Macrobiotic diet

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Template:Biologically based therapy

A macrobiotic diet (or macrobiotics), is a dietary regimen which involves eating grains as a staple food, supplemented with other foods such as local vegetables, and avoiding the use of highly processed or refined foods and most animal products. Macrobiotics also addresses manner of eating, by recommending against overeating, and for chewing thoroughly.

Although macrobiotics writers often present a macrobiotic diet as helpful for people with cancer, there is no evidence to support such recommendations;[1] neither the American Cancer Society nor Cancer Research UK recommend taking the diet.[2][3]

History

Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland

Hufeland, a German physician, in his book The Art of Prolonging Human Life (1797), first used the word "macrobiotics" in the context of food and health. Hufeland was an influential doctor who was active in medical research and became a medical professor at Jena and, later, the first dean of medicine at the University of Berlin. Despite the title of his book, he also considered macrobiotics a science aimed at prolonging and perfecting life. According to Hufeland, macrobiotics is a medical philosophy on a higher level than the curative, preventative, or health levels of medicine. "The medical art must consider every disease as an evil which cannot be too soon expelled; the macrobiotic, on the other hand, shows that many diseases may be the means of prolonging life."

First edition of The Art of Prolonging Human Life", 1797

In his book, Hufeland refers to a life force which he claimed is present in everything and most easily detected in "organic beings" (live organisms), where it manifests in its response to external stimuli. This force can be weakened, as well as strengthened, through external influences. He believed that our life force would be depleted through physical exertion and increased with rest. Hufeland proposed that moral and physical health are intertwined and flow from the same source, both marked by an abundance of life force. In his view, illness was to be prevented primarily by pursuing a proper diet and lifestyle. In terms of using the word "macrobiotics" in relation to health, food, and energy or life force, Hufeland could be considered the founder of macrobiotics.Template:Or

Sagen Ishizuka

In the late nineteenth century Japanese military doctor Sagen Ishizuka, the founding father of shokuiku, had great success in helping people recover from their serious health problems. He carried out many clinical trials and published two large volumes of his works. His theory was that a natural diet, in which foods are eaten in season and attention is paid to the correct balance of potassium and sodium and acid and alkaline, leads to good health.[4]

Philosophy

Followers of the traditional macrobiotic approach believe that food and food quality powerfully affect health, well-being, and happiness, and that a traditional locally based macrobiotic diet has more beneficial effects than others. The modern macrobiotic approach suggests choosing food that is less processed.

One goal of modern macrobiotics is to become sensitive to the actual effects of foods on health and well-being, rather than to follow dietary rules and regulations. Dietary guidelines, however, help in developing sensitivity and an intuitive sense for what sustains health and well-being.[5]

Japanese macrobiotics emphasizes locally grown whole grain cereals, pulses (legumes), vegetables, seaweed, fermented soy products and fruit, combined into meals according to the principle of balance (known as yin and yang). Whole grains and whole-grain products such as brown rice and buckwheat pasta (soba), a variety of cooked and raw vegetables, beans and bean products, mild natural seasonings, fish, nuts and seeds, mild (non-stimulating) beverages such as bancha twig tea and fruit are recommended.[5]

Some Japanese macrobiotic theorists, including George Ohsawa, stress the fact that yin and yang are relative qualities that can only be determined in a comparison. All food is considered to have both properties, with one dominating. Foods with yang qualities are considered compact, dense, heavy, hot, whereas those with yin qualities are considered expansive, light, cold, and diffuse.[6] However, these terms are relative; "yangness" or "yinness" is only discussed in relation to other foods.[7]

Brown rice and other whole grains such as barley, millet, oats, quinoa, spelt, rye, and teff are considered by macrobiotics to be the foods in which yin and yang are closest to being in balance. Therefore, lists of macrobiotic foods that determine a food as yin or yang generally compare them to whole grains.[8]

Nightshade vegetables, including tomatoes, peppers, potatoes, eggplant; also spinach, beets and avocados are not recommended or used sparingly in macrobiotic cooking, as they are considered extremely yin.[9] Some macrobiotic practitioners also discourage the use of nightshades because of the alkaloid solanine, thought to affect calcium balance.[10] Some proponents of a macrobiotic diet believe that nightshade vegetables can cause inflammation in the body and osteoporosis.[11]

Composition

Some basic macrobiotic ingredients

Some general guidelines for the Japanese style macrobiotic diet are the following (it is also said that a macrobiotic diet varies greatly, depending on geographical and life circumstances):[12]

  • Well chewed whole cereal grains, especially brown rice: 40–60%
  • Vegetables: 25–30%
  • Beans and legumes: 5–10%
  • Miso soup: 5%
  • Sea vegetables: 5%
  • Traditionally or naturally processed foods: 5–10%

Fish and seafood, seeds and nuts, seed and nut butters, seasonings, sweeteners, fruits, and beverages may be enjoyed occasionally, 2–3 times per week. Other naturally raised animal products may be included if needed during dietary transition or according to individual needs.

Cooking according to the time of the year

Template:Unreferenced section In spring:

  • Food with a lighter quality
  • Wild plants, greens, lightly fermented food, grain species, fresh greens
  • Light cooking style: steaming, cooking for a short time, etc.

In summer:

  • Food with a lighter quality
  • Large-leaved greens, sweet corn, fruit, summer pumpkins
  • Light cooking style: steaming, quick cooking, etc.
  • More raw foods
  • Lighter grains, such as barley, and bulghur

In autumn:

  • Food with a more concentrated quality
  • Root vegetables, (winter) pumpkins, beans, cereals, etc.
  • Heavier grains such as sweet rice, mochi and millet

In winter:

  • Food with a stronger, more concentrated quality
  • Round vegetables, pickles, root vegetables, etc.
  • More miso, soy sauce, oil, and salt
  • Heavier grains such as millet, buckwheat, fried rice, etc.

Other factors

Template:Unreferenced section The composition of dishes and the choices of foods is adjusted according to

  • the season
  • the climate
  • activity
  • sex
  • age
  • health condition
  • transition in one's diet

and any applicable personal considerations.

Japanese popularity and influence

The macrobiotic way of eating was developed and popularized by the Japanese. During the Edo period in Japan peasants were not allowed to eat meat and had a diet based on staples of rice and soy beans. According to some macrobiotic advocates, a majority of the world population in the past ate a diet based primarily on grains, vegetables, and other plants. Because the macrobiotic diet was developed in Japan, Japanese foods that are beneficial for health are incorporated by most modern macrobiotic eaters.[13][14]

Chinese macrobiotics

According to Chee Soo in The Tao of Long Life,[15] natural dietary therapy, or ch'ang ming, has been developed in China since prehistoric times, along with a range of health arts that have become what we now know as traditional Chinese medicine, or TCM. Other than this, however, there is no real evidence that ch'ang ming predates the advent of macrobiotics in Japan.

Macrobiotics vs. vegetarianism

A macrobiotic diet includes many of the same foods as vegetarian diets, but in macrobiotics some types of fish and other animal foods are included according to individual needs. The two dietary styles share enough similarities that a vegetarian and even vegan version of macrobiotics is not uncommon.

Cancer

Macrobiotic diets are among those that are frequently mentioned as useful for people with cancer. Research however shows that the diet is of no benefit, and can have harmful effects.[1] The American Cancer Society recommends a varied diet and strongly urges people with cancer not to use a dietary program as an exclusive or primary means of treatment,[2] and Cancer Research UK states "we don't support the use of macrobiotic diets for people with cancer", cautioning that it can cause serious harm.[3] Roel Van Duijn reported in the Dutch national newspaper Trouw on September 5, 1998, and later in the quarterly Skepter of the Dutch organisation Skepsis, that following advice of a macrobiotic counselor over conventional medical treatments resulted in the death of his wife.[16]Template:Undue-inline

Nutrition

Detailed information on the nutrients provided by a large range of foodstuffs is available in the USDA National Nutrient Database.[17]

The following nutrients should be monitored especially in children, because of their importance in facilitating growth and function: calcium, protein, iron, zinc, vitamin D, vitamin B12, riboflavin, vitamin A, omega-3 fatty acids.[18]

Humans synthesize vitamin D with adequate exposure to sunlight; supplementation may be necessary during winter months for people who live far from the equator. Calcium is available from hard leafy greens, nuts and seeds. Zinc is available from nuts and seeds. Fish provides vitamin B12 in a macrobiotic diet,[19] as bioavailable B12 analogues have not been established in any natural plant food, including sea vegetables, soya, fermented products, and algae.[20] Although plant-derived foods do not naturally contain B12, some are fortified during processing with added B12 and other nutrients.[21] Vitamin A, in the form of beta-carotene, is available from plants such as carrots and spinach.[22] Adequate protein is available from grains, nuts, seeds, beans, and bean products. Sources of Omega-3 fatty acids are discussed in the relevant article, and include soy products, walnuts, flax seeds, pumpkin seeds, hemp seeds, and fatty fish. Riboflavin along with most other B vitamins are abundant in whole grains. Iron in the form of non-heme iron in beans, sea vegetables and leafy greens is sufficient for good health; detailed information is in the USDA database.[23]

Criticisms

Complications

One of the earlier versions of the macrobiotic diet that involved eating only brown rice and water has been linked to severe nutritional deficiencies and even death. Strict macrobiotic diets that include no animal products may result in nutritional deficiencies unless they are carefully planned. The danger may be worse for people with cancer, who may have to contend with unwanted weight loss and often have increased nutritional and caloric requirements. Relying on this type of treatment alone and avoiding or delaying conventional medical care for cancer may have serious health consequences.[24]

Children

Children may also be particularly prone to nutritional deficiencies resulting from a macrobiotic diet.[24]

Pregnancy

Macrobiotic diets have not been tested in women who are pregnant or breast-feeding, and the most extreme versions may not include enough of certain nutrients for normal fetal growth.[24]

Malnutrition

In 1971, the AMA Council on Foods and Nutrition said that followers of the macrobiotic diet, particularly the strictest, stood in "great danger" of malnutrition.[25] On the other hand, in 1987, the AMA stated in their Family Medical Guide: "In general, the macrobiotic diet is a healthful way of eating."[26]

Tobacco

Michio Kushi and George Ohsawa smoked cigarettes. Kushi states that lung cancer can arise from dairy food in the diet: "In combination with tobacco, dairy food can trap tars and other ingredients of tobacco smoke in the lungs, leading often to lung cancer."[27] This is contrary to medical and scientific understanding of the connection between lung cancer and smoking.[28]

See also

References

Metabolic.jpg

Featured disease

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of the most dangerous heart attack risk factors: diabetes and prediabetes, abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol and high blood pressure.

Affects one in three adults

Affecting about 35 percent of all adults in the United States according to the CDC, metabolic syndrome contributes to weight gain, by causing a state of internal starvation called metabolic starvation. This in turn leads to increases hunger, sugar cravings and increased portions leading to overeating and weight gain.

Cause and effect misunderstood

Since we traditionally thought that the portion control (which in turn was attributed wrongly to poor will power)is the cause of weight gain, rather than the effect of this metabolic starvation, all our traditional ideas about cause and effect of obesity were not only wrong but lead to the “blame the victim” attitude when it comes to obesity.

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Bibliography

Cookbooks and resources

Books

  • Full colour illustrated book with recipes, short cuts, eating out, energy of foods, menu plans, acid and alkaline, nutrition, and practical advice.
  • A standard introductory cookbook.
  • A comprehensive introduction to Oriental visual diagnosis.
  • Introduction to Oriental facial diagnosis; shorter and in some ways clearer than the book on body diagnosis but covering only the face, skin, hands, and voice.
  • For each category of illness, the authors outline the conventional medical treatment, provide references to medical studies, and then discuss the macrobiotic approach.

Template:Refend

Web

Template:Refend

Template:Vegetarianism

  1. 1.0 1.1
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Macrobiotic Diet". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved February 2014. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Macrobiotic diet". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved April 2013. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  4. 5.0 5.1 Kushi and Jack
  5. Porter, pp. 22–25
  6. Porter, pp. 44–49
  7. Porter, pp. 71–78
  8. Kushi and Jack, p. 119.
  9. Stanchich, Lino. "All About Nightshades". New Life Journal: Carolina Edition, Apr/May 2003, vol. 4, no. 5, p. 17, 3 pp.
  10. Porter
  11. Make Mine Macrobiotic | Lifestyle | Trends in Japan. Web Japan. Retrieved on 2012-04-27.
  12. Panel 11: Globalisation, Hybridity and Continuity in Traditional Japanese Health Practices. iastam.org
  13. Skepsis. Skepsis.nl. Retrieved on 2012-04-27.
  14. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference.
  15. National Institutes of Health. "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B12". Retrieved 2008-05-27.
  16. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 20: Vitamin B-12 (μg) Content of Selected Foods per Common Measure, sorted by nutrient content.
  17. Reed Mangels, Ph.D., R.D. "Vitamin B12 in the Vegan Diet". Vegetarian Resource Group. Retrieved 2008-08-11.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  18. National Institutes of Health. "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin A and Carotenoids (Table 2: Selected plant sources of vitamin A from beta-carotene)". Retrieved 2008-05-28.
  19. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 20: Iron, Fe (mg) Content of Selected Foods per Common Measure, sorted by nutrient content.
  20. 24.0 24.1 24.2 Template:Oldfact"Macrobiotic Diet". American Cancer Society. November 2008.
  21. Kushi and Jack, p. 112
  22. WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2008. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2012-04-27.

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