Dictionary of drugs: U

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Drug dictionary

A small molecule inhibitor of ubiquitin-activating enzyme (UAE), with potential antineoplastic activity. UAE inhibitor MLN7243 binds to and inhibits UAE, which prevents both protein ubiquitination and subsequent protein degradation by the proteasome. This results in an excess of proteins in the cells and may lead to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis. This inhibits tumor cell proliferation and survival. UAE, also called ubiquitin E1 enzyme (UBA1; E1), is more active in cancer cells than in normal, healthy cells. Check for ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS 

A nanodispersion containing the benzoquinone ubidecarenone (coenzyme Q10), with potential protective, antioxidant and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, ubidecarenone nanodispersion BPM31510 modulates tumor cell metabolism and causes an anti-Warburg effect by inducing a shift from lactate dependency towards mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and induces tumor cell apoptosis. This inhibits tumor cell proliferation. BPM 31510 also induces the activation and maturation of T lymphocytes, and changes the surface expression of certain immune checkpoint modulators. In addition, as an antioxidant, ubidecarenone protects against cell damage, by preventing both the peroxidation of lipid membranes and the oxidation of LDL-cholesterol. Ubidecarenone is an essential coenzyme for mitochondrial enzyme complexes involved in oxidative phosphorylation and the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Check for ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS 

A chimeric recombinant IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against human CD20 with potential antineoplastic activity. Ublituximab specifically binds to the B cell-specific cell surface antigen CD20, thereby potentially inducing a B cell-directed complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against CD20-expressing B cells, leading to B cell apoptosis. CD20 is a non-glycosylated cell surface phosphoprotein that is exclusively expressed on B cells during most stages of B cell development and is often overexpressed in B-cell malignancies. Ublituximab has a specific glycosylation profile, with a low fucose content, that may enhance its ADCC response against malignant B cells. Check for ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS 

A benzenesulfonamide derivative with vasodilatory activity. Udenafil selectively inhibits phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), thus inhibiting the degradation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) found in the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosa and corpus spongiosum of the penis; inhibition of cGMP degradation results in prolonged muscle relaxation, vasodilation, and blood engorgement of the corpus cavernosa, and, so, prolonged penile erection. This agent does not significantly inhibit the PDE11 isozyme; PDE11 inhibition may be associated with significant myalgia. Check for ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS

The hydrochloride salt form of ulimorelin, a macrocyclic ghrelin peptidomimetic, with potential gastrointestinal (GI) prokinetic activity. Upon intravenous administration, ulimorelin binds to the ghrelin receptor in the GI tract and may stimulate GI motility. Ghrelin is a natural ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptors and is normally localized in the proximal GI tract. The ghrelin receptor signaling pathway mediates multiple GI functions, including motility and gastric emptying. Check for "> ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS

A multivalent Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor derived from human urine, with potential protective, anti-fibrinolytic and anticoagulant activities. Upon administration, ulinastatin (or urinary trypsinogen inhibitor) inhibits the activities of a variety of enzymes, including trypsin, chymotrypsin, thrombin, kallikrein, plasmin, elastase, cathepsin, lipase, hyaluronidase, factors IXa, Xa, XIa, and XlIa, and polymorphonuclear leukocyte elastase. In addition, ulinastatin inhibits the excessive release of proinflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and -8, and chemokines. Altogether, this agent may improve the microcirculation, perfusion and function of tissues and may protect organ injury. Check for ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS 

An orally bioavailable, acetate ester of ulipristal, a selective progesterone receptor modulator with anti-progesterone activity. Ulipristal binds to the progesterone receptor (PR), thereby inhibiting PR-mediated gene expression, and interfering with progesterone activity in the reproductive system. As a result, this agent may suppress the growth of uterine leiomyomatosis. Furthermore, by inhibiting or delaying ovulation and effecting endometrial tissue, ulipristal can be used as an emergency contraception. Check for ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS 

An orally bioavailable monoclonal antibody against CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) with potential antineoplastic activity. Ulocuplumab binds to the chemokine receptor CXCR4, preventing the binding of stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) to the CXCR4 receptor and subsequent receptor activation, which may result in decreased tumor cell proliferation and migration. CXCR4, a chemokine receptor belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor family, plays an important role in chemotaxis and angiogenesis and is upregulated in several tumor cell types. Check for ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS 

(Other name for: febuxostat)

(Other name for: fluoxymesterone)

(Other name for: sevoflurane)

(Other name for: remifentanil hydrochloride)

(Other name for: ravulizumab-cwvz)

(Other name for: povidone-iodine solution)

(Other name for: iopromide)

(Other name for: pancrelipase)

An optimized, second-generation, PEGylated aptamer with antithrombotic property. ULvWF multimer-targeting agent ARC1779 blocks the binding of von Willebrand factor (vWF), via the A1 domain, and ultra-large vWF multimers to platelets, as well as interfering with the binding of platelet receptor glycoprotein Ib, thus reducing platelet adhesion, aggregation and thrombus growth in arterial beds. Unlike other antiplatelet agents, this aptamer can be readily reversed by binding to a complementary sequence of oligonucleotides, and may therefore offer potential therapeutic benefit in surgery. Check for ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS 

A population of cryopreserved, ex vivo expanded and nicotinamide (NAM)-treated, CD34-positive hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) derived from allogeneic, CD34+ cells isolated from human umbilical cord blood (UCB) that can be used during transplantation. CD34+ HPCs are isolated from human UCB mononuclear cells, and expanded ex vivo. Upon transplantation with the UCB-derived CD34+ HPCs, these cells can differentiate into a variety of cell types including fibroblasts, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes, adipocytes, and endothelial cells. Compared to bone marrow transplants, these HPCs are associated with decreased risk of causing graft-versus host disease (GvHD), increased survival, and enhanced transplant and engraftment potential for any given patient as there is no need for a matched donor. Compared to untreated HPCs, treating the cells ex vivo with NAM increases the number of HPCs from UCB, enhances migration, bone marrow (BM) homing, engraftment and increases neutrophil and platelet recovery. Check for "> ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS

Multipotent stem cells of mesenchymal origin isolated from umbilical cord blood. Umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into a variety of cell types including fibroblasts, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes, adipocytes, and endothelial cells. Check for ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS 

A population of allogeneic, cytokine-differentiated, highly lytic natural killer (NK) cells derived from CD34+ cells isolated from human umbilical cord blood (UCB) with potential cytotoxic activity. CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are isolated from human UCB mononuclear cells, differentiated into mature, highly lytic, CD3- CD56+ NK cells, by a specific combination of cytokines that includes stem cell factor (SCF), fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3-L), interleukin-15 (IL-15) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and expanded ex vivo. Upon administration, the UCB-derived NK cells may lyse cancer cells. Check for ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS 

An orally bioavailable, selective inhibitor of the delta isoform of the 110 kDa catalytic subunit of class I phosphoinositide-3 kinases (PI3K) with potential antineoplastic activity. Umbralisib inhibits PI3K and prevents the activation of the PI3K/AKT kinase signaling pathway. This decreases proliferation and induces cell death in susceptible tumor cells. Unlike other isoforms of PI3K, PI3K-delta is expressed primarily in tumor cells and cells of the hematopoietic lineage. The targeted inhibition of PI3K-delta allows for PI3K signaling in normal, non-neoplastic cells. PI3K, an enzyme often overexpressed in cancer cells, plays a crucial role in tumor cell regulation and survival. Check for ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS 

(Other name for: ampicillin sodium/sulbactam sodium)

An extract of Uncaria tomentosa (U. tomentosa), also called Cat's claw, a native Amazonian plant belonging to the Rubiaceae species, with potential anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, antioxidant and antineoplastic activities. Although the exact mechanism(s) by which U. tomentosa extract exerts its effect(s) has yet to be fully elucidated, this extract may inhibit the proliferation of certain types of cancer cells. This extract may modulate inflammatory and immune responses through the stimulation of T- and B-lymphocytes and certain cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a). Components in U. tomentosa may both induce repair of chemically-induced DNA damage and scavenge free radicals, which may protect against reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cellular damage. In addition, this extract stimulates myelopoiesis, which may prevent chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Check for ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS 

  • [[uniformly-labeled [U-13C] glucose]]

A non-radioactive, naturally occurring carbon 13 (13C) glucose isotopomer in which all six carbons are 13C, with potential imaging application. Upon administration of uniformly-labeled [U-13C] glucose, the glucose is taken up and metabolized by tumors and the 13C-containing metabolites can be imaged by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Since tumor cells take up and metabolize glucose in higher amounts and through different pathways than normal cells, this agent may help assess the metabolic phenotype of the tumor.

(Other name for: theophylline)

(Other name for: dinutuximab)

One of the 5 major bases (with adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine) which are a component of nucleic acids. Check for ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS 

A 0.1% topical formulation of uracil used to potentially lower the incidence of hand-foot syndrome (HFS) (or palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia) during 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or 5-FU prodrug capecitabine chemotherapy. Upon local administration of uracil ointment to the skin, uracil competes with capecitabine or 5-FU as substrates for the activating enzyme thymidine phosphorylase and the metabolizing enzyme dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase. This may prevent the production of 5-FU as well as the breakdown of 5-FU into the toxic metabolites locally. As the 5-FU metabolites are responsible for the presentation of HFS, inhibiting their formation may prevent this adverse effect. By applying a high concentration of uracil locally, the skin toxicities of 5-FU may be countered while preserving the systemic anti-cancer activity of the 5FU. Check for ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS 

A humanized agonistic monoclonal antibody targeting the CD137 receptor with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Urelumab specifically binds to and activates CD137-expressing immune cells, stimulating an immune response, in particular a cytotoxic T cell response, against tumor cells. CD137 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/nerve growth factor (NGF) family of receptors and is expressed by activated T- and B-lymphocytes and monocytes; its ligand has been found to play an important role in the regulation of immune responses. Check for ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS 

A nucleoside consisting of uracil and D-ribose and a component of RNA. Uridine has been studied as a rescue agent to reduce the toxicities associated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), thereby allowing the administration of higher doses of 5-FU in chemotherapy regimens. Check for ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS 

An orally bioavailable, lipophilic, triacetate prodrug form of the pyrimidine nucleoside, uridine, that can be used for uridine replacement or as an antidote for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced toxicity. Upon administration, uridine triacetate is deacetylated by esterases to produce uridine and acetate. In turn, uridine is converted to uridine triphosphate (UTP), which competes with fluorouridine triphosphate (FUTP), one of the toxic metabolites of 5-FU, for incorporation into RNA of normal cells. This prevents disruption of RNA synthesis in normal cells and limits toxicity resulting from overdose of 5-FU and 5-FU prodrugs. The FUTP-mediated damage to RNA is the main cause of 5-FU toxicities. Check for ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS 

A cancer vaccine containing URLC10 (up-regulated lung cancer 10) epitopes with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, URL peptide vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against URLC10-expressing tumor cells. Up-regulated in lung and esophageal cancers, the function of URLC10 is unknown. Check for ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS 

A cancer vaccine containing five peptide epitopes with potential immunostimulatory and antitumor activity. Peptide epitopes in this vaccine are derived from: URLC10 (up-regulated lung cancer 10), TTK (TTK protein kinase), KOC1 (IGF II mRNA Binding Protein 3) and VEGFRs (vascular endothelial growth factor receptors) 1 and 2. Upon administration, URLC10-TTK-KOC1-VEGFR1-VEGFR2 multipeptide vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing URLC10, TTK, KCO1, VEGFR 1 and 2 peptides, resulting in cell lysis and decreased tumor growth. Check for ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS 

An octapeptide (amino acids 136-143) derived from the proteolytic enzyme urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), with potential antineoplastic activity. A6 is derived from the nonreceptor-binding domain and connecting region of urokinase. Administration of A6 inhibits the interaction of uPA with its receptor uPAR, and may inhibit endothelial cell motility and tumor cell invasion. uPA and uPAR promote extracellular matrix degradation and growth factor activation and correlate positively with angiogenesis, cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Check for ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS 

(Other name for: methylene blue)

(Other name for: alfuzosin hydrochloride)

(Other name for: ursodiol)

A synthetically-derived form of ursodiol, a bile acid produced by the liver and secreted and stored in the gallbladder. Also produced by the Chinese black bear liver, ursodiol has been used in the treatment of liver disease for centuries. This agent dissolves or prevents cholesterol gallstones by blocking hepatic cholesterol production and decreasing bile cholesterol. Ursodiol also reduces the absorption of cholesterol from the intestinal tract. Check for ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS 

An inhibitor of the 19S proteasome-specific deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) USP14 and UCHL5, with apoptosis-inducing and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, VLX1570 specifically binds to both USP14 and UCHL5, thereby blocking their deubiquitylating activity. This blocks the ubiquitin proteasome degradation pathway, prevents the degradation of defective proteins, and leads to an accumulation of poly-ubiquitylated proteins. This induces the unfolded protein response (UPR) and results in both the induction of tumor cell apoptosis and the inhibition of tumor cell growth. USP14 and UCHL5, overexpressed in various tumor cell types, play a key role in the correct folding and deubiquitination of proteins. Check for ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS 

An orally available, human, IgG1kappa, monoclonal antibody directed against the p40 protein subunit of both interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-23, with immunomodulating activity. Upon administration, ustekinumab binds to the p40 subunit of IL-12 and IL-23, blocking the binding of IL-12 and IL-23 to their interleukin receptors. This inhibits IL-12- and IL-23-mediated signaling and inhibits differentiation of CD4-positive T cells into Th1 and Th17 cells. This prevents Th1- and Th17-mediated responses and cytokine production. This may prevent graft versus host disease (GVHD). IL-12 and IL-23, cytokines that play a key role in the regulation of the immune system, are upregulated in immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. Both Th1 and Th17 cells play a crucial role in GVHD.

(Other name for: amoxicillin)

A synthetic, peptide cancer vaccine directed against the human telomerase reverse transcriptase catalytic subunit (hTERT) with potential immunomodulating activity. Vaccination with the UV1 telomerase peptide may stimulate cytotoxic T-cells to recognize and kill telomerase-expressing cells. Telomerase, a reverse transcriptase normally repressed in healthy cells, is overexpressed in most cancer cells and plays a key role in cellular proliferation. Check for ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS 

(Other name for: methoxsalen)

(Other name for: autologous dendritic cell-allogeneic melanoma tumor cell lysate vaccine)


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