the points of the physical environment that can be perceived by a stable eye at a given moment
  • vitamin    any of a group of organic substances essential in small quantities to normal metabolism
  • Vitamin B    originally thought to be a single vitamin but now separated into several B vitamins
  • vitreous body    the clear colorless transparent jelly that fills the posterior chamber of the eyeball
  • voice    a means or agency by which something is expressed or communicated; the distinctive quality or pitch or condition of a person's speech; the ability to speak; the sound made by the vibration of vocal folds modified by the resonance of the vocal tract; something suggestive of speech in being a medium of expression; a sound suggestive of a vocal utterance; (metonymy) a singer; (linguistics) the grammatical relation (active or passive) of the grammatical subject of a verb to the action that the verb denotes; the melody carried by a particular voice or instrument in polyphonic music; expressing in coherent verbal form; an advocate who represents someone else's policy or purpose; verb give voice to; utter with vibrating vocal chords
  • vomiting    the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth
  • Von Willebrand    Finnish physician who first described vascular hemophilia (1870 1949)
  • vulva    external parts of the female genitalia
  • Wear    the act of having on your person as a covering or adornment; impairment resulting from long use; a covering designed to be worn on a person's body; verb have or show an appearance of; have on one's person; put clothing on one's body; be dressed in; deteriorate through use or stress; last and be usable; have in one's aspect; wear an expression of one's attitude or personality; exhaust or get tired through overuse or great strain or stress; go to pieces
  • wrist    a joint between the distal end of the radius and the proximal row of carpal bones
  • X linked    relating to genes or characteristics or conditions carried on the X chromosome
  • Xeroderma    a mild form of ichthyosis characterized by abnormal dryness and roughness of the skin
  • Yaws    an infectious tropical disease resembling syphilis in its early stages; marked by red skin eruptions and ulcerating lesions
  • Yellow fever    caused by a flavivirus transmitted by a mosquito
  • zonula    small beltlike zone
  • Zoster    eruptions along a nerve path often accompanied by severe neuralgia
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