Pharmaceutical drug

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Comprehensive list of over 20,000 medications / pharmaceutical drugs sorted alphabetically. Please help add detailed information about each medication including their pharmacology, mechanism of action, indications, side effects, and other relevant information for each of these medications. Some of the useful resources for information including the Food and Drug Administration, Drug bank (Canada) and UK medicines info Also see the top 200 prescription drugs in US and drug classes.

List of pharmaceutical drugs/medications sorted alphabetically

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Top 200 drugs | Medicare drugs | Canadian drugs | Dictionary of drugs | drug classes

A pharmaceutical drug, also referred to as a medicine or medication, officially called medicinal product, can be loosely defined as any chemical substance formulated or compounded as single active ingredient or in combination of other pharmacologically active substance, it may be in a separate but packed in a single unit pack as combination product intended for internal, or external or for use in the medical diagnosis, cure, treatment, or prevention of disease.[1][2][3]

Medications are classified in various ways. One of the key divisions is between traditional small molecule drugs, usually derived from chemical synthesis, and biologic medical products, which include recombinant proteins, vaccines, blood products used therapeutically (such as IVIG), gene therapy, and cell therapy (for instance, stem cell therapies).

Pharmaceuticals are classified in various other groups besides their origin on the basis of pharmacological properties like mode of action and their pharmacological action or activity, route of administration, biological system affected, or therapeutic effects. An elaborate and widely used classification system is the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC system). The World Health Organization keeps a list of essential medicines.

Drug discovery and drug development are complex and expensive endeavors undertaken by companies, academic scientists, and governments. Governments generally regulate what drugs can be marketed, how drugs are marketed, and in some jurisdictions, drug pricing. Controversies have arisen over drug pricing and disposal of used drugs.

Eytmology

"Pharmaceutical" derives from the Greek pharmakeutikos (from pharmakeutēs 'druggist', from pharmakon 'drug').[4]

Classification

Pharmaceutical or a drug is classified on the basis of their origin.

  1. Drug from natural origin: Herbal or plant or mineral origin, some drug substances are of marine origin.
  2. Drug from chemical as well as natural origin: Derived from partial herbal and partial chemical synthesis Chemical, example steroidal drugs
  3. Drug derived from chemical synthesis.
  4. Drug derived from animal origin: For example, hormones, and enzymes.
  5. Drug derived from microbial origin: Antibiotics
  6. Drug derived by biotechnology genetic-engineering, hybridoma technique for example
  7. Drug derived from radioactive substances.

One of the key classifications is between traditional small molecule drugs, usually derived from chemical synthesis, and biologic medical products, which include recombinant proteins, vaccines, blood products used therapeutically (such as IVIG), gene therapy, and cell therapy (for instance, stem cell therapies).

Pharmaceutical or drug or medicines are classified in various other groups besides their origin on the basis of pharmacological properties like mode of action and their pharmacological action or activity,[5] such as by chemical properties, mode or route of administration, biological system affected, or therapeutic effects. An elaborate and widely used classification system is the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC system). The World Health Organization keeps a list of essential medicines.

A sampling of classes of medicine includes:

  1. Antipyretics: reducing fever (pyrexia/pyresis)
  2. Analgesics: reducing pain (painkillers)
  3. Antimalarial drugs: treating malaria
  4. Antibiotics: inhibiting germ growth
  5. Antiseptics: prevention of germ growth near burns, cuts and wounds
  6. Mood stabilizers: lithium and valpromide
  7. Hormone replacements: Premarin
  8. Oral contraceptives: Enovid, "biphasic" pill, and "triphasic" pill
  9. Stimulants: methylphenidate (Ritalin)
  10. Tranquilizers: meprobamate, chlorpromazine, reserpine, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, and alprazolam
  11. Statins: lovastatin, pravastatin, and simvastatin

Types of medicines (type of pharmacotherapy)

For the gastrointestinal tract (digestive system)

For the cardiovascular system

For the central nervous system

Drugs affecting the central nervous system include: Psychedelics, hypnotics, anaesthetics, antipsychotics, antidepressants (including tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, lithium salts, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)), antiemetics, anticonvulsants/antiepileptics, anxiolytics, barbiturates, movement disorder (e.g., Parkinson's disease) drugs, stimulants (including amphetamines), benzodiazepines, cyclopyrrolones, dopamine antagonists, antihistamines, cholinergics, anticholinergics, emetics, cannabinoids, and 5-HT (serotonin) antagonists.

For pain and consciousness (analgesic drugs)

The main classes of painkillers are NSAIDs, opioids and various orphans. Other drugs such as anesthetic medication can also be used to reduce pain or numb a person's feeling to it.

For musculo-skeletal disorders

The main categories of drugs for musculoskeletal disorders are: NSAIDs (including COX-2 selective inhibitors), muscle relaxants, neuromuscular drugs, and anticholinesterases.

For the eye

For the ear, nose and oropharynx

sympathomimetics, antihistamines, anticholinergics, NSAIDs, steroids, antiseptics, local anesthetics, antifungals, cerumenolyti

For the respiratory system

bronchodilators, NSAIDs, anti-allergics, antitussives, mucolytics, decongestants
corticosteroids, Beta2-adrenergic agonists, anticholinergics, steroids

For endocrine problems

androgens, antiandrogens, gonadotropin, corticosteroids, human growth hormone, insulin, antidiabetics (sulfonylureas, biguanides/metformin, thiazolidinediones, insulin), thyroid hormones, antithyroid drugs, calcitonin, diphosponate, vasopressin analogues

For the reproductive system or urinary system

antifungal, alkalinizing agents, quinolones, antibiotics, cholinergics, anticholinergics, anticholinesterases, antispasmodics, 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, selective alpha-1 blockers, sildenafils, fertility medications

For contraception

For obstetrics and gynecology

NSAIDs, anticholinergics, haemostatic drugs, antifibrinolytics, Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT), bone regulators, beta-receptor agonists, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, LHRH
gamolenic acid, gonadotropin release inhibitor, progestogen, dopamine agonists, oestrogen, prostaglandins, gonadorelin, clomiphene, tamoxifen, Diethylstilbestrol

For the skin

emollients, anti-pruritics, antifungals, disinfectants, scabicides, pediculicides, tar products, vitamin A derivatives, vitamin D analogues, keratolytics, abrasives, systemic antibiotics, topical antibiotics, hormones, desloughing agents, exudate absorbents, fibrinolytics, proteolytics, sunscreens, antiperspirants, corticosteroids

For infections and infestations

antibiotics, antifungals, antileprotics, antituberculous drugs, antimalarials, anthelmintics, amoebicides, antivirals, antiprotozoals

For the immune system

vaccines, immunoglobulins, immunosuppressants, interferons, monoclonal antibodies

For allergic disorders

anti-allergics, antihistamines, NSAIDs

For nutrition

tonics, electrolytes and mineral preparations (including iron preparations and magnesium preparations), Parental nutritional supplements, vitamins, anti-obesity drugs, anabolic drugs, haematopoietic drugs, food product drugs

For neoplastic disorders

cytotoxic drugs, therapeutic antibodies, sex hormones, aromatase inhibitors, somatostatin inhibitors, recombinant interleukins, G-CSF, erythropoietin

For diagnostics

contrast media

For euthanasia

An euthanaticum is used for euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide.

Euthanasia is not permitted by law in many countries, and consequently medicines will not be licensed for this use in those countries.

Administration

Administration is the delivery of a pharmaceutical drug to a patient. There are three major categories of drug administration; Enteral (taking medication orally), Parenteral (introducing the medication directly to the circulatory system), and Other (which includes introducing medication through intranasal, topical, inhalation, and rectal means).[6]

It can be performed in various dosage forms such as pills, tablets, or capsules.

There are many variations in the routes of administration, including intravenous (into the blood through a vein) and oral administration (through the mouth).

They can be administered all at once as a bolus, at frequent intervals or continuously. Frequencies are often abbreviated from Latin, such as every 8 hours reading Q8H from Quaque VIII Hora.

Drug discovery

In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which new candidate medications are discovered.

Historically, drugs were discovered through identifying the active ingredient from traditional remedies or by serendipitous discovery. Later chemical libraries of synthetic small molecules, natural products or extracts were screened in intact cells or whole organisms to identify substances that have a desirable therapeutic effect in a process known as classical pharmacology. Since sequencing of the human genome which allowed rapid cloning and synthesis of large quantities of purified proteins, it has become common practice to use high throughput screening of large compounds libraries against isolated biological targets which are hypothesized to be disease modifying in a process known as reverse pharmacology. Hits from these screens are then tested in cells and then in animals for efficacy. Even more recently, scientists have been able to understand the shape of biological molecules at the atomic level, and to use that knowledge to design (see drug design) drug candidates.

Modern drug discovery involves the identification of screening hits, medicinal chemistry and optimization of those hits to increase the affinity, selectivity (to reduce the potential of side effects), efficacy/potency, metabolic stability (to increase the half-life), and oral bioavailability. Once a compound that fulfills all of these requirements has been identified, it will begin the process of drug development prior to clinical trials. One or more of these steps may, but not necessarily, involve computer-aided drug design.

Despite advances in technology and understanding of biological systems, drug discovery is still a lengthy, "expensive, difficult, and inefficient process" with low rate of new therapeutic discovery.[7] In 2010, the research and development cost of each new molecular entity (NME) was approximately US$1.8 billion.[8] Drug discovery is done by pharmaceutical companies, with research assistance from universities. The "final product" of drug discovery is a patent on the potential drug. The drug requires very expensive Phase I, II and III clinical trials, and most of them fail. Small companies have a critical role, often then selling the rights to larger companies that have the resources to run the clinical trials.

Development

Drug development is a blanket term used to define the process of bringing a new drug to the market once a lead compound has been identified through the process of drug discovery. It includes pre-clinical research (microorganisms/animals) and clinical trials (on humans) and may include the step of obtaining regulatory approval to market the drug.

Regulation

The regulation of drugs varies by jurisdiction. In some countries, such as the United States, they are regulated at the national level by a single agency. In other jurisdictions they are regulated at the state level, or at both state and national levels by various bodies, as is the case in Australia. The role of therapeutic goods regulation is designed mainly to protect the health and safety of the population. Regulation is aimed at ensuring the safety, quality, and efficacy of the therapeutic goods which are covered under the scope of the regulation. In most jurisdictions, therapeutic goods must be registered before they are allowed to be marketed. There is usually some degree of restriction of the availability of certain therapeutic goods depending on their risk to consumers.

Depending upon the jurisdiction, medications may be divided into over-the-counter drugs (OTC) which may be available without special restrictions, and prescription only medicine (POM), which must be prescribed by a licensed medical practitioner. The precise distinction between OTC and prescription depends on the legal jurisdiction. A third category, behind-the-counter medications (BTMs), is implemented in some jurisdictions. BTMs do not require a prescription, but must be kept in the dispensary, not visible to the public, and only be sold by a pharmacist or pharmacy technician. Doctors may also prescribe prescription drugs for off-label use - purposes which the drugs were not originally approved for by the regulatory agency. The Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals helps guide the referral process between pharmacists and doctors.

The International Narcotics Control Board of the United Nations imposes a world law of prohibition of certain medications. They publish a lengthy list of chemicals and plants whose trade and consumption (where applicable) is forbidden. OTC medications are sold without restriction as they are considered safe enough that most people will not hurt themselves accidentally by taking it as instructed. Many countries, such as the United Kingdom have a third category of pharmacy medicines which can only be sold in registered pharmacies, by or under the supervision of a pharmacist.

Drug pricing

In many jurisdictions drug prices are regulated. For example, in the UK the Pharmaceutical Price Regulation Scheme is intended to ensure that the National Health Service is able to purchase drugs at “reasonable prices.” In Canada, the Patented Medicine Prices Review Board examines drug pricing, compares the proposed Canadian price to that of seven other countries and determines if a price is “excessive” or not. In these circumstances, drug manufacturers must submit a proposed price to the appropriate regulatory agency. In other jurisdictions, such as the United States, drug costs are unregulated.

Blockbuster drug

A blockbuster drug is a drug generating more than $1 billion of revenue for the pharmaceutical company that sells it each year.[9] Cimetidine was the first drug ever to reach more than $1 billion a year in sales, thus making it the first blockbuster drug.[10]

A report from URCH Publishing estimated that about one third of the pharma market by value is accounted for by blockbusters. About 125 products are blockbusters. The top seller currently is Lipitor, a cholesterol-lowering medication marketed by Pfizer with sales of $12.5 billion. In 2009 there were a total of seven new blockbuster drugs, with combined sales of $9.8 billion. Beyond this purely arbitrary financial consideration,

"In the pharmaceutical industry, a blockbuster drug is one that achieves acceptance by prescribing physicians as a therapeutic standard for, most commonly, a highly prevalent chronic (rather than acute) condition. Patients often take the medicines for long periods."[11]

The birth control pill Enovid was the first modern drug taken by those not ill for a highly prevalent chronic condition. The focus on highly profitable drugs for chronic conditions and resulting de-emphasis of one-time acute treatment drugs has led to occasional shortages of antibiotics or vaccines, such as the influenza vaccine shortage in the United States.

Leading blockbuster drugs as of 2011

Drug Trade name Type Indication Company Sales[12] ($billion/year)*
Atorvastatin Lipitor Small molecule Hypercholesterolemia Pfizer 12.5
Clopidogrel Plavix Small molecule Atherosclerosis Bristol-Myers Squibb
Sanofi
9.1
Fluticasone/salmeterol Advair Small molecule Asthma GlaxoSmithKline 8.7
Esomeprazole Nexium Small molecule Gastroesophageal reflux disease AstraZeneca 8.3
Rosuvastatin Crestor Small molecule Hypercholesterolemia AstraZeneca 7.4
Quetiapine Seroquel Small molecule Bipolar disorder
Schizophrenia
Major Depressive Disorder
AstraZeneca 7.2
Adalimumab Humira Biologic Rheumatoid Arthritis AbbVie 6.6
Etanercept Enbrel Biologic Rheumatoid Arthritis Amgen
Pfizer
6.5
Infliximab Remicade Biologic Crohn's Disease
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Johnson & Johnson 6.4
Olanzapine Zyprexa Small molecule Schizophrenia Eli Lilly 6.2

*Sales are for the 12 months preceding June 30, 2011.

See also

References

  1. Definition and classification of Drug or Pharmaceutical Regulatory aspects of drug approval Accessed 30 Dec 2013.
  2. US Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, SEC. 210., (g)(1)(B). Accessed 17 August 2008.
  3. Directive 2004/27/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 31 March 2004 amending Directive 2001/83/EC on the Community code relating to medicinal products for human use. Article 1. Published March 31, 2004. Accessed 17 August 2008.
  4. Pharmaceutical in Oxford Dictionary.
  5. http://www.epgonline.org database of prescription pharmaceutical products including drug classifications [1]
  6. ""Blockbuster medicine" is defined as being one which achieves annual revenues of over US$ 1 billion at global level." in European Commission, Pharmaceutical Sector Inquiry, Preliminary Report (DG Competition Staff Working Paper), 28 November 2008, page 17 (pdf, 1.95 MB).
  7. Finkelstein, Temin "Reasonable Rx: Solving the Drug Price Crisis" 11 January 2008

External links

Portions of content adapted from Wikipedia's article on Pharmaceutical drug which is released under the CC BY-SA 3.0.


 

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